Scientists showed that the neurotropism of Cryptococcus neoformans and its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) could be modeled by the co-culture of human neural stem cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells and brain vascular pericytes in a human-neurovascular-unit-on-a-chip maintained by a stepwise gravity-driven unidirectional flow and recapitulating the structural and functional features of the BBB.
[Nature Biomedical Engineering]
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Kim, J., Lee, K.-T., Lee, J. S., Shin, J., Cui, B., Yang, K., Choi, Y. S., Choi, N., Lee, S. H., Lee, J.-H., Bahn, Y.-S., & Cho, S.-W. (2021). Fungal brain infection modelled in a human-neurovascular-unit-on-a-chip with a functional blood–brain barrier. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00743-8 Cite
Bayer AG announced that BlueRock Therapeutics successfully administered the first dose of its investigational pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons, named DA01, to a Parkinson’s disease patient in their open-label Phase I clinical safety and tolerability study.
[Bayer AG (BusinessWire, Inc.)]
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Researchers aimed to understand the long-term impact of the early and prolonged microglial proliferation observed in Alzheimer’s disease, hypothesizing that extensive and repeated cycling would engender a distinct transcriptional and phenotypic trajectory.
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Hu, Y., Fryatt, G. L., Ghorbani, M., Obst, J., Menassa, D. A., Martin-Estebane, M., Muntslag, T. A. O., Olmos-Alonso, A., Guerrero-Carrasco, M., Thomas, D., Cragg, M. S., & Gomez-Nicola, D. (2021). Replicative senescence dictates the emergence of disease-associated microglia and contributes to Aβ pathology. Cell Reports, 35(10). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109228 Cite
Scientists presented for the first time primary hippocampal neurons derived from the ubiquitous inducible mouse model used as a screening tool for targeted interventions.
[Human Molecular Genetics]
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Haify, S. N., Buijsen, R. A. M., Verwegen, L., Severijnen, L.-A. W. F. M., de Boer, H., Boumeester, V., Monshouwer, R., Yang, W. Y., Cameron, M. D., Willemsen, R., Disney, M. D., & Hukema, R. K. (2021). Small molecule 1a reduces FMRpolyG-mediated toxicity in in vitro and in vivo models for FMR1 premutation. Human Molecular Genetics, ddab143. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab143 Cite
Scientists demonstrated that hPDLSCs, hBMSCs and hDPSCs could directly differentiate into neuron-like cells without passing through a mitotic stage and that they shrunk dramatically and changed their morphology to that of neuron-like cells through active neurite extension.
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Bueno, C., Martínez-Morga, M., García-Bernal, D., Moraleda, J. M., & Martínez, S. (2021). Differentiation of human adult-derived stem cells towards a neural lineage involves a dedifferentiation event prior to differentiation to neural phenotypes. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12034. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91566-9 Cite
Focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model and primary cortical neurons were established an oxygen-glucose deprivation injury model. Neuronal cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Western blot analysis was determined for protein expression.
[Brain and Behavior]
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Scientists reported that a common mechanism for the initiation of the erosion of X chromosome inactivation of female human PSCs depended on XIST loss but not XACT accumulation on inactive X chromosomes.
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BlueRock Therapeutics announced the dose administration for the first patient in a Phase I, open-label study of PSC-derived dopaminergic neurons in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease.
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Scientists dissected glioblastoma-to-microenvironment interactions by single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of human tumors and model systems, combined with functional experiments.
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Hara, T., Chanoch-Myers, R., Mathewson, N. D., Myskiw, C., Atta, L., Bussema, L., Eichhorn, S. W., Greenwald, A. C., Kinker, G. S., Rodman, C., Castro, L. N. G., Wakimoto, H., Rozenblatt-Rosen, O., Zhuang, X., Fan, J., Hunter, T., Verma, I. M., Wucherpfennig, K. W., Regev, A., … Tirosh, I. (2021). Interactions between cancer cells and immune cells drive transitions to mesenchymal-like states in glioblastoma. Cancer Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.05.002 Cite
Researchers report on the development of an enhanced synergistic combination therapy comprising polyacetal–curcumin nanoconjugate and neural stem cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells + mesenchymal stem cells treatment as a treatment option for severe sub-acute traumatic spinal cord injury.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Old and young mouse brains, metastatic and naïve, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Immune populations were depleted using antibodies or a colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibitor, and brain metastasis assays were conducted.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
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Wu, A. M. L., Gossa, S., Samala, R., Chung, M. A., Gril, B., Yang, H., Thorsheim, H. R., Tran, A. D., Wei, D., Taner, E., Isanogle, K., Yang, Y., Dolan, E. L., Robinson, C. M., Difilippantonio, S., Lee, M., Khan, I., Smith, Q. R., McGavern, D. B., … Steeg, P. S. (2021). Aging and CNS myeloid cell depletion attenuate breast cancer brain metastasis. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1549 Cite