YAP Orchestrates Heterotypic Endothelial Cell Communication via HGF/C-MET Signaling in Liver Tumorigenesis

In yes-associated protein (YAP)S127A-induced tumorigenesis, a gradual replacement of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells by continuous endothelial cells was associated with dynamic changes in the expression of genes involved in paracrine communication.
[Cancer Research]
Thomann, S., Weiler, S. M. E., Marquard, S., Rose, F., Ball, C. R., Tóth, M., Wei, T., Sticht, C., Fritzsche, S., Roessler, S., Torre, C. D. L., Ryschich, E., Ermakova, O., Mogler, C., Kazdal, D., Gretz, N., Glimm, H., Rempel, E., Schirmacher, P., & Breuhahn, K. (2020). YAP orchestrates heterotypic endothelial cell communication via HGF/c-MET signaling in liver tumorigenesis. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0242 Cite
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MAIT Cell Dysregulation Correlates with Conjugated Bilirubin Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Researchers tested the antiviral potential of MAIT cells, and investigated their dynamic changes and regulating factors during chronic HBV infection.
[Hepatology]
MAIT Cell Dysregulation Correlates with Conjugated Bilirubin Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection - Liu - - Hepatology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.31602 Cite
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Direct Reprogramming of Human Umbilical Vein- and Peripheral Blood-Derived Endothelial Cells into Hepatic Progenitor Cells

Scientists showed that a set of three transcription factors, FOXA3, HNF1A, and HNF6, could induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells to directly acquire the properties of human hepatic progenitor cells.
[Nature Communications]
Inada, H., Udono, M., Matsuda-Ito, K., Horisawa, K., Ohkawa, Y., Miura, S., Goya, T., Yamamoto, J., Nagasaki, M., Ueno, K., Saitou, D., Suyama, M., Maehara, Y., Kumamaru, W., Ogawa, Y., Sekiya, S., & Suzuki, A. (2020). Direct reprogramming of human umbilical vein- and peripheral blood-derived endothelial cells into hepatic progenitor cells. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5292. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19041-z Cite
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Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Liver Buds with Chemically Defined and Animal Origin-Free Media

Scientists developed a defined, animal origin-free (CD-AOF) medium to generate all induced pluripotent stem cell-liver buds. Scientists developed a CD-AOF medium for hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and stage-matched mesenchymal stem cells i.e., septum transversum mesenchyme, in 2D cultures.
[Scientific Reports]
Sekine, K., Ogawa, S., Tsuzuki, S., Kobayashi, T., Ikeda, K., Nakanishi, N., Takeuchi, K., Kanai, E., Otake, Y., Okamoto, S., Kobayashi, T., Takebe, T., & Taniguchi, H. (2020). Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived liver buds with chemically defined and animal origin-free media. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17937. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73908-1 Cite
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ER-Resident Oxidoreductases Are Glycosylated and Trafficked to the Cell Surface to Promote Matrix Degradation by Tumor Cells

Investigators showed that GALA induced the glycosylation of the ER-resident calnexin (Cnx) in breast and liver cancer. Glycosylated Cnx and its partner ERp57 are trafficked to invadosomes, which are sites of ECM degradation.
[Nature Cell Biology]
Ros, M., Nguyen, A. T., Chia, J., Le Tran, S., Le Guezennec, X., McDowall, R., Vakhrushev, S., Clausen, H., Humphries, M. J., Saltel, F., & Bard, F. A. (2020). ER-resident oxidoreductases are glycosylated and trafficked to the cell surface to promote matrix degradation by tumour cells. Nature Cell Biology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-00590-w Cite
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Hepatocyte-Intrinsic Type I Interferon Signaling Reprograms Metabolism and Reveals a Novel Compensatory Mechanism of the Tryptophan-Kynurenine Pathway in Viral Hepatitis

IFN-I specifically rewired tryptophan metabolism and induced hepatic tryptophan oxidation to kynurenine via Tdo2, correlating with altered concentrations of serum metabolites upon viral infection.
[PLoS Pathogens]
Lercher, A., Popa, A. M., Viczenczova, C., Kosack, L., Klavins, K., Agerer, B., Opitz, C. A., Lanz, T. V., Platten, M., & Bergthaler, A. (2020). Hepatocyte-intrinsic type I interferon signaling reprograms metabolism and reveals a novel compensatory mechanism of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway in viral hepatitis. PLOS Pathogens, 16(10), e1008973. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008973 Cite
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Identification of a Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Required for Pluripotency Factor-Induced Reprogramming of Mouse Fibroblasts and Hepatocytes

The authors investigated the early transcriptional events of cellular reprogramming triggered by the co‐expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c‐Myc in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and mouse hepatocytes.
[EMBO Journal]
Papathanasiou, M., Tsiftsoglou, S. A., Polyzos, A. P., Papadopoulou, D., Valakos, D., Klagkou, E., Karagianni, P., Pliatska, M., Talianidis, I., Agelopoulos, M., & Thanos, D. (2020). Identification of a dynamic gene regulatory network required for pluripotency factor-induced reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts and hepatocytes. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e102236. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2019102236 Cite
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Prominin-1-Radixin Axis Controls Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Regulating PKA Activity

Investigators analyzed the levels of mRNA transcripts in serum‐starved primary WT and KO mouse hepatocytes using RNA sequencing data, and found that cyclic AMP response element‐binding protein target genes were downregulated.
[EMBO Journal]
Lee, H., Yu, D.-M., Park, J. S., Lee, H., Kim, J.-S., Kim, H. L., Koo, S.-H., Lee, J.-S., Lee, S., & Ko, Y.-G. (2020). Prominin-1-Radixin axis controls hepatic gluconeogenesis by regulating PKA activity. EMBO Reports, n/a(n/a), e49416. https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.201949416 Cite
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Targeting Hepatocyte Growth Factor/C-Mesenchymal–Epithelial Transition Factor Axis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Rationale and Therapeutic Strategies

The authors collected the evidence of HGF/c‐Met as a tumor progression and prognostic marker, discussed the anti‐c‐Met therapy in vitro, summarized the outcome of c‐Met inhibitors in clinical trials, and identified potential impetus for future anti‐c‐Met treatments.
[Medicinal Research Reviews]
Yu, J., Chen, G. G., & Lai, P. B. S. (n.d.). Targeting hepatocyte growth factor/c-mesenchymal–epithelial transition factor axis in hepatocellular carcinoma: Rationale and therapeutic strategies. Medicinal Research Reviews, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/med.21738 Cite
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Silencing p53 Inhibits Interleukin 10-Induced Activated Hepatic Stellate Cell Senescence and Fibrotic Degradation In Vivo

Scientists explored whether p53 played a crucial role in the senescence of activated hepatic stellate cells and degradation of collagen mediated by interleukin-10.
[Experimental Biology and Medicine]
Guo, Q., Chen, M., Chen, Q., Xiao, G., Chen, Z., Wang, X., & Huang, Y. (2020). Silencing p53 inhibits interleukin 10-induced activated hepatic stellate cell senescence and fibrotic degradation in vivo: Experimental Biology and Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1177/1535370220960391 Cite
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Flow Enhances Phenotypic and Maturation of Adult Rat Liver Organoids

Scientists describe a rat liver organoid culture system under in vivo-like steady-state flow conditions; this system was capable of controlling the expansion and differentiation of rat liver organoids over 10 to 15 days.
[Biofabrication]
Flow enhances phenotypic and maturation of adult rat liver organoids - IOPscience. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2020, from https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1758-5090/abb538 Cite
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