CD47-Mediated Hedgehog/SMO/GLI1 Signaling Promotes Mesenchymal Stem Cell Immunomodulation in Mouse Liver Inflammation

Investigators found that mesenchymal stem cell CD47 and macrophage signal regulatory protein alpha expression were increased after LPS stimulation.
[Hepatology]
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Intrabone Infusion for Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Children

Investigators conducted a Phase I-II single arm, exploratory clinical trial from 2012 to 2016 in a single center. 15 patients aged from 1.9 to 16.4 years received an intrabone umbilical cord blood transplantation.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
Vairy, S., Louis, I., Vachon, M.-F., Richer, J., Teira, P., Cellot, S., Villeneuve, E., Haddad, E., Duval, M., & Bittencourt, H. (2021). Intrabone infusion for allogeneic umbilical cord blood transplantation in children. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01275-0 Cite
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Endothelial Dysfunction and Immunothrombosis as Key Pathogenic Mechanisms in COVID-19

Scientists propose that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a process known as immunothrombosis, in which activated neutrophils and monocytes interact with platelets and the coagulation cascade, leading to intravascular clot formation in small and larger vessels.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Bonaventura, A., Vecchié, A., Dagna, L., Martinod, K., Dixon, D. L., Van Tassell, B. W., Dentali, F., Montecucco, F., Massberg, S., Levi, M., & Abbate, A. (2021). Endothelial dysfunction and immunothrombosis as key pathogenic mechanisms in COVID-19. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00536-9 Cite
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UDP-Glucose and P2Y14 Receptor Amplify Allergen-Induced Airway Eosinophilia

Researchers showed that UDP-glucose, a nucleotide sugar, was selectively released into the airways of allergen-sensitized mice upon their subsequent challenge with that same allergen.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Karcz, T. P., Whitehead, G. S., Nakano, K., Nakano, H., Grimm, S. A., Williams, J. G., Deterding, L. J., Jacobson, K. A., & Cook, D. N. (2021). UDP-glucose and P2Y14 receptor amplify allergen-induced airway eosinophilia. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 131(7). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI140709 Cite
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Targeting the AnxA1/Fpr2/ALX Pathway Regulates Neutrophil Function, Promoting Thromboinflammation Resolution in Sickle Cell Disease

Administration of annexin A1 mimetic peptide AnxA1Ac2-26 ameliorated cerebral thrombotic responses in sickle transgenic mice via regulation of the FPR2/ALX pathway.
[Blood]
Ansari, J., Senchenkova, E. Y., Vital, S. A., Al-Yafeai, Z., Kaur, G., Sparkenbaugh, E. M., Orr, A. W., Pawlinski, R., Hebbel, R. P., Granger, D. N., Kubes, P., & Gavins, F. N. E. (2021). Targeting the AnxA1/Fpr2/ALX pathway regulates neutrophil function, promoting thromboinflammation resolution in sickle cell disease. Blood, 137(11), 1538–1549. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009166 Cite
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Nonpeptidergic Neurons Suppress Mast Cells via Glutamate to Maintain Skin Homeostasis

Researchers revealed that epidermal nerve endings from a subset of sensory nonpeptidergic neurons expressing MrgprD were reduced by the absence of Langerhans cells.
[Cell]
Zhang, S., Edwards, T. N., Chaudhri, V. K., Wu, J., Cohen, J. A., Hirai, T., Rittenhouse, N., Schmitz, E. G., Zhou, P. Y., McNeil, B. D., Yang, Y., Koerber, H. R., Sumpter, T. L., Poholek, A. C., Davis, B. M., Albers, K. M., Singh, H., & Kaplan, D. H. (2021). Nonpeptidergic neurons suppress mast cells via glutamate to maintain skin homeostasis. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.002 Cite
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Neutrophils in Respiratory Viral Infections

Scientists summarize and discuss the current understanding of how neutrophils in the lung direct immune responses to viruses.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Johansson, C., & Kirsebom, F. C. M. (2021). Neutrophils in respiratory viral infections. Mucosal Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-021-00397-4 Cite
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Gene Therapy for a Murine Model of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Researchers hypothesized that a single administration of an adeno‐associated virus coding for an anti‐eosinophil monoclonal antibody that induces eosinophil clearance would treat on a persistent basis a murine model of eosinophilic esophagitis.
[Allergy]
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Immune Complex-Induced Apoptosis and Concurrent Immune Complex Clearance Are Anti-Inflammatory Neutrophil Functions

Researchers provide evidence that concurrent insoluble immune complexes-induced neutrophil apoptosis is distinct from phagocytosis-induced cell death.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Karmakar, U., Chu, J. Y., Sundaram, K., Astier, A. L., Garside, H., Hansen, C. G., Dransfield, I., & Vermeren, S. (2021). Immune complex-induced apoptosis and concurrent immune complex clearance are anti-inflammatory neutrophil functions. Cell Death & Disease, 12(4), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03528-8 Cite
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Immune Suppressive Activity of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Cancer Requires Inactivation of the Type I Interferon Pathway

The natural mechanisms limiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells activity are not well understood. Scientists present evidence that type I interferons receptor signaling serves as a universal mechanism that restricts acquisition of suppressive activity by these cells.
[Nature Communications]
Alicea-Torres, K., Sanseviero, E., Gui, J., Chen, J., Veglia, F., Yu, Q., Donthireddy, L., Kossenkov, A., Lin, C., Fu, S., Mulligan, C., Nam, B., Masters, G., Denstman, F., Bennett, J., Hockstein, N., Rynda-Apple, A., Nefedova, Y., Fuchs, S. Y., & Gabrilovich, D. I. (2021). Immune suppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer requires inactivation of the type I interferon pathway. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1717. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22033-2 Cite
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Pancreatic Cancer Induces Muscle Wasting by Promoting the Release of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Upregulated Factor

The authors analyzed the relation between pancreatic cancer-derived pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor and cancer cachexia in mice and its clinical significance.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Yoo, W., Choi, H., Son, Y. H., Lee, J., Jo, S., Jung, D., Kim, Y. J., Koh, S. S., Yang, Y. R., Kwon, E.-S., Lee, K.-P., Noh, K. H., Kim, K. W., Ko, Y., Jun, E., Kim, S. C., & Kim, S. (2021). Pancreatic cancer induces muscle wasting by promoting the release of pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00582-2 Cite
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