Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Impair Intestinal Barrier Functions in Sepsis by Regulating TLR9-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway

Neutrophil extracellular traps treatment induced intestinal epithelial monolayer barrier disruption and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and ER stress inhibition markedly attenuated intestinal apoptosis and tight junction injury.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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BCL-XL Is Crucial for Progression through the Adenoma-to-Carcinoma Sequence of Colorectal Cancer

By targeting antiapoptotic proteins with specific BH3 mimetics in organoid models of colorectal cancer progression, scientists found that BCL-2 was essential only during instestinal stem cell transformation while MCL1 inhibition did not affect adenoma outgrowth.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
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miR-802 Regulates Paneth Cell Function and Enterocyte Differentiation in the Mouse Small Intestine

Investigators showed that the intestine-enriched miR-802 was a central regulator of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, Paneth cell function, and enterocyte differentiation.
[Nature Communications]
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Genetic and Commensal Induction of IL-18 Drive Intestinal Epithelial MHCII via IFNγ

Scientists linked intestinal dysbiosis, systemic inflammation, and inflammasome activity to intestinal epithelial cells major histocompatibility complex class II upregulation via an intestinal serum Interleukin-18-interferon gamma axis.
[Mucosal Immunology]
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Oncogenic BRAF, Unrestrained by TGFβ-Receptor Signaling, Drives Right-Sided Colonic Tumorigenesis

The proximal colonic tumors that developed in a mouse model of right-sided colon cancer exhibited a fetal-like progenitor phenotype (Ly6a/Sca1+) and lacked expression of Lgr5 and its associated intestinal stem cell signature.
[Nature Communications]
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High-Fat Diet-Activated Fatty Acid Oxidation Mediates Intestinal Stemness and Tumorigenicity

Scientists proposed that a high-fat diet enhanced intestinal stemness and tumorigenicity by engaging a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-fatty acid oxidation (PPAR-FAO) program.
[Cell Reports]
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RAL GTPases Mediate EGFR-Driven Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation and Tumorigenesis

In addition to impacting stem cell proliferation during damage-induced intestinal regeneration, the role of RAL GTPases impacted on EGFR-dependent tumorigenic growth in the intestine and in human mammary epithelium.
[eLife]
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RNF20 and RNF40 Regulate Vitamin D Receptor-Dependent Signaling in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Scientists examined the function of the RNF20/RNF40/H2Bub1 axis in intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and mouse models. They analyzed underlying molecular pathways in isolated primary intestinal epithelial cells and confirmed their findings in IBD resection specimens.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
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The Development of a Functional Human Small Intestinal Epithelium Model for Drug Absorption

Researchers developed a reproducible two-step protocol to induce human pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into highly expandable human intestinal epithelial cells (hIECs) progenitors and a functional hIEC monolayer exhibiting intestinal molecular features, cell type diversity, and high activities of intestinal transporters and metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450 3A4.
[Science Advances]
Kwon, O., Jung, K. B., Lee, K.-R., Son, Y. S., Lee, H., Kim, J.-J., Kim, K., Lee, S., Song, Y.-K., Jung, J., Park, K., Kim, D.-S., Son, M. J., Lee, M.-O., Han, T.-S., Cho, H.-S., Oh, S. J., Chung, H., Kim, S.-H., … Son, M.-Y. (2021). The development of a functional human small intestinal epithelium model for drug absorption. Science Advances, 7(23), eabh1586. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abh1586 Cite
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Apc-Mutant Cells Act as Supercompetitors in Intestinal Tumor Initiation

Investigators showed that Apc-mutant intestinal stem cells (ISCs) functioned as bona fide supercompetitors by secreting WNT antagonists, thereby inducing differentiation of neighbouring wild-type ISCs.
[Nature]
van Neerven, S. M., de Groot, N. E., Nijman, L. E., Scicluna, B. P., van Driel, M. S., Lecca, M. C., Warmerdam, D. O., Kakkar, V., Moreno, L. F., Vieira Braga, F. A., Sanches, D. R., Ramesh, P., ten Hoorn, S., Aelvoet, A. S., van Boxel, M. F., Koens, L., Krawczyk, P. M., Koster, J., Dekker, E., … Vermeulen, L. (2021). Apc-mutant cells act as supercompetitors in intestinal tumour initiation. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03558-4 Cite
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Epithelial PBLD Attenuates Intestinal Inflammatory Response and Improves Intestinal Barrier Function by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling

Researchers analyzed colonic tissue samples from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and constructed specific intestinal epithelial phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein (PBLD)-deficient mice to investigate the role of this protein in UC pathogenesis.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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