Ribosomal Profiling During Prion Disease Uncovers Progressive Translational Derangement in Glia but Not in Neurons

The authors applied a combination of translating ribosome affinity purification and ribosome profiling to identify biologically relevant prion-induced changes during disease progression in a cell-type specific and genome-wide manner. Terminally diseased mice with severe neurological symptoms showed extensive alterations in astrocytes and microglia.
[eLife]
Scheckel, C., Imeri, M., Schwarz, P., & Aguzzi, A. (2020). Ribosomal profiling during prion disease uncovers progressive translational derangement in glia but not in neurons. ELife, 9, e62911. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.62911 Cite
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An Optimized Quantitative Proteomics Method Establishes the Cell Type-Resolved Mouse Brain Secretome

High‐performance secretome protein enrichment with click sugars method was used to identify the secretory response of brain slices upon LPS‐induced neuroinflammation and to establish the cell type‐resolved mouse brain secretome resource using primary astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and oligodendrocytes.
[EMBO Journal]
Tüshaus, J., Müller, S. A., Kataka, E. S., Zaucha, J., Sebastian Monasor, L., Su, M., Güner, G., Jocher, G., Tahirovic, S., Frishman, D., Simons, M., & Lichtenthaler, S. F. (2020). An optimized quantitative proteomics method establishes the cell type-resolved mouse brain secretome. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e105693. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020105693 Cite
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Downregulation of the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL10/CXCR3 Axes Contributes to Antitumor Effects in a Mouse Model of Malignant Glioma

Scientists studied the importance of paracrine signaling in the glioma microenvironment by focusing on the celecoxib-mediated role of chemokines C–C motif ligand 2, C-X-C ligand 10, and their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR3, in glioma stem cells (GSCs) and a GSC-bearing malignant glioma model.
[Scientific Reports]
Shono, K., Yamaguchi, I., Mizobuchi, Y., Kagusa, H., Sumi, A., Fujihara, T., Nakajima, K., Kitazato, K. T., Matsuzaki, K., Saya, H., & Takagi, Y. (2020). Downregulation of the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL10/CXCR3 axes contributes to antitumor effects in a mouse model of malignant glioma. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15286. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71857-3 Cite
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Activation of Proprotein Convertase in the Mouse Habenula Causes Depressive-Like Behaviors through Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix

Scientists found that chronic social defeat stress increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lateral habenula associated with mobilization of monocytes and remodeling of extracellular matrix by increased matrix metalloproteinase activity.
[Neuropsychopharmacology]
Ito, H., Nozaki, K., Sakimura, K., Abe, M., Yamawaki, S., & Aizawa, H. (2020). Activation of proprotein convertase in the mouse habenula causes depressive-like behaviors through remodeling of extracellular matrix. Neuropsychopharmacology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-00843-0 Cite
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Modeling HIV-1 Neuropathogenesis Using Three-Dimensional Human Brain Organoids (hBORGs) with HIV-1 Infected Microglia

The authors developed a three-dimensional hBORG model containing major cell types important for HIV-1 neuropathogenesis; neurons and astrocytes along with incorporation of HIV-infected microglia.
[Scientific Reports]
dos Reis, R. S., Sant, S., Keeney, H., Wagner, M. C. E., & Ayyavoo, V. (2020). Modeling HIV-1 neuropathogenesis using three-dimensional human brain organoids (hBORGs) with HIV-1 infected microglia. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15209. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72214-0 Cite
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The Effects of Microglia‐ and Astrocyte‐Derived Factors on Neurogenesis in Health and Disease

The authors describe how glial cells play a role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in both health and disease, especially focusing on glia‐derived factors.
[European Journal of Neuroscience]
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CSF1R Inhibition by a Small-Molecule Inhibitor Is not Microglia Specific; Affecting Hematopoiesis and the Function of Macrophages

Researchers showed that colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibition by PLX5622 affected the myeloid and lymphoid compartments, caused long-term changes in bone marrow-derived macrophages by suppressing interleukin 1β, CD68, and phagocytosis but not CD208, following exposure to endotoxin, and also reduced the population of resident and interstitial macrophages of peritoneum, lung, and liver but not spleen.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Lei, F., Cui, N., Zhou, C., Chodosh, J., Vavvas, D. G., & Paschalis, E. I. (2020). CSF1R inhibition by a small-molecule inhibitor is not microglia specific; affecting hematopoiesis and the function of macrophages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1922788117 Cite
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Attenuation of the Extracellular Matrix Restores Microglial Activity during the Early Stage of Amyloidosis

Two‐photon vital microscopy demonstrated normal morphology and resting motility of microglia but strongly diminished number of microglial cells that migrated to the photolesion site in 5xFAD mice.
[Glia]
Stoyanov, S., Sun, W., Düsedau, H. P., Cangalaya, C., Choi, I., Mirzapourdelavar, H., Baidoe‐Ansah, D., Kaushik, R., Neumann, J., Dunay, I. R., & Dityatev, A. (n.d.). Attenuation of the extracellular matrix restores microglial activity during the early stage of amyloidosis. Glia, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.23894 Cite
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Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neuroimmune Cell Culture Models Emphasize Opposite Immune-Effector Functions of Interleukin 13-Primed Microglia and Macrophages in Terms of Neuroimmune Toxicity

Investigators extended the characterization of iPSC‐microglia and iPSC‐macrophages with the analysis of their transcriptome profile. These cellular models were employed to evaluate neuroimmune toxicity in vitro and to investigate the immune‐modulatory properties of interleukin 13.
[Glia]
Quarta, A., Meese, T., Pieters, Z., Breedam, E. V., Blon, D. L., Broeckhoven, J. V., Hendrix, S., Goossens, H., Hens, N., Berneman, Z., Nieuwerburgh, F. V., & Ponsaerts, P. (n.d.). Murine induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuroimmune cell culture models emphasize opposite immune-effector functions of interleukin 13-primed microglia and macrophages in terms of neuroimmune toxicity. Glia, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.23899 Cite
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Fractalkine-Dependent Microglial Pruning of Viable Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Regulates Myelination

Investigators showed a population of ameboid microglia migrating from the ventricular zone into the corpus callosum during early postnatal development, phagocytosing viable oligodendrocyte progenitor cells before onset of myelination.
[Cell Reports]
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Gene Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease Targeting CD33 Reduces Amyloid Beta Accumulation and Neuroinflammation.

Researchers tested whether a gene therapy strategy to reduce Siglec-3 (CD33) on microglia in Alzheimer’s disease could decrease amyloid beta plaque load.
[Human Molecular Genetics]
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