The authors highlight the pathways by which intestinal epithelial cells sense microbiota-derived signals and the necessity of these detection pathways in maintaining epithelial barrier integrity.
[Genes & Immunity]
Intestinal stem cell (ISC)-specific inhibition of white suppressed aging-induced ISC dysregulation and prolonged lifespan.
Scientists studied the role of exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 in regulating tight junctions in intestinal epithelial cells and increasing moisture retention in human dermal fibroblasts cells.
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The authors demonstrated that the miRNA miR-142-3p directly targeted the 3′ untranslated region of HMGA2, which encoded an onco-embryonic protein that was overexpressed in most cancers, including breast cancer.
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Peptides from milk proteins is gaining popularity in various therapeutics including human cancer. Researchers investigated the anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties of camel whey protein hydrolysates
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Elevation of Cdc42 activity in young animals by genetic means causes premature ISC aging, whereas pharmacological suppression of elevated Cdc42 activity restores organoid formation potential in vitro.
Colonoid and enteroid gene expression signatures were more similar to those found for the tissues of their origin than to each other.
[American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology]
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By using ex vivo 3D organoid cultures and molecular approaches scientists observed early responses to T3 involving the T3-metabolizing enzyme Dio1 and the transporter Mct10, accompanied by a complex response of stem cell- and progenitor-enriched genes.
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Godart, M., Frau, C., Farhat, D., Giolito, M. V., Jamard, C., Nevé, C. L., Freund, J.-N., Penalva, L. O., Sirakov, M., & Plateroti, M. (2021). The murine intestinal stem cells are highly sensitive to the modulation of the T3/TRα1-dependent pathway. Development. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.194357 Cite
Researchers investigated the effect and mechanism of β-glucan prepared from Lignosus rhinocerotis using an enzymatic method on epithelial restitution during intestinal mucosal damage.
[Journal of Ethnopharmacology]
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Veeraperumal, S., Qiu, H.-M., Tan, C.-S., Ng, S.-T., Zhang, W., Tang, S., Cheong, K.-L., & Liu, Y. (2021). Restitution of epithelial cells during intestinal mucosal wound healing: the effect of a polysaccharide from the sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 114024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114024 Cite
In a Caco-2 cell model of dietary fat-induced intestinal epithelial cell cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and barrier impairment, researchers investigated the relative protection afforded by an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract or resveratrol.
[Food & Function]
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Combined bulk transcriptomic and single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis revealed decreased gene expression of markers for differentiated cells in patient-derived organoids derived from metastatic lesions.
[Stem Cell Reports]
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Okamoto, T., duVerle, D., Yaginuma, K., Natsume, Y., Yamanaka, H., Kusama, D., Fukuda, M., Yamamoto, M., Perraudeau, F., Srivastava, U., Kashima, Y., Suzuki, A., Kuze, Y., Takahashi, Y., Ueno, M., Sakai, Y., Noda, T., Tsuda, K., Suzuki, Y., … Yao, R. (2021). Comparative Analysis of Patient-Matched PDOs Revealed a Reduction in OLFM4-Associated Clusters in Metastatic Lesions in Colorectal Cancer. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.02.012 Cite