Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Intestinal Epithelium—A Review

Scientists assessed the current literature detailing the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on epithelial cells. Marine-derived ω-3 PUFAs, eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid, as well as plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid, are incorporated into intestinal epithelial cell membranes, prevent changes to epithelial permeability, inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids and induce the production of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and docosanoids.
[Foods]
Durkin, L. A., Childs, C. E., & Calder, P. C. (2021). Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Intestinal Epithelium—A Review. Foods, 10(1), 199. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010199 Cite
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Vinblastine Treatment Decreases the Undifferentiated Cell Contamination of Human iPS Cell-Derived Intestinal Epithelial-Like Cells

Investigators examined whether vinblastine could remove residual undifferentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells in human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived intestinal epithelial cells (hiPSC-IECs), and attempted to generate hiPSC-IECs applicable to transplantation medicine.
[Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development]
Ichikawa, M., Negoro, R., Kawai, K., Yamashita, T., Takayama, K., & Mizuguchi, H. (2021). Vinblastine treatment decreases the undifferentiated cell contamination of human iPS cell-derived intestinal epithelial-like cells. Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2021.01.005 Cite
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Proteomics Analysis of Human Intestinal Organoids during Hypoxia and Reoxygenation as a Model to Study Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Investigators demonstrated the use of human small intestinal organoids to model ischemia-reperfusion injury by exposing organoids to hypoxia and reoxygenation.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Kip, A. M., Soons, Z., Mohren, R., Duivenvoorden, A. A. M., Röth, A. A. J., Cillero-Pastor, B., Neumann, U. P., Dejong, C. H. C., Heeren, R. M. A., Olde Damink, S. W. M., & Lenaerts, K. (2021). Proteomics analysis of human intestinal organoids during hypoxia and reoxygenation as a model to study ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03379-9 Cite
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NTPDase8 Protects Mice from Intestinal Inflammation by Limiting P2Y6 Receptor Activation: Identification of a New Pathway of Inflammation for the Potential Treatment of IBD

Scientists investigated the role of nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-8 (NTPDase8) in intestinal inflammation. Human intestinal epithelial cells express NTPDase8 and P2Y6 similarly as in mice.
[Gut]
Salem, M., Lecka, J., Pelletier, J., Marconato, D. G., Dumas, A., Vallières, L., Brochu, G., Robaye, B., Jobin, C., & Sévigny, J. (2021). NTPDase8 protects mice from intestinal inflammation by limiting P2Y6 receptor activation: identification of a new pathway of inflammation for the potential treatment of IBD. Gut. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-320937 Cite
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Cryptosporidial Infection Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Cell MAPK Signaling Impairing Host Anti-Parasitic Defense

Using various models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, the authors found that Cryptosporidium infection caused suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in infected murine intestinal epithelial cells.
[Microorganisms]
He, W., Li, J., Gong, A.-Y., Deng, S., Li, M., Wang, Y., Mathy, N. W., Feng, Y., Xiao, L., & Chen, X.-M. (2021). Cryptosporidial Infection Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Cell MAPK Signaling Impairing Host Anti-Parasitic Defense. Microorganisms, 9(1), 151. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010151 Cite
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Plumericin Protects against Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Restoring Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Apoptosis

Plumericin was evaluated for its ability to improve barrier function and to reduce apoptotic parameters during inflammation, both in intestinal epithelial cells, and in an animal experimental model of 2, 4, 6-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.
[Biomedicines]
Rapa, S. F., Di Paola, R., Cordaro, M., Siracusa, R., D’Amico, R., Fusco, R., Autore, G., Cuzzocrea, S., Stuppner, H., & Marzocco, S. (2021). Plumericin Protects against Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Restoring Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Apoptosis. Biomedicines, 9(1), 67. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9010067 Cite
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The Role of the Hippo Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The authors summarize the latest scientific literature on the involvement of this pathway in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from the following perspectives that account for the IBD pathogenesis: intestinal epithelial cell regeneration, immune regulation, gut microbiota, and angiogenesis.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Xie, Z., Wang, Y., Yang, G., Han, J., Zhu, L., Li, L., & Zhang, S. (2021). The role of the Hippo pathway in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03395-3 Cite
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Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Exploits Cycling through Epithelial Cells to Colonize Human and Murine Enteroids

Investigators employed microinjection, time-lapse microscopy, bacterial genetics, and barcoded consortium infections to describe the complete infection cycle of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in both human and murine enteroids.
[mBio]
Geiser, P., Martino, M. L. D., Ventayol, P. S., Eriksson, J., Sima, E., Al-Saffar, A. K., Ahl, D., Phillipson, M., Webb, D.-L., Sundbom, M., Hellström, P. M., & Sellin, M. E. (2021). Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Exploits Cycling through Epithelial Cells To Colonize Human and Murine Enteroids. MBio, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02684-20 Cite
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A Diet-Microbial Metabolism Feedforward Loop Modulates Intestinal Stem Cell Renewal in the Stressed Gut

The authors showed that dietary raffinose metabolism to fructose couples stress-induced gut microbial remodeling to intestinal stem cells renewal and epithelial homeostasis.
[Nature Communications]
Hou, Y., Wei, W., Guan, X., Liu, Y., Bian, G., He, D., Fan, Q., Cai, X., Zhang, Y., Wang, G., Zheng, X., & Hao, H. (2021). A diet-microbial metabolism feedforward loop modulates intestinal stem cell renewal in the stressed gut. Nature Communications, 12(1), 271. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20673-4 Cite
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CREPT Is Required for Murine Stem Cell Maintenance during Intestinal Regeneration

Scientists report that CREPT, a recently identified tumor-promoting protein, was required for the maintenance of murine intestinal stem cells. CREPT was preferably expressed in the crypts but not in the villi.
[Nature Communications]
Yang, L., Yang, H., Chu, Y., Song, Y., Ding, L., Zhu, B., Zhai, W., Wang, X., Kuang, Y., Ren, F., Jia, B., Wu, W., Ye, X., Wang, Y., & Chang, Z. (2021). CREPT is required for murine stem cell maintenance during intestinal regeneration. Nature Communications, 12(1), 270. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20636-9 Cite
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Modulation of Immune Checkpoints by Chemotherapy in Human Colorectal Liver Metastases

Scientists investigated the impact of chemotherapy on the tumor immune microenvironment. They treated human liver metastases slices with 5-fluorouracil plus either irinotecan or oxaliplatin, then performed single-cell transcriptome analyses.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Jabbari, N., Kenerson, H. L., Lausted, C., Yan, X., Meng, C., Sullivan, K. M., Baloni, P., Bergey, D., Pillarisetty, V. G., Hood, L. E., Yeung, R. S., & Tian, Q. (2020). Modulation of Immune Checkpoints by Chemotherapy in Human Colorectal Liver Metastases. Cell Reports Medicine, 1(9). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100160 Cite
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