Microbiota-Dependent Expansion of Testicular IL-17-Producing Vγ6+ γδ T Cells upon Puberty Promotes Local Tissue Immune Surveillance

Investigators characterized a population of interleukin 17-producing γδ T cells that seeded the testis of naive C57BL/6 mice, expand at puberty and persisted throughout adulthood.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Wilharm, A., Brigas, H. C., Sandrock, I., Ribeiro, M., Amado, T., Reinhardt, A., Demera, A., Hoenicke, L., Strowig, T., Carvalho, T., Prinz, I., & Ribot, J. C. (2020). Microbiota-dependent expansion of testicular IL-17-producing Vγ6 + γδ T cells upon puberty promotes local tissue immune surveillance. Mucosal Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-0330-6 Cite
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LRCH1 Deficiency Enhances LAT Signalosome Formation and CD8+ T Cell Responses against Tumors and Pathogens

Investigators demonstrated that LRCH1 directly bound linker for activation of T cells (LAT), reduced LAT phosphorylation and interaction with GRB2, and also promoted the endocytosis of LAT.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Liu, C., Xu, X., Han, L., Wan, X., Zheng, L., Li, C., Liao, Z., Xiao, J., Zhong, R., Zheng, X., Wang, Q., Li, Z., Chen, H., Wei, B., & Wang, H. (2020). LRCH1 deficiency enhances LAT signalosome formation and CD8+ T cell responses against tumors and pathogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2000970117 Cite
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Multiple Signaling Roles of CD3ε and Its Application in CAR-T Cell Therapy

Scientists found that incorporation of the CD3ε cytoplasmic domain into a second-generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) improved antitumor activity of CAR-T cells.
[Cell]
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IFN-γ Promoted Exosomes from Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Attenuate Colitis via miR-125a and miR-125b

Exosomes were isolated from control and IFN-γ-primed mesenchymal stem cells and were verified by transmission electron microscope and immunofluorescence staining.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Natural Killer Cells Gene-Modified to Express Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Targeting Solid Tumors

Scientists describe the characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells from multiple cell sources, including PSCs, the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modification method and strategy for these NK cells.
[International Journal of Hematology]
Ueda, T., & Kaneko, S. (2020). Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived natural killer cells gene-modified to express chimeric antigen receptor-targeting solid tumors. International Journal of Hematology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02951-5 Cite
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The Cytokine Receptor IL-7Rα Impairs IL-2 Receptor Signaling and Constrains the In Vitro Differentiation of Foxp3+ Treg Cells

Researchers report that IL-7Rα downregulation was necessary to maximize IL-2R signaling. While IL-7Rα overexpression promoted IL-7 signaling, unexpectedly, IL-2 signaling was suppressed in the same cells.
[iScience]
Waickman, A. T., Keller, H. R., Kim, T.-H., Luckey, M. A., Tai, X., Hong, C., Molina-Paris, C., Walsh, S. T. R., & Park, J.-H. (2020). The cytokine receptor IL-7Rα impairs IL-2 receptor signaling and constrains the in vitro differentiation of Foxp3+ Treg cells. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101421 Cite
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PTPN2 Deficiency Enhances Programmed T Cell Expansion and Survival Capacity of Activated T Cells

Scientists found that PTPN2 deficiency renders cells in vivo and in vitro less dependent on survival-promoting cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15.
[Cell Reports]
Flosbach, M., Oberle, S. G., Scherer, S., Zecha, J., Hoesslin, M. von, Wiede, F., Chennupati, V., Cullen, J. G., List, M., Pauling, J. K., Baumbach, J., Kuster, B., Tiganis, T., & Zehn, D. (2020). PTPN2 Deficiency Enhances Programmed T Cell Expansion and Survival Capacity of Activated T Cells. Cell Reports, 32(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107957 Cite
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Control of Viral Infection by Natural Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptors

Investigators showed MHC-I-restricted control of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in vivo that was NK cell dependent. Using mice lacking specific Ly49 receptors, they showed that control of MCMV required inhibitory Ly49 receptors and an inhibitory signaling motif and the capacity for MCMV to downregulate MHC-I.
[Cell Reports]
Parikh, B. A., Bern, M. D., Piersma, S. J., Yang, L., Beckman, D. L., Poursine-Laurent, J., Plougastel-Douglas, B., & Yokoyama, W. M. (2020). Control of Viral Infection by Natural Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptors. Cell Reports, 32(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107969 Cite
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CD122-Targetted IL-2 Signals Cause Acute and Selective Apoptosis of B Cells in Peyer’s Patches

Scientists found that IL-2C targeting cells expressing IL-2 receptor beta caused an acute decrease in cellularity of Peyer’s Patches while cell numbers in the lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes were unaffected.
[Scientific Reports]
Singh, A., Dhume, K., Tejero, J. D., Strutt, T. M., & McKinstry, K. K. (2020). CD122-targetted IL-2 signals cause acute and selective apoptosis of B cells in Peyer’s Patches. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12668. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69632-5 Cite
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Single-Cell Approaches to Investigate B Cells and Antibodies in Autoimmune Neurological Disorders

High-resolution single-cell methods have revealed abnormalities in the tolerance mechanisms of several disorders and provided further insight into the B cells responsible for autoantibody production
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Zou, A., Ramanathan, S., Dale, R. C., & Brilot, F. (2020). Single-cell approaches to investigate B cells and antibodies in autoimmune neurological disorders. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0510-z Cite
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Neutrophil Caspase-11 Is Essential to Defend against a Cytosol-Invasive Bacterium

Although both caspase-1 and caspase-11 could cleave gasdermin D in macrophages and neutrophils, researchers found that NLRC4-activated caspase-1 triggered pyroptosis in macrophages, but this pathway did not trigger pyroptosis in neutrophils.
[Cell Reports]
Kovacs, S. B., Oh, C., Maltez, V. I., McGlaughon, B. D., Verma, A., Miao, E. A., & Aachoui, Y. (2020). Neutrophil Caspase-11 Is Essential to Defend against a Cytosol-Invasive Bacterium. Cell Reports, 32(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107967 Cite
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