Mesenchymal Stem Cells: a Potential Treatment Approach for Refractory Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria

Scientists found that the T cell subsets and inflammatory molecules were not affected by MSC treatment during the follow-up period. In control patients, a significant decrease was detected only at the Th2 subset, TGF-β1, PGE2, IDO and anti-FcεRI levels on the 14th day of treatment.
[Stem Cell Reviews and Reports]
Özgül Özdemir, R. B., Özdemir, A. T., Kırmaz, C., Ovalı, E., Ölmez, E., Kerem, H., Evrenos, M. K., & Deniz, G. (2020). Mesenchymal Stem Cells: a Potential Treatment Approach for Refractory Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10059-w Cite
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Regulatory T Cell-Derived TGF-β1 Controls Multiple Checkpoints Governing Allergy and Autoimmunity

The mechanisms by which regulatory T (Treg) cells differentially control allergic and autoimmune responses remain unclear. Researchers showed that Treg cells in food allergy had decreased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) because of interleukin-4- and signal transducer and activator of transciription-6-dependent inhibition of Tgfb1 transcription.
[Immunity]
Turner, J. A., Stephen-Victor, E., Wang, S., Rivas, M. N., Abdel-Gadir, A., Harb, H., Cui, Y., Fanny, M., Charbonnier, L.-M., Fong, J. J. H., Benamar, M., Wang, L., Burton, O. T., Bansal, K., Bry, L., Zhu, C., Li, Q.-Z., Clement, R. L., Oettgen, H. C., … Chatila, T. A. (2020). Regulatory T Cell-Derived TGF-β1 Controls Multiple Checkpoints Governing Allergy and Autoimmunity. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.002 Cite
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HTLV-1 Targets Human Placental Trophoblasts in Seropositive Pregnant Women

Investigators found that human T cell leukemia virus type 1 proviral DNA was present in the placental villous tissues of the fetuses of nearly half of pregnant carriers and in a small number of cord blood samples.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Tezuka, K., Fuchi, N., Okuma, K., Tsukiyama, T., Miura, S., Hasegawa, Y., Nagata, A., Komatsu, N., Hasegawa, H., Sasaki, D., Sasaki, E., Mizukami, T., Kuramitsu, M., Matsuoka, S., Yanagihara, K., Miura, K., & Hamaguchi, I. (2020). HTLV-1 targets human placental trophoblasts in seropositive pregnant women. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(11). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI135525 Cite
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Maternal Obesity is Associated with Phenotypic Alterations in Fetal Immune Cells by Single‐Cell Mass Cytometry

Using cord blood mononuclear cells and cord plasma isolated from infants born to women with a high BMI compared to women with a normal BMI, the authors evaluated differences in immune cell populations using single‐cell mass cytometry.
[American Journal of Reproductive Immunology]
Enninga, E. A. L., Jang, J. S., Hur, B., Johnson, E. L., Wick, M. J., Sung, J., & Chakraborty, R. (n.d.). Maternal Obesity is Associated with Phenotypic Alterations in Fetal Immune Cells by Single-Cell Mass Cytometry. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, n/a(n/a), e13358. https://doi.org/10.1111/aji.13358 Cite
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BCL11B Suppresses Tumor Progression and Stem Cell Traits in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Restoring p53 Signaling Activity

In vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed BCL11B as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma with inhibitory effects on proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and mobility.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Yang, W.-J., Sun, Y.-F., Jin, A.-L., Lv, L.-H., Zhu, J., Wang, B.-L., Zhou, Y., Zhang, C.-Y., Wang, H., Hu, B., Wang, P.-X., Te, L., Pan, B.-S., Zhou, J., Fan, J., Yang, X.-R., & Guo, W. (2020). BCL11B suppresses tumor progression and stem cell traits in hepatocellular carcinoma by restoring p53 signaling activity. Cell Death & Disease, 11(10), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03115-3 Cite
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Selective SIRPα Blockade Reverses Tumor T Cell Exclusion and Overcomes Cancer Immunotherapy Resistance

Scientists report a potent synergy between selective SIRPα blockade and immune checkpoint blockade in increasing memory T cell responses and reverting exclusion in syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Gauttier, V., Pengam, S., Durand, J., Biteau, K., Mary, C., Morello, A., Néel, M., Porto, G., Teppaz, G., Thepenier, V., Danger, R., Vince, N., Wilhelm, E., Girault, I., Abes, R., Ruiz, C., Trilleaud, C., Ralph, K.-L., Trombetta, E. S., … Poirier, N. (2020). Selective SIRPα blockade reverses tumor T cell exclusion and overcomes cancer immunotherapy resistance. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(11). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI135528 Cite
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Regulatory T Cells for Minimising Immune Suppression in Kidney Transplantation: Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial

The assessment included incidence of biopsy confirmed acute rejection, assessment of nTreg infusion related adverse effects, and signs of over immunosuppression.
[British Medical Journal]
Roemhild, A., Otto, N. M., Moll, G., Abou-El-Enein, M., Kaiser, D., Bold, G., Schachtner, T., Choi, M., Oellinger, R., Landwehr-Kenzel, S., Juerchott, K., Sawitzki, B., Giesler, C., Sefrin, A., Beier, C., Wagner, D. L., Schlickeiser, S., Streitz, M., Schmueck-Henneresse, M., … Reinke, P. (2020). Regulatory T cells for minimising immune suppression in kidney transplantation: phase I/IIa clinical trial. BMJ, 371. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3734 Cite
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Immune Receptor Inhibition through Enforced Phosphatase Recruitment

Researchers present an alternative approach for attenuating cell-surface receptor signaling, termed receptor inhibition by phosphatase recruitment.
[Nature]
Immune receptor inhibition through enforced phosphatase recruitment | Nature. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2851-2#Abs1 Cite
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HIV-1 Env Induces Pexophagy and an Oxidative Stress Leading to Uninfected CD4+ T Cell Death

Scientists demonstrated that envelope glycoproteins (Env)-induced oxidative stress was responsible for their death by apoptosis. Moreover, they report that peroxisomes, organelles involved in the control of oxidative stress, are targeted by Env-mediated autophagy.
[Autophagy]
Daussy, C. F., Galais, M., Pradel, B., Robert-Hebmann, V., Sagnier, S., Pattingre, S., Biard-Piechaczyk, M., & Espert, L. (2020). HIV-1 Env induces pexophagy and an oxidative stress leading to uninfected CD4+ T cell death. Autophagy, 0(0), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1831814 Cite
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MAIT Cell Dysregulation Correlates with Conjugated Bilirubin Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Researchers tested the antiviral potential of MAIT cells, and investigated their dynamic changes and regulating factors during chronic HBV infection.
[Hepatology]
MAIT Cell Dysregulation Correlates with Conjugated Bilirubin Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection - Liu - - Hepatology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.31602 Cite
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Cancer Immunotherapy via Targeted TGF-β Signalling Blockade in TH Cells

Following the finding that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) suppresses T helper 2 (TH2)-cell-mediated cancer immunity, scientists showed that blocking TGF-β signalling in CD4+ T cells remodels the tumour microenvironment and restrains cancer progression.
[Nature]
Li, S., Liu, M., Do, M. H., Chou, C., Stamatiades, E. G., Nixon, B. G., Shi, W., Zhang, X., Li, P., Gao, S., Capistrano, K. J., Xu, H., Cheung, N.-K. V., & Li, M. O. (2020). Cancer immunotherapy via targeted TGF-β signalling blockade in T H cells. Nature, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2850-3 Cite
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