Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Intestinal Epithelium—A Review

Scientists assessed the current literature detailing the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on epithelial cells. Marine-derived ω-3 PUFAs, eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid, as well as plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid, are incorporated into intestinal epithelial cell membranes, prevent changes to epithelial permeability, inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids and induce the production of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and docosanoids.
[Foods]
Durkin, L. A., Childs, C. E., & Calder, P. C. (2021). Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Intestinal Epithelium—A Review. Foods, 10(1), 199. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010199 Cite
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Vinblastine Treatment Decreases the Undifferentiated Cell Contamination of Human iPS Cell-Derived Intestinal Epithelial-Like Cells

Investigators examined whether vinblastine could remove residual undifferentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells in human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived intestinal epithelial cells (hiPSC-IECs), and attempted to generate hiPSC-IECs applicable to transplantation medicine.
[Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development]
Ichikawa, M., Negoro, R., Kawai, K., Yamashita, T., Takayama, K., & Mizuguchi, H. (2021). Vinblastine treatment decreases the undifferentiated cell contamination of human iPS cell-derived intestinal epithelial-like cells. Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2021.01.005 Cite
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NTPDase8 Protects Mice from Intestinal Inflammation by Limiting P2Y6 Receptor Activation: Identification of a New Pathway of Inflammation for the Potential Treatment of IBD

Scientists investigated the role of nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-8 (NTPDase8) in intestinal inflammation. Human intestinal epithelial cells express NTPDase8 and P2Y6 similarly as in mice.
[Gut]
Salem, M., Lecka, J., Pelletier, J., Marconato, D. G., Dumas, A., Vallières, L., Brochu, G., Robaye, B., Jobin, C., & Sévigny, J. (2021). NTPDase8 protects mice from intestinal inflammation by limiting P2Y6 receptor activation: identification of a new pathway of inflammation for the potential treatment of IBD. Gut. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-320937 Cite
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Cryptosporidial Infection Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Cell MAPK Signaling Impairing Host Anti-Parasitic Defense

Using various models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, the authors found that Cryptosporidium infection caused suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in infected murine intestinal epithelial cells.
[Microorganisms]
He, W., Li, J., Gong, A.-Y., Deng, S., Li, M., Wang, Y., Mathy, N. W., Feng, Y., Xiao, L., & Chen, X.-M. (2021). Cryptosporidial Infection Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Cell MAPK Signaling Impairing Host Anti-Parasitic Defense. Microorganisms, 9(1), 151. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010151 Cite
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Plumericin Protects against Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Restoring Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Apoptosis

Plumericin was evaluated for its ability to improve barrier function and to reduce apoptotic parameters during inflammation, both in intestinal epithelial cells, and in an animal experimental model of 2, 4, 6-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.
[Biomedicines]
Rapa, S. F., Di Paola, R., Cordaro, M., Siracusa, R., D’Amico, R., Fusco, R., Autore, G., Cuzzocrea, S., Stuppner, H., & Marzocco, S. (2021). Plumericin Protects against Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Restoring Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Apoptosis. Biomedicines, 9(1), 67. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9010067 Cite
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The Role of the Hippo Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The authors summarize the latest scientific literature on the involvement of this pathway in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from the following perspectives that account for the IBD pathogenesis: intestinal epithelial cell regeneration, immune regulation, gut microbiota, and angiogenesis.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Xie, Z., Wang, Y., Yang, G., Han, J., Zhu, L., Li, L., & Zhang, S. (2021). The role of the Hippo pathway in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03395-3 Cite
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Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Exploits Cycling through Epithelial Cells to Colonize Human and Murine Enteroids

Investigators employed microinjection, time-lapse microscopy, bacterial genetics, and barcoded consortium infections to describe the complete infection cycle of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in both human and murine enteroids.
[mBio]
Geiser, P., Martino, M. L. D., Ventayol, P. S., Eriksson, J., Sima, E., Al-Saffar, A. K., Ahl, D., Phillipson, M., Webb, D.-L., Sundbom, M., Hellström, P. M., & Sellin, M. E. (2021). Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Exploits Cycling through Epithelial Cells To Colonize Human and Murine Enteroids. MBio, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02684-20 Cite
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Organoid-Based Models to Study the Role of Host-Microbiota Interactions in IBD

Scientists review different organoid-based ex vivo models that are currently available, and benchmark their suitability and limitations for specific research questions.
[Journal of Crohns & Colitis]
Poletti, M., Arnauts, K., Ferrante, M., & Korcsmaros, T. (2020). Organoid-based models to study the role of host-microbiota interactions in IBD. Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, jjaa257. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa257 Cite
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Bach2 Deficiency Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Regeneration by Accelerating DNA Repair in Intestinal Stem Cells

Researchers found that Bach2 deficiency promotes intestinal epithelial cell proliferation during homeostasis. Moreover, genetic inactivation of Bach2 in mouse intestinal epithelium facilitated crypt regeneration after irradiation, resulting in a reduction in mortality.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Li, Y., Rao, X., Tang, P., Chen, S., Guo, Q., Fu, G., Pan, M., Liang, L., Yao, Y., Gao, X., Zhou, Y., Zhang, Z., Xu, X., Hu, W., Gao, J., & Hua, G. (2020). Bach2 Deficiency Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Regeneration by Accelerating DNA Repair in Intestinal Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.12.005 Cite
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Potassium Channels in Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Their Pharmacological Modulation: A Systematic Review

The authors systematically review the evidence on the characteristics and modulation of potassium channels in intestinal epithelial cells.
[American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology]
Cosme, D., Estevinho, M. M., Rieder, F., & Magro, F. (2020). Potassium Channels in Intestinal Epithelial Cells and their Pharmacological Modulation: A Systematic Review. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00393.2020 Cite
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Intestinal Epithelial Cells Related lncRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Dextran Sulphate Sodium‐Induced Colitis

Researchers revealed lncRNAs and mRNA expression profiles in intestinal epithelial cells from a mouse model of colitis and to expand the understanding in the intestinal epithelial barrier regulation.
[Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine]
Liu, H., Li, T., Zhong, S., Yu, M., & Huang, W. (n.d.). Intestinal epithelial cells related lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16174 Cite
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