Scientists identified key promoter-enhancer interaction motifs, namely, cliques and networks, and interactions that are dependent on Pax7 binding. Remarkably, Pax7 binds to a majority of super-enhancers, and together with a cadre of interacting transcription factors, assembles feed-forward regulatory loops.
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Zhang, N., Mendieta-Esteban, J., Magli, A., Lilja, K. C., Perlingeiro, R. C. R., Marti-Renom, M. A., Tsirigos, A., & Dynlacht, B. D. (2020). Muscle progenitor specification and myogenic differentiation are associated with changes in chromatin topology. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6222. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19999-w Cite
Researchers constructed engineered heart tissues from two lines of fast- and slow-relaxing human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. Cell tracking via fluorescent nanocrystals confirmed the presence of both cell populations in the 50/50 mixed tissues at the time of mechanical characterization.
[Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics]
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Investigators showed that autocrine cxcl12b/cxcr4 activity lef to increased production of the vascular smooth muscle cells chemoattractant ligand pdgfb by endothelial cells in vitro and increased expression of pdgfb by arteries of zebrafish and mice in vivo.
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Stratman, A. N., Burns, M. C., Farrelly, O. M., Davis, A. E., Li, W., Pham, V. N., Castranova, D., Yano, J. J., Goddard, L. M., Nguyen, O., Galanternik, M. V., Bolan, T. J., Kahn, M. L., Mukouyama, Y., & Weinstein, B. M. (2020). Chemokine mediated signalling within arteries promotes vascular smooth muscle cell recruitment. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01462-7 Cite
Researchers identified an active form of AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) localized at the intercalated disks in the heart, a specific cell–cell junction present between cardiomyocytes.
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MSCs obtained from various sources have diverse capabilities of secreting many different cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. It is believed that the salutary effects of MSCs from different sources are not alike in terms of repairing or reformation of injured skeletal tissues.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
To determine the intracellular mechanisms involved in the cardiac effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), the authors analyzed the in vitro effect of oxLDL on intracellular Ca2+ handling in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes using confocal microscopy.
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Researchers investigated the role of sodium‑glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) in rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes subjected to glucose fluctuation and the underlying mechanisms. They indicated that SGLT1 knockdown was able to restore cell proliferation and suppress cytotoxicity induced by glucose fluctuation.
[Biochemistry and Cell Biology]
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Scientists examined several proteomic- and RNA-Seq-based datasets of cardiac-enriched, cell-surface and membrane-associated proteins in human fetal and mouse neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes.
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The authors demonstrated that the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ play a critical role in maintaining the differentiated contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells.
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The authors investigated the role and the underlying regulatory mechanism of ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (USP7) in myocardial infarction.
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Investigators found abundant transient receptor potential channel M2 (TRPM2) expression in lysosomes/autolysosomes in the primary cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells.
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