Muscle Progenitor Specification and Myogenic Differentiation Are Associated with Changes in Chromatin Topology

Scientists identified key promoter-enhancer interaction motifs, namely, cliques and networks, and interactions that are dependent on Pax7 binding. Remarkably, Pax7 binds to a majority of super-enhancers, and together with a cadre of interacting transcription factors, assembles feed-forward regulatory loops.
[Nature Communications]
Zhang, N., Mendieta-Esteban, J., Magli, A., Lilja, K. C., Perlingeiro, R. C. R., Marti-Renom, M. A., Tsirigos, A., & Dynlacht, B. D. (2020). Muscle progenitor specification and myogenic differentiation are associated with changes in chromatin topology. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6222. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19999-w Cite
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Fast-Relaxing Cardiomyocytes Exert a Dominant Role in the Relaxation Behavior of Heterogeneous Myocardium

Researchers constructed engineered heart tissues from two lines of fast- and slow-relaxing human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. Cell tracking via fluorescent nanocrystals confirmed the presence of both cell populations in the 50/50 mixed tissues at the time of mechanical characterization.
[Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics]
Clark, J. A., Sewanan, L. R., Schwan, J., Kluger, J., Campbell, K. S., & Campbell, S. G. (2020). Fast-relaxing cardiomyocytes exert a dominant role in the relaxation behavior of heterogeneous myocardium. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 108711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2020.108711 Cite
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Chemokine Mediated Signaling within Arteries Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Recruitment

Investigators showed that autocrine cxcl12b/cxcr4 activity lef to increased production of the vascular smooth muscle cells chemoattractant ligand pdgfb by endothelial cells in vitro and increased expression of pdgfb by arteries of zebrafish and mice in vivo.
[Communications Biology]
Stratman, A. N., Burns, M. C., Farrelly, O. M., Davis, A. E., Li, W., Pham, V. N., Castranova, D., Yano, J. J., Goddard, L. M., Nguyen, O., Galanternik, M. V., Bolan, T. J., Kahn, M. L., Mukouyama, Y., & Weinstein, B. M. (2020). Chemokine mediated signalling within arteries promotes vascular smooth muscle cell recruitment. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01462-7 Cite
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AMPK Regulates Cell Shape of Cardiomyocytes by Modulating Turnover of Microtubules through CLIP‐170

Researchers identified an active form of AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) localized at the intercalated disks in the heart, a specific cell–cell junction present between cardiomyocytes.
[EMBO Reports]
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Amazing Remedies for Bone and Cartilage Defects

MSCs obtained from various sources have diverse capabilities of secreting many different cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. It is believed that the salutary effects of MSCs from different sources are not alike in terms of repairing or reformation of injured skeletal tissues.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Kangari, P., Talaei-Khozani, T., Razeghian-Jahromi, I., & Razmkhah, M. (2020). Mesenchymal stem cells: amazing remedies for bone and cartilage defects. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 492. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02001-1 Cite
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Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Associates with Ventricular Stress in Young Adults and Triggers Intracellular Ca2+ Alterations in Adult Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

To determine the intracellular mechanisms involved in the cardiac effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), the authors analyzed the in vitro effect of oxLDL on intracellular Ca2+ handling in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes using confocal microscopy.
[Antioxidants]
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SGLT1 Knockdown Prevents Glucose Fluctuation-Induced Apoptosis of Cardiomyocytes through Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Researchers investigated the role of sodium‑glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) in rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes subjected to glucose fluctuation and the underlying mechanisms. They indicated that SGLT1 knockdown was able to restore cell proliferation and suppress cytotoxicity induced by glucose fluctuation.
[Biochemistry and Cell Biology]
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Bioinformatic Analysis of Membrane and Associated Proteins in Murine Cardiomyocytes and Human Myocardium

Scientists examined several proteomic- and RNA-Seq-based datasets of cardiac-enriched, cell-surface and membrane-associated proteins in human fetal and mouse neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes.
[Scientific Data]
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YAP/TAZ Are Required to Suppress Osteogenic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

The authors demonstrated that the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ play a critical role in maintaining the differentiated contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells.
[iScience]
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USP7, Negatively Regulated by miR‐409‐5p, Aggravates Hypoxia‐Induced Cardiomyocyte Injury

The authors investigated the role and the underlying regulatory mechanism of ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (USP7) in myocardial infarction.
[APMIS]
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TRPM2 Promotes Autophagic Degradation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

Investigators found abundant transient receptor potential channel M2 (TRPM2) expression in lysosomes/autolysosomes in the primary cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells.
[Scientific Reports]
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