A Closer Look at Estrogen Receptor Mutations in Breast Cancer and Their Implications for Estrogen and Antiestrogen Responses

The authors summarize the latest advances regarding the particular involvement of point mutations of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in endocrine resistance. They also discuss the involvement of synonymous ERα mutations with respect to co-translational folding of the receptor and ribosome biogenesis in breast carcinogenesis.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Clusan, L., Le Goff, P., Flouriot, G., & Pakdel, F. (2021). A Closer Look at Estrogen Receptor Mutations in Breast Cancer and Their Implications for Estrogen and Antiestrogen Responses. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(2), 756. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020756 Cite
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Targeting Autophagy Reverses De Novo Resistance in Homologous Recombination Repair Proficient Breast Cancers to PARP Inhibition

Autophagosome formation and autophagic flux were assessed by evaluating endogenous LC3-II levels and ectopic expression of EGFP-LC3 and mRFP-EGFP-LC3 in breast cancer cells.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Pai Bellare, G., Saha, B., & Patro, B. S. (2021). Targeting autophagy reverses de novo resistance in homologous recombination repair proficient breast cancers to PARP inhibition. British Journal of Cancer, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01238-0 Cite
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Pharmacological and Genetic Perturbation Establish SIRT5 as a Promising Target in Breast Cancer

Scientists report that genetic SIRT5 disruption in breast cancer cell lines and mouse models caused increased succinylation of IDH2 and other metabolic enzymes, increased oxidative stress, and impaired transformation and tumorigenesis.
[Oncogene]
Abril, Y. L. N., Fernandez, I. R., Hong, J. Y., Chiang, Y.-L., Kutateladze, D. A., Zhao, Q., Yang, M., Hu, J., Sadhukhan, S., Li, B., He, B., Remick, B., Bai, J. J., Mullmann, J., Wang, F., Maymi, V., Dhawan, R., Auwerx, J., Southard, T., … Weiss, R. S. (2021). Pharmacological and genetic perturbation establish SIRT5 as a promising target in breast cancer. Oncogene, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01637-w Cite
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The BRCA1 Pseudogene Negatively Regulates Anti-Tumor Responses through Inhibition of Innate Immune Defense Mechanisms

The authors report an important role for BRCA1P1, the pseudogene of the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene, in regulating innate immune defense mechanisms in breast cancer cells.
[Cancer Research]
Han, Y. J., Zhang, J., Lee, J.-H., Mason, J. M., Karginova, O., Yoshimatsu, T. F., Hao, Q., Hurley, I., Brunet, L. P., Prat, A., Prasanth, K. V., Gack, M. U., & Olopade, O. I. (2021). The BRCA1 Pseudogene Negatively Regulates Anti-Tumor Responses through Inhibition of Innate Immune Defense Mechanisms. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-1959 Cite
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Depletion of Trp53 and Cdkn2a Does Not Promote Self-Renewal in the Mammary Gland but Amplifies Proliferation Induced by TNF-α

Researchers investigated the roles of p53, p16INK4a, and p19ARF in the regulation of self-renewal and proliferation of mammary epithelial cells.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Pai Bellare, G., Saha, B., & Patro, B. S. (2021). Targeting autophagy reverses de novo resistance in homologous recombination repair proficient breast cancers to PARP inhibition. British Journal of Cancer, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01238-0 Cite
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The Harsh Microenvironment in Early Breast Cancer Selects for a Warburg Phenotype

Researchers subjected low-glycolytic breast cancer cells to different microenvironmental selection pressures using combinations of hypoxia, acidosis, low glucose, and starvation for many months and isolated single clones for metabolic and transcriptomic profiling.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
The harsh microenvironment in early breast cancer selects for a Warburg phenotype | PNAS. (n.d.). Retrieved January 20, 2021, from https://www.pnas.org/content/118/3/e2011342118 Cite
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MicroRNA Regulation of Cancer Stem Cells in the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

Investigators summarize the critical roles of miRNAs in regulating multiple signaling pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, BMI-1 and STAT3 that are important for the breast cancer stem cell maintenance.
[Cancer Cell International]
Niu, T., Zhang, W., & Xiao, W. (2021). MicroRNA regulation of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Cancer Cell International, 21(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-020-01716-8 Cite
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A Novel Hypoxic Long Noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 Maintains Breast Cancer Stem Cell Stemness via Interacting With IGF2BP1 to Facilitate C-Myc mRNA Stability

The enhanced long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 facilitated breast cancer stem cells self-renewal and tumorigenesis under hypoxic microenvironment both in vitro and in vivo.
[Oncogene]
Zhu, P., He, F., Hou, Y., Tu, G., Li, Q., Jin, T., Zeng, H., Qin, Y., Wan, X., Qiao, Y., Qiu, Y., Teng, Y., & Liu, M. (2021). A novel hypoxic long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 maintains breast cancer stem cell stemness via interacting with IGF2BP1 to facilitate c-Myc mRNA stability. Oncogene, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01638-9 Cite
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Overexpression of β-Arrestins Inhibits Proliferation and Motility in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells

Investigators examined the direct influence of β-arrestins on cellular function and gene expression profiles by changing their expression levels in breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468.
[Scientific Reports]
Bostanabad, S. Y., Noyan, S., Dedeoglu, B. G., & Gurdal, H. (2021). Overexpression of β-Arrestins inhibits proliferation and motility in triple negative breast cancer cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1539. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-80974-6 Cite
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Prolactin Receptor-Driven Combined Luminal and Epithelial Differentiation in Breast Cancer Restricts Plasticity, Stemness, Tumorigenesis and Metastasis

The authors found that interfering with expression of the receptor for the lactogenic hormone prolactin in breast cancer cells representative of the luminal and epithelial breast cancer subtypes resulted in loss of their differentiation state, enriched for stem-like cell subpopulations, and increased their tumorigenic capacity in a subtype-specific manner.
[Oncogenesis]
Shams, A., Binothman, N., Boudreault, J., Wang, N., Shams, F., Hamam, D., Tian, J., Moamer, A., Dai, M., Lebrun, J.-J., & Ali, S. (2021). Prolactin receptor-driven combined luminal and epithelial differentiation in breast cancer restricts plasticity, stemness, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Oncogenesis, 10(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41389-020-00297-5 Cite
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S100A8/A9 Mediate the Reprograming of Normal Mammary Epithelial Cells Induced by Dynamic Cell–Cell Interactions With Adjacent Breast Cancer Cells

To understand the potential effects of cancer cells on surrounding normal mammary epithelial cells, researchers performed direct co-culture of non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial MCF10A cells and various breast cancer cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Jo, S. H., Heo, W. H., Son, H.-Y., Quan, M., Hong, B. S., Kim, J. H., Lee, H.-B., Han, W., Park, Y., Lee, D.-S., Kwon, N. H., Park, M. C., Chae, J., Kim, J.-I., Noh, D.-Y., & Moon, H.-G. (2021). S100A8/A9 mediate the reprograming of normal mammary epithelial cells induced by dynamic cell–cell interactions with adjacent breast cancer cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1337. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80625-2 Cite
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