Little Cells of the Little Brain: Microglia in Cerebellar Development and Function

Scientists examine the roles microglia play in cerebellar function, development, and aging. The emerging findings on cerebellar microglia may also provide insights into disease processes involving cerebellar dysfunction.
[Trends in Neurosciences]
Little cells of the little brain: microglia in cerebellar development and function: Trends in Neurosciences. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2021, from https://www.cell.com/trends/neurosciences/fulltext/S0166-2236(21)00073-4#%20 Cite
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Non-Neuronal Cells in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis — From Pathogenesis to Biomarkers

Scientists provide an overview of the diverse roles of non-neuronal cells in relation to the pathogenesis of ALS and the emerging potential of non-neuronal cell biomarkers to advance therapeutic development.
[Nature Reviews Neurology]
Vahsen, B. F., Gray, E., Thompson, A. G., Ansorge, O., Anthony, D. C., Cowley, S. A., Talbot, K., & Turner, M. R. (2021). Non-neuronal cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis — from pathogenesis to biomarkers. Nature Reviews Neurology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41582-021-00487-8 Cite
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Meningeal Lymphatics Affect Microglia Responses and Anti-Aβ Immunotherapy

Investigators showed that ablation of meningeal lymphatic vessels in 5xFAD mice (a mouse model of amyloid deposition that expressed five mutations found in familial Alzheimer’s disease) worsened the outcome of mice treated with anti-Aβ passive immunotherapy.
[Nature]
Da Mesquita, S., Papadopoulos, Z., Dykstra, T., Brase, L., Farias, F. G., Wall, M., Jiang, H., Kodira, C. D., de Lima, K. A., Herz, J., Louveau, A., Goldman, D. H., Salvador, A. F., Onengut-Gumuscu, S., Farber, E., Dabhi, N., Kennedy, T., Milam, M. G., Baker, W., … Kipnis, J. (2021). Meningeal lymphatics affect microglia responses and anti-Aβ immunotherapy. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03489-0 Cite
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Design and Evaluation of an In Vitro Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Modeling System Using 3D Printed Mini Impact Device on the 3D Cultured Human iPSC Derived Neural Progenitor Cells

Researchers report an in vitro mild traumatic brain injury modeling system based on 3D cultured human iPSC derived neural progenitor cells to evaluate consequences of single and repetitive mild traumatic brain injury using a 3D printed mini weight‐drop impact device.
[Advanced Healthcare Materials]
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Blood–Brain Barrier Opening by Intracarotid Artery Hyperosmolar Mannitol Induces Sterile Inflammatory and Innate Immune Responses

Proteomic changes occurred within five min of intracarotid arterial hyperosmolar mannitol (ICAHM) infusion and returned to baseline by 96 hours. Transcriptomic analyses following ICAHM blood–brain barrier disruption further supported an sterile inflammatory response.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Burks, S. R., Kersch, C. N., Witko, J. A., Pagel, M. A., Sundby, M., Muldoon, L. L., Neuwelt, E. A., & Frank, J. A. (2021). Blood–brain barrier opening by intracarotid artery hyperosmolar mannitol induces sterile inflammatory and innate immune responses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(18). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021915118 Cite
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The BET Inhibitor Attenuates the Inflammatory Response and Cell Migration in Human Microglial HMC3 Cell Line

Scientists investigated the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and anti-migratory functions of JQ1 and the genes targeted by JQ1 in lipopolysaccharide-activated human microglial clone 3 cells using RNA-sequencing.
[Scientific Reports]
Baek, M., Yoo, E., Choi, H. I., An, G. Y., Chai, J. C., Lee, Y. S., Jung, K. H., & Chai, Y. G. (2021). The BET inhibitor attenuates the inflammatory response and cell migration in human microglial HMC3 cell line. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 8828. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87828-1 Cite
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Thermosensitive TRPV4 Channels Mediate Temperature-Dependent Microglia Movement

Investigators demonstrated that mouse microglia exhibited temperature-dependent movement in vitro and in vivo that was mediated by TRPV4 channels within the physiological range of body temperature.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Nishimoto, R., Derouiche, S., Eto, K., Deveci, A., Kashio, M., Kimori, Y., Matsuoka, Y., Morimatsu, H., Nabekura, J., & Tominaga, M. (2021). Thermosensitive TRPV4 channels mediate temperature-dependent microglia movement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(17). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2012894118 Cite
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Buprenorphine Alters Microglia and Astrocytes Acutely Following Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury

Researchers investigated the acute effects of the opioid analgesic buprenorphine on diffuse neuronal/glial pathology, neuroinflammation, cell damage, and systemic physiology.
[Scientific Reports]
Ryu, J., Stone, P., Lee, S., Payne, B., Gorse, K., & Lafrenaye, A. (2021). Buprenorphine alters microglia and astrocytes acutely following diffuse traumatic brain injury. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 8620. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88030-z Cite
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A Subpopulation of Embryonic Microglia Respond to Maternal Stress and Influence Nearby Neural Progenitors

The authors performed single-cell transcriptomics to define embryonic hypothalamic microglia heterogeneity and identified four microglial subsets, including a subpopulation adjacent to neural stem cells that was responsive to gestational cold stress.
[Developmental Cell]
Rosin, J. M., Sinha, S., Biernaskie, J., & Kurrasch, D. M. (2021). A subpopulation of embryonic microglia respond to maternal stress and influence nearby neural progenitors. Developmental Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2021.03.018 Cite
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Extracellular Vesicles Derived from M2 Microglia Reduce Ischemic Brain Injury through microRNA-135a-5p/TXNIP/NLRP3 Axis

Investigators explored the specific functions of M2 phenotype microglia-derived extracellular vesicles in ischemic brain injury progression.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Liu, Y., Li, Y.-P., Xiao, L.-M., Chen, L.-K., Zheng, S.-Y., Zeng, E.-M., & Xu, C.-H. (2021). Extracellular vesicles derived from M2 microglia reduce ischemic brain injury through microRNA-135a-5p/TXNIP/NLRP3 axis. Laboratory Investigation, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00545-1 Cite
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Immune Modulation Mediated by Extracellular Vesicles of Intestinal Organoids Is Disrupted by Opioids

Researchers showed that extracellular vesicles isolated from mouse and human intestinal organoids modulated inflammatory responses of various immune cells including mouse bone-marrow derived-macrophages, dendritic cells, microglia cells, and human monocytes.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Zhang, Y., Yan, Y., Meng, J., Girotra, M., Ramakrishnan, S., & Roy, S. (2021). Immune modulation mediated by extracellular vesicles of intestinal organoids is disrupted by opioids. Mucosal Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-021-00392-9 Cite
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