Physioxia Enhances T Cell Development Ex Vivo from Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

Scientists report that physiologically relevant oxygen concentration, an important environmental thymic factor promotes differentiation of cord blood CD34+ cells into progenitor T cells in serum‐free and feeder‐free culture system. This effect was enhanced by a potent reducing and antioxidant agent, ascorbic acid.
[Stem Cells]
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Cardiomyocyte Transplantation after Myocardial Infarction Alters the Immune Response in the Heart

The authors showed for the first time that the immune response is altered as a result of syngeneic neonatal cardiomyocyte transplantation after myocardial infarction leading to improved cardiac pump function as observed by magnetic resonance imaging in C57BL/6J mice.
[Cells]
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32A9, a Novel Human Antibody for Designing an Immunotoxin and CAR-T Cells against Glypican-3 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Scientists isolated a novel human monoclonal antibody, 32A9, by phage display technology. They determined specificity, affinity, epitope and anti-tumor activity, and developed 32A9-based immunotherapy technologies for evaluating the potency of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.
[Journal of Translational Medicine]
Liu, X., Gao, F., Jiang, L., Jia, M., Ao, L., Lu, M., Gou, L., Ho, M., Jia, S., Chen, F., & Gao, W. (2020). 32A9, a novel human antibody for designing an immunotoxin and CAR-T cells against glypican-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal of Translational Medicine, 18(1), 295. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02462-1 Cite
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Novel Multiparameter Correlates of Coxiella burnetii Infection and Vaccination Identified by Longitudinal Deep Immune Profiling

Using a vaccine-challenge model in HLA-DR transgenic mice, investigators demonstrated significant alterations in circulating T-cell and innate immune populations that distinguished vaccinated from naïve mice within ten days, and persisted until at least 35 days post-vaccination.
[Scientific Reports]
Reeves, P. M., Raju Paul, S., Baeten, L., Korek, S. E., Yi, Y., Hess, J., Sobell, D., Scholzen, A., Garritsen, A., De Groot, A. S., Moise, L., Brauns, T., Bowen, R., Sluder, A. E., & Poznansky, M. C. (2020). Novel multiparameter correlates of Coxiella burnetii infection and vaccination identified by longitudinal deep immune profiling. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13311. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69327-x Cite
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Quantitative Evaluation of Protective Antibody Response Induced by Hepatitis E Vaccine in Humans

Vaccine-induced antibodies exhibited a high degree of clonal diversity, recognized five conformational antigenic sites of the genotype 1 HEV p239 antigen, and cross-reacted with other genotypes.
[Nature Communications]
Wen, G.-P., He, L., Tang, Z.-M., Wang, S.-L., Zhang, X., Chen, Y.-Z., Lin, X., Liu, C., Chen, J.-X., Ying, D., Chen, Z.-H., Wang, Y.-B., Luo, W.-X., Huang, S.-J., Li, S.-W., Zhang, J., Zheng, Z.-Z., Zhu, J., & Xia, N.-S. (2020). Quantitative evaluation of protective antibody response induced by hepatitis E vaccine in humans. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3971. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17737-w Cite
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Chromatin Accessibility Landscape of Pediatric T-Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Human T-Cell Precursors

Developmental stages were distinguished by 2,823 signature chromatin regions with 95% accuracy. Open chromatin surrounding SAE 1 was identified to best distinguish thymic developmental stages suggesting a potential role of SUMO ylation in T‐cell development.
[EMBO Molecular Medicine]
Erarslan-Uysal, B., Kunz, J. B., Rausch, T., Richter-Pechańska, P., van Belzen, I. A., Frismantas, V., Bornhauser, B., Ordoñez-Rueada, D., Paulsen, M., Benes, V., Stanulla, M., Schrappe, M., Cario, G., Escherich, G., Bakharevich, K., Kirschner-Schwabe, R., Eckert, C., Loukanov, T., Gorenflo, M., … Kulozik, A. E. (2020). Chromatin accessibility landscape of pediatric T-lymphoblastic leukemia and human T-cell precursors. EMBO Molecular Medicine, n/a(n/a), e12104. https://doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202012104 Cite
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Comprehensive Analyses of B Cell Compartments across the Human Body Reveal Novel Subsets and a Gut Resident Memory Phenotype

Data sets revealed that B cells in the blood were not in homeostasis with compartments in other tissues. Investigators found striking donor-to-donor variability in the frequencies and isotype of CD27+ memory B cells
[Blood]
Weisel, N. M., Weisel, F. J., Farber, D. L., Borghesi, L., Shen, Y., Ma, W., Luning Prak, E. T., & Shlomchik, M. (n.d.). Comprehensive analyses of B cell compartments across the human body reveal novel subsets and a gut resident memory phenotype. Blood. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002782 Cite
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Antitumor Dendritic Cell Vaccination in a Priming and Boosting Approach

The authors believe that currently available strategies for vaccines that target dendritic cells or use them to present antitumor antigens could be integrated into existing clinical practice using prime–boost approaches.
[Nature Reviews Drug Discovery]
Harari, A., Graciotti, M., Bassani-Sternberg, M., & Kandalaft, L. E. (2020). Antitumour dendritic cell vaccination in a priming and boosting approach. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41573-020-0074-8 Cite
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Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Depletion Therapy Targets IL-17A-Expressing Mammary Carcinomas

Investigators report here that IL-17A mRNA and protein were detectable in some human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines and further upregulated by IL-23 and LPS stimulation.
[Scientific Reports]
Dawod, B., Liu, J., Gebremeskel, S., Yan, C., Sappong, A., Johnston, B., Hoskin, D. W., Marshall, J. S., & Wang, J. (2020). Myeloid-derived suppressor cell depletion therapy targets IL-17A-expressing mammary carcinomas. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13343. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70231-7 Cite
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Reversal of Pre-Existing NGFR-Driven Tumor and Immune Therapy Resistance

Researchers chronically exposed patient-derived melanoma cell lines to differentiation antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells and observed strong enrichment of a pre-existing NGFRhi population.
[Nature Communications]
Boshuizen, J., Vredevoogd, D. W., Krijgsman, O., Ligtenberg, M. A., Blankenstein, S., de Bruijn, B., Frederick, D. T., Kenski, J. C. N., Parren, M., Brüggemann, M., Madu, M. F., Rozeman, E. A., Song, J.-Y., Horlings, H. M., Blank, C. U., van Akkooi, A. C. J., Flaherty, K. T., Boland, G. M., & Peeper, D. S. (2020). Reversal of pre-existing NGFR-driven tumor and immune therapy resistance. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3946. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17739-8 Cite
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Prostaglandin E2 Stimulates cAMP Signaling and Re-Sensitizes Human Leukemia Cells to Glucocorticoid-Induced Cell Death

To identify glucocorticoid resistance pathways, investigators conducted a genome-wide, survival-based, shRNA screen in murine T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
[Blood]
Roderick, J. E., Gallagher, K. M., Murphy, L. C., O’Connor, K. W., Tang, K., Zhang, B., Brehm, M., Greiner, D. L., Yu, J., Zhu, L. J., Green, M. R., & Kelliher, M. A. (n.d.). Prostaglandin E2 stimulates cAMP signaling and re-sensitizes human leukemia cells to glucocorticoid-induced cell death. Blood. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005712 Cite
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