The Melanoma Brain Metastatic Microenvironment: Aldolase C Partakes in Shaping the Malignant Phenotype of Melanoma Cells – A Case of Inter-Tumor Heterogeneity

Researchers used brain metastasizing variants from three human melanomas to explore the functional role of Aldolase C in the formation and maintenance of melanoma brain metastasis.
[Molecular Oncology]
Izraely, S., Ben‐Menachem, S., Sagi‐Assif, O., Meshel, T., Malka, S., Telerman, A., Bustos, M. A., Ramos, I. R., Pasmanik‐Chor, M., Hoon, D. S. B., & Witz, I. P. (n.d.). The melanoma brain metastatic microenvironment: Aldolase C partakes in shaping the malignant phenotype of melanoma cells - A case of inter-tumor heterogeneity. Molecular Oncology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12872 Cite
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Shaping Neuronal Fate: Functional Heterogeneity of Direct Microglia-Neuron Interactions

Scientists summarize the known ultrastructural, molecular, and functional features of direct microglia-neuron interactions and their roles in brain disease.
[Neuron]
Cserép, C., Pósfai, B., & Dénes, Á. (2020). Shaping Neuronal Fate: Functional Heterogeneity of Direct Microglia-Neuron Interactions. Neuron, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.11.007 Cite
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Chemical Composition of Polish Propolis and Its Antiproliferative Effect in Combination with Bacopa monnieri on Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Researchers investigated the chemical composition of Polish propolis extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, B. monnieri extracts (BcH, BcS) by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector and mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization and finally determine its anti-proliferative potential combined with BcH and BcS in glioblastoma cell lines.
[Scientific Reports]
Moskwa, J., Naliwajko, S. K., Markiewicz-Żukowska, R., Gromkowska-Kępka, K. J., Nowakowski, P., Strawa, J. W., Borawska, M. H., Tomczyk, M., & Socha, K. (2020). Chemical composition of Polish propolis and its antiproliferative effect in combination with Bacopa monnieri on glioblastoma cell lines. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21127. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78014-w Cite
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Generation of Human Striatal Organoids and Cortico-Striatal Assembloids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Researchers assembled organoids with cerebral cortical organoids in three-dimensional cultures to form cortico-striatal assembloids. Using viral tracing and functional assays in intact or sliced assembloids, they showed that cortical neurons sent axonal projections into striatal organoids and formed synaptic connections.
[Nature Biotechnology]
Miura, Y., Li, M.-Y., Birey, F., Ikeda, K., Revah, O., Thete, M. V., Park, J.-Y., Puno, A., Lee, S. H., Porteus, M. H., & Pașca, S. P. (2020). Generation of human striatal organoids and cortico-striatal assembloids from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Biotechnology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-020-00763-w Cite
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A Proof of Concept ‘Phase Zero’ Study of Neurodevelopment Using Brain Organoid Models with Vis/Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Electrophysiology

Scientists present the feasibility of a multimodal approach, combining electrophysiology and broadband Vis–NIR spectroscopy, to monitor neurodevelopment in brain organoid models that could complement traditional drug design approaches to test clinically meaningful hypotheses.
[Scientific Reports]
Dutta, A., Karanth, S. S., Bhattacharya, M., Liput, M., Augustyniak, J., Cheung, M., Stachowiak, E. K., & Stachowiak, M. K. (2020). A proof of concept ‘phase zero’ study of neurodevelopment using brain organoid models with Vis/near-infrared spectroscopy and electrophysiology. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20987. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77929-8 Cite
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Comprehensive Analysis of Inhibitory Checkpoint Ligand Expression by Glioblastoma Cells

Scientists showed that glioblastoma cells express a large repertoire of inhibitory checkpoint ligands known to control effector T cell responses. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that glioblastoma cells with an enhanced stem cell‐like phenotype express several investigated ligands at significant levels on their cell surface.
[Immunology and Cell Biology]
Robilliard, L. D., Yu, J., Anchan, A., Joseph, W., Finlay, G., Angel, C. E., & Graham, E. S. (n.d.). Comprehensive analysis of inhibitory checkpoint ligand expression by Glioblastoma cells. Immunology & Cell Biology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/imcb.12428 Cite
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Gelatine Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Encapsulated FGF15 Inhibits Autophagy and Improves Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury

Many studies demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor therapies after spinal cord injury (SCI) could be used in the future for the recovery of neurons. The therapeutic effects of gelatine nanostructured lipid carriers-encapsulated fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) and FGF15 were compared in SCI.
[Cell Death Discovery]
Ying, Y., Xiang, G., Chen, M., Ye, J., Wu, Q., Dou, H., Sheng, S., & Zhu, S. (2020). Gelatine nanostructured lipid carrier encapsulated FGF15 inhibits autophagy and improves recovery in spinal cord injury. Cell Death Discovery, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-00367-y Cite
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Autism-Associated miR-873 Regulates ARID1B, SHANK3 and NRXN2 Involved in Neurodevelopment

A dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed miR-873 variants have a 20-30% inhibition/dysregulation effect on candidate autism risk genes ARID1B, SHANK3 and NRXN2 and also confirmed the affected expression with qPCR.
[Translational Psychiatry]
Lu, J., Zhu, Y., Williams, S., Watts, M., Tonta, M. A., Coleman, H. A., Parkington, H. C., & Claudianos, C. (2020). Autism-associated miR-873 regulates ARID1B, SHANK3 and NRXN2 involved in neurodevelopment. Translational Psychiatry, 10(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01106-8 Cite
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Rare Variant Burden Analysis within Enhancers Identifies CAV1 as an ALS Risk Gene

Investigators discovered enhancer mutations reduced CAV1/CAV2 expression and disrupted membrane lipid rafts in patient-derived cells, and CRISPR-Cas9 perturbation proximate to a patient mutation was sufficient to reduce CAV1/CAV2 expression in neurons.
[Cell Reports]
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A Comprehensive Library of Human Transcription Factors for Cell Fate Engineering

Scientists demonstrated orthogonal programming by including oligodendrocyte-inducible hPSCs with unmodified hPSCs to generate cerebral organoids, which expedited in situ myelination.
[Nature Biotechnology]
Ng, A. H. M., Khoshakhlagh, P., Rojo Arias, J. E., Pasquini, G., Wang, K., Swiersy, A., Shipman, S. L., Appleton, E., Kiaee, K., Kohman, R. E., Vernet, A., Dysart, M., Leeper, K., Saylor, W., Huang, J. Y., Graveline, A., Taipale, J., Hill, D. E., Vidal, M., … Church, G. M. (2020). A comprehensive library of human transcription factors for cell fate engineering. Nature Biotechnology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-020-0742-6 Cite
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The NLRP3 Inflammasome Inhibitor OLT1177 Rescues Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Scientists analyzed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome using dapansutrile (OLT1177), an oral NLRP3-specific inhibitor that is safe in humans.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Lonnemann, N., Hosseini, S., Marchetti, C., Skouras, D. B., Stefanoni, D., D’Alessandro, A., Dinarello, C. A., & Korte, M. (2020). The NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor OLT1177 rescues cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2009680117 Cite
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