The Development of a Functional Human Small Intestinal Epithelium Model for Drug Absorption

Researchers developed a reproducible two-step protocol to induce human pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into highly expandable human intestinal epithelial cells (hIECs) progenitors and a functional hIEC monolayer exhibiting intestinal molecular features, cell type diversity, and high activities of intestinal transporters and metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450 3A4.
[Science Advances]
Kwon, O., Jung, K. B., Lee, K.-R., Son, Y. S., Lee, H., Kim, J.-J., Kim, K., Lee, S., Song, Y.-K., Jung, J., Park, K., Kim, D.-S., Son, M. J., Lee, M.-O., Han, T.-S., Cho, H.-S., Oh, S. J., Chung, H., Kim, S.-H., … Son, M.-Y. (2021). The development of a functional human small intestinal epithelium model for drug absorption. Science Advances, 7(23), eabh1586. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abh1586 Cite
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Contraceptive Progestins with Androgenic Properties Stimulate Breast Epithelial Cell Proliferation

Using mouse mammary tissue ex vivo, scientists showed that testosterone-related progestins induced the progesterone receptor (PR) target and mediator of PR signaling-induced cell proliferation receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, whereas progestins with anti-androgenic properties in reporter assays did not.
[EMBO Molecular Medicine]
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Role of Cytoplasmic Localization of Maspin in Promoting Cell Invasion in Breast Cancer with Aggressive Phenotype

Scientists studied the biological function of cytoplasmic maspin in breast cancer cell lines. Subcellular localization of maspin in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was mainly detected in the cytoplasm, whereas in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells, maspin was present in both cytoplasm and nucleus.
[Scientific Reports]
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Epithelial PBLD Attenuates Intestinal Inflammatory Response and Improves Intestinal Barrier Function by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling

Researchers analyzed colonic tissue samples from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and constructed specific intestinal epithelial phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein (PBLD)-deficient mice to investigate the role of this protein in UC pathogenesis.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Cell Surface Integrin α5ß1 Clustering Negatively Regulates Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells via Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3

The clustering of integrin α5ß1 at the plasma membrane of colorectal cancer-derived epithelial cells modulated their ability to respond to stimulation by receptor tyrosine kinase-activating growth factors EGF, NRG and HGF, through GSK3-mediated suppression of Akt pathway.
[integrative Biology]
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RAB11A-Mediated YAP Localization to Adherens and Tight Junctions Is Essential for Colonic Epithelial Integrity

Scientists examined the relationship of RAB11A to epithelial junctional complexes, YAP, and the associated consequences on colonic epithelial tissue repair.
[Journal of Biological Chemistry]
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cGAS Restricts Colon Cancer Development by Protecting Intestinal Barrier Integrity

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS) deficiency led to intestinal stem cell loss and compromised intestinal barrier integrity upon dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute injury.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Establishment of a Fluorescent Reporter of RNA-Polymerase II Activity to Identify Dormant Cells

Scientists developed a live cell ratiometric fluorescent Optical Stem Cell Activity Reporter (OSCAR). Using the small intestinal crypt as a model, OSCAR revealed in real time the dynamics of dormancy induction and cellular differentiation in vitro, and allowed for the identification and isolation of several populations of transcriptionally diverse OSCARhigh and OSCARlow intestinal epithelial cell states in vivo.
[Nature Communications]
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Generation of Tetracycline-Controllable CYP3A4-Expressing Caco-2 Cells by the piggyBac Transposon System

Investigators generated CYP3A4-expressing Caco-2 cells and attempted to establish a model that could simultaneously evaluate drug absorption and metabolism.
[Scientific Reports]
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Reprogramming Cellular Identity during Intestinal Regeneration

The authors review recent advances within intestinal regenerative biology and the emerging concept of fetal-like reprogramming, in which the adult intestinal epithelium transiently enters a repair-associated state reminiscent of ontologically pre-existing stages.
[Current Opinion in Genetics & Development]
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Evolution and Function of the Epithelial Cell-Specific ER Stress Sensor IRE1β

Scientists review the biology of Inositol-requiring enzyme 1β (IRE1β), an ER-resident endonuclease and paralogue of the most evolutionarily conserved ER stress sensor IRE1α.
[Mucosal Immunology]
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