Discriminating Mild From Critical COVID-19 by Innate and Adaptive Immune Single-Cell Profiling of Bronchoalveolar Lavages

In mild COVID-19, CD8+ resident-memory and CD4+ T-helper-17 cells underwent active expansion towards the end of the trajectory, and were characterized by good effector functions, while in critical COVID-19 they remain more naïve.
[Cell Research]
Wauters, E., Van Mol, P., Garg, A. D., Jansen, S., Van Herck, Y., Vanderbeke, L., Bassez, A., Boeckx, B., Malengier-Devlies, B., Timmerman, A., Van Brussel, T., Van Buyten, T., Schepers, R., Heylen, E., Dauwe, D., Dooms, C., Gunst, J., Hermans, G., Meersseman, P., … Lambrechts, D. (2021). Discriminating mild from critical COVID-19 by innate and adaptive immune single-cell profiling of bronchoalveolar lavages. Cell Research, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-00455-9 Cite
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Tumor-Associated Myeloid Cells: Diversity and Therapeutic Targeting

Scientists provide an overview of the recent literature on the ever-growing complexity of the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and the development of the most promising approaches to target these populations therapeutically in cancer patients.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Mantovani, A., Marchesi, F., Jaillon, S., Garlanda, C., & Allavena, P. (2021). Tumor-associated myeloid cells: diversity and therapeutic targeting. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00613-4 Cite
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Local Immune Response to Food Antigens Drives Meal-Induced Abdominal Pain

Scientists showed that a bacterial infection and bacterial toxins could trigger an immune response that led to the production of dietary-antigen-specific IgE antibodies in mice, which were limited to the intestine.
[Nature]
Aguilera-Lizarraga, J., Florens, M. V., Viola, M. F., Jain, P., Decraecker, L., Appeltans, I., Cuende-Estevez, M., Fabre, N., Van Beek, K., Perna, E., Balemans, D., Stakenborg, N., Theofanous, S., Bosmans, G., Mondelaers, S. U., Matteoli, G., Ibiza Martínez, S., Lopez-Lopez, C., Jaramillo-Polanco, J., … Boeckxstaens, G. E. (2021). Local immune response to food antigens drives meal-induced abdominal pain. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03118-2 Cite
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So Close, and Yet So Far Away: The Dichotomy of the Specific Immune Response and Inflammation in Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis

The authors compare genetics, microbiome, T‐cell infiltrate and resulting epithelial response in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.
[Journal of Internal Medicine]
Schäbitz, A., Eyerich, K., & Garzorz‐Stark, N. (n.d.). So close, and yet so far away: The dichotomy of the specific immune response and inflammation in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Journal of Internal Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/joim.13235 Cite
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Cathepsin C Promotes Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis by Modulating Neutrophil Infiltration and Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

Scientists showed that tumor-secreted protease cathepsin C promotes breast-to-lung metastasis by regulating recruitment of neutrophils and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.
[Cancer Cell]
Xiao, Y., Cong, M., Li, J., He, D., Wu, Q., Tian, P., Wang, Y., Yang, S., Liang, C., Liang, Y., Wen, J., Liu, Y., Luo, W., Lv, X., He, Y., Cheng, D., Zhou, T., Zhao, W., Zhang, P., … Hu, G. (2021). Cathepsin C promotes breast cancer lung metastasis by modulating neutrophil infiltration and neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Cancer Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2020.12.012 Cite
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Tumor-Infiltrating Mast Cells Are Associated With Resistance to Anti-PD-1 Therapy

Researchers generated a humanized-mouse melanoma model by injecting fetal liver-derived CD34+ cells and implanting autologous thymus in immune-deficient NOD-scid IL2Rγnull mice.
[Nature Communications]
Somasundaram, R., Connelly, T., Choi, R., Choi, H., Samarkina, A., Li, L., Gregorio, E., Chen, Y., Thakur, R., Abdel-Mohsen, M., Beqiri, M., Kiernan, M., Perego, M., Wang, F., Xiao, M., Brafford, P., Yang, X., Xu, X., Secreto, A., … Herlyn, M. (2021). Tumor-infiltrating mast cells are associated with resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. Nature Communications, 12(1), 346. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20600-7 Cite
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Granzyme B Inhibition Reduces Disease Severity in Autoimmune Blistering Diseases

Scientists explored the role of the immune cell-secreted serine protease, granzyme B, in pemphigoid disease pathogenesis using three independent murine models. In all models, granzyme B knockout or topical pharmacological inhibition significantly reduces total blistering area compared to controls.
[Nature Communications]
Hiroyasu, S., Zeglinski, M. R., Zhao, H., Pawluk, M. A., Turner, C. T., Kasprick, A., Tateishi, C., Nishie, W., Burleigh, A., Lennox, P. A., Van Laeken, N., Carr, N. J., Petersen, F., Crawford, R. I., Shimizu, H., Tsuruta, D., Ludwig, R. J., & Granville, D. J. (2021). Granzyme B inhibition reduces disease severity in autoimmune blistering diseases. Nature Communications, 12(1), 302. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20604-3 Cite
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Feasibility of Reduced-Dose Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide and Cotransplantation of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells and Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for SAA

Scientists evaluated the effectiveness and safety of reduced-dose cyclophosphamide, 20 mg/kg for 13 patients in matched sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cohort and 25 mg/kg for 22 patients in haplo-HSCT cohort, on days +3, +4 combined with cotransplantation of peripheral blood stem cells and human umbilical cord-derived MSCs for severe aplastic anemia (SAA).
[Scientific Reports]
Zu, Y., Zhou, J., Fu, Y., Fang, B., Liu, X., Zhang, Y., Yu, F., Zuo, W., Zhou, H., Gui, R., Li, Z., Liu, Y., Zhao, H., Zhang, C., & Song, Y. (2021). Feasibility of reduced-dose posttransplant cyclophosphamide and cotransplantation of peripheral blood stem cells and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells for SAA. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 253. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80531-7 Cite
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Suppression of Mucosal Th17 Memory Responses by Acellular Pertussis Vaccines Enhances Nasal Bordetella pertussis Carriage

Scientists showed that, unlike whole-cell pertussis vaccines, acellular pertussis vaccines, while protective against lung colonization by Bordetella pertussis, did not protect BALB/c mice from nasal colonization, but instead substantially prolonged nasal carriage.
[npj Vaccines]
Dubois, V., Chatagnon, J., Thiriard, A., Bauderlique-Le Roy, H., Debrie, A.-S., Coutte, L., & Locht, C. (2021). Suppression of mucosal Th17 memory responses by acellular pertussis vaccines enhances nasal Bordetella pertussis carriage. Npj Vaccines, 6(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-00270-8 Cite
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Microvascular Density, Endothelial Area, and Ki-67 Proliferative Index Correlate Each Other in Cat Post-Injection Fibrosarcoma

Scientists conducted a crossing study evaluating microvascular density, endothelial area, and Ki-67 proliferative index was reported for a series of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 99 cat patients, affected by cat post-injection fibrosarcoma, by using a till ×400 magnification light microscopy.
[Cells]
Patruno, R., Passantino, G., Laface, C., Tinelli, A., Zito, A., Ruggieri, R., Luposella, F., Gadaleta, P., Laforgia, M., Lacitignola, L., Ammendola, M., Ranieri, G., & Zizzo, N. (2021). Microvascular Density, Endothelial Area, and Ki-67 Proliferative Index Correlate Each Other in Cat Post-Injection Fibrosarcoma. Cells, 10(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010031 Cite
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Identification of a Subset of Immunosuppressive P2RX1-Negative Neutrophils in Pancreatic Cancer Liver Metastasis

RNA sequencing of murine PDAC liver metastasis-infiltrated neutrophils show that P2RX1-deficient neutrophils express increased levels of immunosuppressive molecules, including PD-L1, and have enhanced mitochondrial metabolism.
[Nature Communications]
Wang, X., Hu, L.-P., Qin, W.-T., Yang, Q., Chen, D.-Y., Li, Q., Zhou, K.-X., Huang, P.-Q., Xu, C.-J., Li, J., Yao, L.-L., Wang, Y.-H., Tian, G.-A., Yang, J.-Y., Yang, M.-W., Liu, D.-J., Sun, Y.-W., Jiang, S.-H., Zhang, X.-L., & Zhang, Z.-G. (2021). Identification of a subset of immunosuppressive P2RX1-negative neutrophils in pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. Nature Communications, 12(1), 174. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20447-y Cite
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