Bone Marrow Tregs Mediate Stromal Cell Function and Support Hematopoiesis via Il-10

Following Treg depletion, the function and phenotype of both MSCs and hematopoietic stem cells was impaired. Transplantation also revealed that a Treg-depleted niche had a reduced capacity to support hematopoiesis.
[JCI Insight]
Camacho, V., Matkins, V. R., Patel, S. B., Lever, J. M., Yang, Z., Ying, L., Landuyt, A. E., Dean, E. C., George, J. F., Yang, H., Ferrell, P. B., Maynard, C. L., Weaver, C. T., Turnquist, H. R., & Welner, R. S. (2020). Bone marrow Tregs mediate stromal cell function and support hematopoiesis via IL-10. JCI Insight, 5(22). https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.135681 Cite
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Orchard Therapeutics Announces FDA Clearance of IND Application for OTL-200 for Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)

Orchard Therapeutics announced that the FDA has cleared the company’s Investigational New Drug application for OTL-200, an autologous, hematopoietic stem cell, lentiviral vector-based gene therapy in development for the treatment of MLD.
[Orchard Therapeutics]
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Bispecific Antibody Inhalation Therapy for Redirecting Stem Cells from the Lungs to Repair Heart Injury

CD34‐CD42b platelet‐targeting bispecific antibodies were designed to simultaneously recognize HSCs and platelets. After inhalation delivery, PT‐BsAbs reached the lungs and conjoined HSCs and platelets.
[Advanced Science]
Liu, M., Lutz, H., Zhu, D., Huang, K., Li, Z., Dinh, P.-U. C., Gao, J., Zhang, Y., & Cheng, K. (n.d.). Bispecific Antibody Inhalation Therapy for Redirecting Stem Cells from the Lungs to Repair Heart Injury. Advanced Science, n/a(n/a), 2002127. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002127 Cite
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Manipulating Niche Composition Limits Damage to Haematopoietic Stem Cells during Plasmodium Infection

Using a murine model of malaria and combining single-cell RNA sequencing, mathematical modelling, transplantation assays and intravital microscopy, researchers showed that haematopoiesis was reprogrammed upon infection.
[Nature Cell Biology]
Manipulating niche composition limits damage to haematopoietic stem cells during Plasmodium infection | Nature Cell Biology. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41556-020-00601-w Cite
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NLRP6 Modulates Neutrophil Homeostasis in Bacterial Pneumonia-Derived Sepsis

To investigate the role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors in neutrophil homeostasis, researchers used Nlrp6 gene-deficient mice in a model of Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pneumonia-derived sepsis.
[Mucosal Immunology]
NLRP6 modulates neutrophil homeostasis in bacterial pneumonia-derived sepsis | Mucosal Immunology. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41385-020-00357-4 Cite
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Manipulating Niche Composition Limits Damage to Hematopoietic Stem Cells during Plasmodium Infection

Using a murine model of malaria and combining single-cell RNA sequencing, mathematical modelling, transplantation assays and intravital microscopy, scientists showed that hematopoiesis was reprogrammed upon infection, whereby the hematopoietic stem cell (HCS) compartment turned over substantially faster than at steady-state and HSC function was drastically affected.
[Nature Cell Biology]
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Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Predicts Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome Following Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Investigators prospectively measured insulin-like growth factor-l (IGF-l) concentrations in 121 pediatric patients before, during, and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantatio. Overall, IGF-l levels were significantly reduced compared with healthy sex- and age-matched children.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
Ebbesen, M., Weischendorff, S., Kielsen, K., Kammersgaard, M., Juul, A., & Müller, K. G. (2020). Insulin-like growth factor-I predicts sinusoidal obstruction syndrome following pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01127-3 Cite
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Hematopoiesis: A Layered Organization across Species

The authors evaluate evidence for a layered hematopoietic system across species. They discuss mechanisms and selective pressures leading to the temporal generation of different cell types.
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
Elsaid, R., Soares-Da-Silva, F., Peixoto, M., Amiri, D., Mackowski, N., Pereira, P., Bandeira, A., & Cumano, An. (2020). Hematopoiesis: a layered organization across species. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.606642 Cite
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Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Erythroid Cells

One promising alternative can be human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) that provide an unlimited source of cells. Human PSCs, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are self-renewing progenitors that can be differentiated to lineages of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Uncovering the Multifaceted Roles Played by Neutrophils in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Investigators review the current knowledge on the multiple functions that neutrophils exhibit through the different stages of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, from the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization in the donor to the immunological reconstitution that occurs in the recipient following HSC infusion.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Tecchio, C., & Cassatella, M. A. (2020). Uncovering the multifaceted roles played by neutrophils in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00581-9 Cite
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T-Cell Tracking, Safety, and Effect of Low-Dose Donor Memory T-Cell Infusions after αβ T Cell-Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Investigators tested the use of low-dose memory donor lymphocyte infusion after engraftment of αβ T cell-depleted grafts. A cohort of 131 pediatric patients were grafted with αβ T cell-depleted products from either haplo or unrelated donors.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
Blagov, S., Zvyagin, I. V., Shelikhova, L., Khismatullina, R., Balashov, D., Komech, E., Fomchenkova, V., Shugay, M., Starichkova, J., Kurnikova, E., Pershin, D., Fadeeva, M., Glushkova, S., Muzalevskii, Y., Kazachenok, A., Efimenko, M., Osipova, E., Novichkova, G., Chudakov, D., … Maschan, M. (2020). T-cell tracking, safety, and effect of low-dose donor memory T-cell infusions after αβ T cell-depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01128-2 Cite
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