Microbial Signals, MyD88, and Lymphotoxin Drive TNF-Independent Intestinal Epithelial Tissue Damage

Researchers showed that TNF-independent intestinal epithelial cells death after A20 and Abin-1 deletion was rescued by germ-free derivation or deletion of MyD88, while deletion of Trif provided only partial protection.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Oncogenic Potential of BEST4 in Colorectal Cancer via Activation of PI3K/Akt Signaling

BEST4 is a member of the bestrophin protein family that plays a critical role in human intestinal epithelial cells. Scientists investigated the role and clinical significance of BEST4 in CRC.
[Oncogene]
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An In Vitro Chronic Damage Model Impairs Inflammatory and Regenerative Responses in Human Colonoid Monolayers

Investigators developed a chronic-injury model in human colonoid monolayers by repeated rounds of air-liquid interface and submerged culture.
[Cell Reports]
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CDC42 Controlled Apical-Basal Polarity Regulates Intestinal Stem Cell to Transit Amplifying Cell Fate Transition via YAP-EGF-mTOR Signaling

The authors found that CDC42 loss initiated in the intestinal stem cell caused a drastic hyperproliferation of transit amplifying cells and disrupted epithelial polarity.
[Cell Reports]
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Hydroxysafflor Yellow a Inhibits the Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Colorectal Cancer Cells through the PPARγ/PTEN/Akt Signaling Pathway

Researchers clarified the role of hydroxysafflor yellow A in inhibiting colorectal cancer in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.
[Bioengineered]
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Lactobacillus plantarum Alleviates Irradiation-Induced Intestinal Injury by Activation of FXR-FGF15 Signaling in Intestinal Epithelia

Scientists characterized that Lactobacillus plantarum activated the farnesoid X receptor – fibroblast growth factor 15 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and hence promoted DNA-damage repair.
[Journal of Cellular Physiology]
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Interaction between Commensal Bacteria, Immune Response and the Intestinal Barrier in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Scientists summarize the changes brought about by the changes of commensal bacteria to the inflammation of the intestines and their mutual influence.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
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Microbial Regulation of Hexokinase 2 Links Mitochondrial Metabolism and Cell Death in Colitis

Scientists examined the microbial regulation of hexokinase 2 and its impact on inflammation using mice lacking hexokinase 2 in intestinal epithelial cells.
[Cell Metabolism]
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Functional Screen of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Genes Reveals Key Epithelial Functions

Investigators identified 145 genes from IBD-associated genomic loci having endogenous expression within the intestinal epithelial cell compartment.
[Genome Medicine]
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Epithelial-Myeloid Exchange of MHC Class II Constrains Immunity and Microbiota Composition

Mice with an intestinal epithelial cells-intrinsic deletion of MHC class II were healthy but have fewer microbial-bound IgA, regulatory T cells, and immune repertoire selection.
[Cell Reports]
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Epithelial NELF Guards Intestinal Barrier Function to Ameliorate Colitis by Maintaining Junctional Integrity

A combination of genetic and genomic approaches were used to define a critical role of IEC-intrinsic negative elongation factor (NELF) complex in maintenance of epithelial homeostasis.
[Mucosal Immunology]
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