High Glucose Induces Drp1-Mediated Mitochondrial Fission via the Orai1 Calcium Channel to Participate in Diabetic Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

High glucose induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, accompanied by abnormal mitochondrial morphology and function, and increased Orai1-mediated Ca2+ influx.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Wu, Q.-R., Zheng, D.-L., Liu, P.-M., Yang, H., Li, L.-A., Kuang, S.-J., Lai, Y.-Y., Rao, F., Xue, Y.-M., Lin, J.-J., Liu, S.-X., Chen, C.-B., & Deng, C.-Y. (2021). High glucose induces Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission via the Orai1 calcium channel to participate in diabetic cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Cell Death & Disease, 12(2), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03502-4 Cite
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Long Non-Coding RNA Mir22hg-Derived miR-22-3p Promotes Skeletal Muscle Differentiation and Regeneration by Inhibiting HDAC4

Researchers identified a novel lncRNA, Mir22hg, that is significantly up-regulated during myoblast differentiation and is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. They validated that Mir22hg promotes the myoblasts differentiation, in vitro.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
Li, R., Li, B., Cao, Y., Li, W., Dai, W., Zhang, L., Zhang, X., Ning, C., Li, H., Yao, Y., Tao, J., Jia, C., Wu, W., & Liu, H. (2021). Long non-coding RNA Mir22hg-derived miR-22-3p promotes skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration by inhibiting HDAC4. Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.02.025 Cite
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Injectable Hydrogel with MSNs/microRNA-21-5p Delivery Enables Both Immunomodification and Enhanced Angiogenesis for Myocardial Infarction Therapy in Pigs

Scientists developed a microRNA-21-5p delivery system using functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles with additional intrinsic therapeutic effects.
[Science Advances]
Li, Y., Chen, X., Jin, R., Chen, L., Dang, M., Cao, H., Dong, Y., Cai, B., Bai, G., Gooding, J. J., Liu, S., Zou, D., Zhang, Z., & Yang, C. (2021). Injectable hydrogel with MSNs/microRNA-21-5p delivery enables both immunomodification and enhanced angiogenesis for myocardial infarction therapy in pigs. Science Advances, 7(9), eabd6740. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd6740 Cite
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Maturation of Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Enables Modeling of Human Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Researchers developed a simple method that could drive cultured human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) toward maturity across a number of phenotypes, with the aim of utilizing mature hiPSC-CMs to model human cardiovascular disease.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Knight, W. E., Cao, Y., Lin, Y.-H., Chi, C., Bai, B., Sparagna, G. C., Zhao, Y., Du, Y., Londono, P., Reisz, J. A., Brown, B. C., Taylor, M. R. G., Ambardekar, A. V., Cleveland, J. C., McKinsey, T. A., Jeong, M. Y., Walker, L. A., Woulfe, K. C., D’Alessandro, A., … Song, K. (2021). Maturation of Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Enables Modeling of Human Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.01.018 Cite
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Optogenetic Current in Myofibroblasts Acutely Alters Electrophysiology and Conduction of Co-Cultured Cardiomyocytes

Cardiac myofibroblasts were transduced with Channelrhodopsin-2, which allowed acute and selective increase of myofibroblast current, and plated on top of cardiomyocytes.
[Scientific Reports]
Kostecki, G. M., Shi, Y., Chen, C. S., Reich, D. H., Entcheva, E., & Tung, L. (2021). Optogenetic current in myofibroblasts acutely alters electrophysiology and conduction of co-cultured cardiomyocytes. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 4430. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83398-4 Cite
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CARMN Loss Regulates Smooth Muscle Cells and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice

Researchers investigated the role of the lncRNA CARMN, independent from miR-143 and miR-145, as a potential regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypes in vitro and the consequences of its loss during the development of atherosclerosis in vivo.
[Circulation Research]
Vacante Francesca, Rodor Julie, Lalwani Mukesh K, Mahmoud Amira D, Bennett Matthew, De Pace Azzura, Miller Eileen, van Kuijk Kim, de Bruijn Jenny BG, Gijbels Marion, Williams Thomas Christie, Clark Michael B, Scanlon Jessica P, Doran Amanda C, Montgomery Rusty, Newby David E, Giacca Mauro, O’Carroll Dónal, Hadoke Patrick WF, … Baker Andrew H. (n.d.). CARMN Loss Regulates Smooth Muscle Cells and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice. Circulation Research, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.318688 Cite
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Multiple Cell Types Contribute to the Atherosclerotic Lesion Fibrous Cap by PDGFRβ and Bioenergetic Mechanisms

Researchers showed that smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific knockout of the Pdgfrb gene, which encodes platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), in Apoe−/− mice fed a Western diet for 18 weeks resulted in brachiocephalic artery lesions nearly devoid of SMCs but with no changes in lesion size, remodelling or indices of stability, including the percentage of ACTA2+ fibrous cap cells.
[Nature Metabolism]
Newman, A. A. C., Serbulea, V., Baylis, R. A., Shankman, L. S., Bradley, X., Alencar, G. F., Owsiany, K., Deaton, R. A., Karnewar, S., Shamsuzzaman, S., Salamon, A., Reddy, M. S., Guo, L., Finn, A., Virmani, R., Cherepanova, O. A., & Owens, G. K. (2021). Multiple cell types contribute to the atherosclerotic lesion fibrous cap by PDGFRβ and bioenergetic mechanisms. Nature Metabolism, 3(2), 166–181. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-00338-8 Cite
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A Double-Edged Sword of Immuno-Microenvironment in Cardiac Homeostasis and Injury Repair

In adaptive immunity, effector T cells, especially Th17 cells, lead to the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, including the distal fibrosis and scar formation. Cardiomyocytes protectors, Treg cells, inhibit reduce the inflammatory response, then directly trigger the regeneration of local progenitor cell via IL-10.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Sun, K., Li, Y., & Jin, J. (2021). A double-edged sword of immuno-microenvironment in cardiac homeostasis and injury repair. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00455-6 Cite
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Exercise Triggers CAPN1-Mediated AIF Truncation, Inducing Myocyte Cell Death in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy

When cardiomyocytes differentiated from Dsg2mut/mut embryonic stem cells were challenged with β-adrenergic stimulation, calpain-1 (CAPN1) inhibition attenuated CAPN1-induced AIF truncation.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Chelko, S. P., Keceli, G., Carpi, A., Doti, N., Agrimi, J., Asimaki, A., Beti, C. B., Miyamoto, M., Amat-Codina, N., Bedja, D., Wei, A.-C., Murray, B., Tichnell, C., Kwon, C., Calkins, H., James, C. A., O’Rourke, B., Halushka, M. K., Melloni, E., … Paolocci, N. (2021). Exercise triggers CAPN1-mediated AIF truncation, inducing myocyte cell death in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Science Translational Medicine, 13(581). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abf0891 Cite
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The Double Face of miR-320: Cardiomyocytes-Derived miR-320 Deteriorated While Fibroblasts-Derived miR-320 Protected against Heart Failure Induced by Transverse Aortic Constriction

Langendorff system was applied to isolate cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts from transverse aortic constriction-induced mice.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Zhang, X., Yuan, S., Li, H., Zhan, J., Wang, F., Fan, J., Nie, X., Wang, Y., Wen, Z., Chen, Y., Chen, C., & Wang, D. W. (2021). The double face of miR-320: cardiomyocytes-derived miR-320 deteriorated while fibroblasts-derived miR-320 protected against heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00445-8 Cite
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Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Platform for Modeling Cardiac Ischemia

A human induced pluripotent stem cell derived-cardiomyocyte (hiPSC-CM)-based platform for modeling ischemia–reperfusion was developed utilizing a system enabling precise control over oxygen concentration and real-time monitoring of the oxygen dynamics as well as iPS-CM functionality.
[Scientific Reports]
Häkli, M., Kreutzer, J., Mäki, A.-J., Välimäki, H., Lappi, H., Huhtala, H., Kallio, P., Aalto-Setälä, K., & Pekkanen-Mattila, M. (2021). Human induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform for modeling cardiac ischemia. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 4153. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83740-w Cite
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