Systems-Level Immunomonitoring from Acute to Recovery Phase of Severe COVID-19

Scientists report on a systems-level blood immunomonitoring study of 37 adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and followed with up to 14 blood samples from acute to recovery phases of the disease.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Rodriguez, L., Pekkarinen, P. T., Lakshmikanth, T., Tan, Z., Consiglio, C. R., Pou, C., Chen, Y., Mugabo, C. H., Nguyen, N. A., Nowlan, K., Strandin, T., Levanov, L., Mikes, J., Wang, J., Kantele, A., Hepojoki, J., Vapalahti, O., Heinonen, S., Kekäläinen, E., & Brodin, P. (2020). Systems-level immunomonitoring from acute to recovery phase of severe COVID-19. Cell Reports Medicine, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100078 Cite
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In Situ Neutrophil Efferocytosis Shapes T Cell Immunity to Influenza Infection

Newly infiltrated inflammatory monocytes become a chief pool of phagocytes and play a key role in the clearance of highly motile apoptotic neutrophils during the resolution phase.
[Nature Immunology]
Lim, K., Kim, T., Trzeciak, A., Amitrano, A. M., Reilly, E. C., Prizant, H., Fowell, D. J., Topham, D. J., & Kim, M. (2020). In situ neutrophil efferocytosis shapes T cell immunity to influenza infection. Nature Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0746-x Cite
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Correlative Study of Epigenetic Regulation of Tumor Microenvironment in Spindle Cell Melanomas and Cutaneous Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

Scientists investigated the epigenetic regulation of promoters and gene bodies and their effect on the tumor microenvironment composition of cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and spindle cell melanomas.
[Scientific Reports]
Vougiouklakis, T., Aung, P. P., Vasudevaraja, V., Prieto, V. G., Torres-Cabala, C. A., Sulman, E. P., Snuderl, M., & Jour, G. (2020). Correlative study of epigenetic regulation of tumor microenvironment in spindle cell melanomas and cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12996. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69787-1 Cite
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Combination Product of Dermal Matrix, Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and Timolol Promotes Diabetic Wound Healing in Mice

Scientists investigated whether a bioengineered scaffold device containing hypoxia‐preconditioned, allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells combined with the beta‐adrenergic antagonist timolol could improve impaired wound healing in diabetic mice.
[Stem Cells Translational Medicine]
Yang, H., Fierro, F., So, M., Yoon, D. J., Nguyen, A. V., Gallegos, A., Bagood, M. D., Rojo‐Castro, T., Alex, A., Stewart, H., Chigbrow, M., Dasu, M. R., Peavy, T. R., Soulika, A. M., Nolta, J. A., & Isseroff, R. R. (n.d.). Combination product of dermal matrix, human mesenchymal stem cells, and timolol promotes diabetic wound healing in mice. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/sctm.19-0380 Cite
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Neutrophil Caspase-11 Is Essential to Defend against a Cytosol-Invasive Bacterium

Although both caspase-1 and caspase-11 could cleave gasdermin D in macrophages and neutrophils, researchers found that NLRC4-activated caspase-1 triggered pyroptosis in macrophages, but this pathway did not trigger pyroptosis in neutrophils.
[Cell Reports]
Kovacs, S. B., Oh, C., Maltez, V. I., McGlaughon, B. D., Verma, A., Miao, E. A., & Aachoui, Y. (2020). Neutrophil Caspase-11 Is Essential to Defend against a Cytosol-Invasive Bacterium. Cell Reports, 32(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107967 Cite
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Extracellular Cold-Inducible RNA-Binding Protein Regulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Tissue Damage in Acute Pancreatitis

Scientists studied the role of extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein, a novel damage-associated-molecular-pattern molecule, in severe acute pancreatitis.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Linders, J., Madhi, R., Rahman, M., Mörgelin, M., Regner, S., Brenner, M., Wang, P., & Thorlacius, H. (2020). Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein regulates neutrophil extracellular trap formation and tissue damage in acute pancreatitis. Laboratory Investigation, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-0469-5 Cite
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Xenogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation for Mandibular Defect Regeneration

To examine donor cell survival and host immune reaction, pig bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells were labeled with CM‐DiI, loaded onto gelatin sponge, and transplanted into 5‐mm mandibular defects of immunocompetent and T cell‐deficient athymic rats.
[Xenotransplantation]
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The Commensal Skin Microbiota Triggers Type I IFN–Dependent Innate Repair Responses in Injured Skin

The authors uncovered a fundamental role of commensal skin microbiota and showed that it was mediated by the recruitment and the activation of type I interferon (IFN)-producing plasmacytoid DC.
[Nature Immunology]
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