IL-22 Receptor Signaling in Paneth Cells Is Critical for Their Maturation, Microbiota Colonization, Th17-Related Immune Responses, and Anti-Salmonella Immunity

Using novel Paneth cell-specific IL-22Ra1 knockout mice, researchers showed that IL-22 signaling in Paneth cells was required for small intestinal host defense. They showed that Paneth cell maturation, antimicrobial effector function, expression of specific WNTs, and organoid morphogenesis were dependent on cell-intrinsic IL-22Ra1 signaling.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Gaudino, S. J., Beaupre, M., Lin, X., Joshi, P., Rathi, S., McLaughlin, P. A., Kempen, C., Mehta, N., Eskiocak, O., Yueh, B., Blumberg, R. S., van der Velden, A. W. M., Shroyer, K. R., Bialkowska, A. B., Beyaz, S., & Kumar, P. (2020). IL-22 receptor signaling in Paneth cells is critical for their maturation, microbiota colonization, Th17-related immune responses, and anti- Salmonella immunity. Mucosal Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00348-5 Cite
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Organoids to Study Intestinal Nutrient Transport, Drug Uptake and Metabolism – Update to the Human Model and Expansion of Applications

The authors verified the applicability of 3D organoids for in vitro investigation of intestinal biochemical processes related to transport and metabolism of nutrients and drugs.
[Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology]
Zietek, T., Giesbertz, P., Ewers, M., Reichart, F., Weinmüller, M., Urbauer, E., Haller, D., Demir, I. E., Ceyhan, G. O., Kessler, H., & Rath, E. (2020). Organoids to Study Intestinal Nutrient Transport, Drug Uptake and Metabolism – Update to the Human Model and Expansion of Applications. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.577656 Cite
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Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles Alleviate Lung Injury in Rat Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia by Affecting Cell Survival and Angiogenesis

Researchers found that human umbilical cord MSCs-derived small extracellular vesicles were successfully absorbed by lung tissue after intratracheal administration, and remained in the lungs for at least 72 hours.
[Stem Cells and Development]
You, J., Zhou, O., Liu, J., Zou, W., Zhang, L., Tian, D., Dai, J., Luo, Z., Liu, E., Fu, Z., & Zou, L. (2020). Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles Alleviate Lung Injury in Rat Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia by Affecting Cell Survival and Angiogenesis. Stem Cells and Development. https://doi.org/10.1089/scd.2020.0156 Cite
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OSR1 Phosphorylates the Smad2/3 Linker Region and Induces TGF-β1 Autocrine to Promote EMT and Metastasis in Breast Cancer

Interruption of the Oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1)-Smad2/3-TGF-β1 signaling axis elicited a robust anti-EMT and anti-metastatic effect in vitro and in vivo.
[Oncogene]
Li, Y., Li, L., Qin, J., Wu, J., Dai, X., & Xu, J. (2020). OSR1 phosphorylates the Smad2/3 linker region and induces TGF-β1 autocrine to promote EMT and metastasis in breast cancer. Oncogene, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01499-2 Cite
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SARS-CoV-2 Infects the Brain Choroid Plexus and Disrupts the Blood-CSF-Barrier in Human Brain Organoids

Researchers used human pluripotent stem cell-derived brain organoids to examine SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. They found expression of viral receptor ACE2 in mature choroid plexus cells expressing abundant lipoproteins, but not in neurons or other cell types.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Pellegrini, L., Albecka, A., Mallery, D. L., Kellner, M. J., Paul, D., Carter, A. P., James, L. C., & Lancaster, M. A. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infects the brain choroid plexus and disrupts the blood-CSF-barrier in human brain organoids. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.10.001 Cite
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The ALPK1/TIFA/NF-κB Axis Links a Bacterial Carcinogen to R-Loop-Induced Replication Stress

DNA damage depended on the bi-functional RfaE enzyme and the Cag pathogenicity island of H. pylori, is accompanied by replication fork stalling and could be observed also in primary cells derived from gastric organoids.
[Nature Communications]
Bauer, M., Nascakova, Z., Mihai, A.-I., Cheng, P. F., Levesque, M. P., Lampart, S., Hurwitz, R., Pfannkuch, L., Dobrovolna, J., Jacobs, M., Bartfeld, S., Dohlman, A., Shen, X., Gall, A. A., Salama, N. R., Töpfer, A., Weber, A., Meyer, T. F., Janscak, P., & Müller, A. (2020). The ALPK1/TIFA/NF-κB axis links a bacterial carcinogen to R-loop-induced replication stress. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5117. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18857-z Cite
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ZFP423 Regulates Early Patterning and Multiciliogenesis in the Hindbrain Choroid Plexus

Zfp423, encoding a Kruppel-type zinc finger transcription factor essential for cerebellar development and mutated in rare cases of cerebellar vermis hypoplasia / Joubert syndrome and other ciliopathies, is expressed in the hindbrain roof plate, from which the IV ventricle choroid plexus arises, and, later, in MSCs giving rise to the stroma and leptomeninges.
[Development]
Casoni, F., Croci, L., Vincenti, F., Podini, P., Riba, M., Massimino, L., Cremona, O., & Consalez, G. G. (2020). ZFP423 regulates early patterning and multiciliogenesis in the hindbrain choroid plexus. Development. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.190173 Cite
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Extracellular Matrix-Bound FGF2 Mediates Estrogen Receptor Signaling and Therapeutic Response in Breast Cancer

Scientists uncovered that estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells cultured within extracellular matrix -scaffolds had an increase in ER signaling that occured via a MAPK-dependent, but estrogen-independent manner.
[Molecular Cancer Research]
DiGiacomo, J. W., Godet, I., Trautmann-Rodriguez, M., & Gilkes, D. M. (2020). Extracellular matrix-bound FGF2 mediates estrogen receptor signaling and therapeutic response in breast cancer. Molecular Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0554 Cite
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Non-Muscle Myosin-2 Contractility-Dependent Actin Turnover Limits the Length of Epithelial Microvilli

Using pharmacological and genetic perturbations in cultured intestinal epithelial cells, investigators found that non-muscle myosin-2C controls the length of growing microvilli by regulating actin turnover in a manner that requires a fully active motor domain.
[Molecular Biology of the Cell]
Chinowsky, C. R., Pinette, J. A., Meenderink, L. M., Lau, K. S., & Tyska, M. J. (2020). Non-muscle myosin-2 contractility-dependent actin turnover limits the length of epithelial microvilli. Molecular Biology of the Cell, mbc.E20-09-0582. https://doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E20-09-0582 Cite
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A Novel Role for Farnesoid X Receptor in the Bile Acid‐Mediated Intestinal Glucose Homeostasis

Bile acid‐activated farnesoid X receptor enhanced glucose uptake in intestinal epithelial cells by increasing the expression of glucose transporter 2, which depended on ERK1/2 phosphorylation via S1PR2. However, it also reduced the cell energy generation via inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, which was crucial for intestinal glucose transport.
[Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine]
Zhao, L., Xuan, Z., Song, W., Zhang, S., Li, Z., Song, G., Zhu, X., Xie, H., Zheng, S., & Song, P. (n.d.). A novel role for farnesoid X receptor in the bile acid-mediated intestinal glucose homeostasis. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15881 Cite
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ROCK Inhibitor Combined With Ca2+

Investigators showed that the combination of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibition with Ca2+ elevation regulated the phosphorylation of myosin light chain II and improved both cell expansion and cell–cell adhesion during the culture of human nasal mucosal epithelial cell sheets.
[Scientific Reports]
ROCK inhibitor combined with Ca 2+ controls the myosin II activation and optimizes human nasal epithelial cell sheets | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73817-3 Cite
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