Developmental Excitation-Inhibition Imbalance Underlying Psychoses Revealed by Single-Cell Analyses of Discordant Twins-Derived Cerebral Organoids

Brain organoids derived from iPSCs of patients are a powerful avenue to investigate the pathophysiological processes. Scientists generated iPSC-derived cerebral organoids from monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Sawada, T., Chater, T. E., Sasagawa, Y., Yoshimura, M., Fujimori-Tonou, N., Tanaka, K., Benjamin, K. J. M., Paquola, A. C. M., Erwin, J. A., Goda, Y., Nikaido, I., & Kato, T. (2020). Developmental excitation-inhibition imbalance underlying psychoses revealed by single-cell analyses of discordant twins-derived cerebral organoids. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0844-z Cite
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Mitochondrial DNA Enhance Innate Immune Responses in Neuromyelitis Optica by Monocyte Recruitment and Activation

Investigators established anti-AQP4 recombinant autoantibodies from plasmablasts in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patient’s cereberospinal fluid.
[Scientific Reports]
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Functional Characterization of Three-Dimensional Cortical Cultures for In Vitro Modeling of Brain Networks

Scientists present an experimental system based on 3D scaffold-based cortical neuron cultures in which they expressed the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6f to record neuronal activity at the millimeter-scale.
[iScience]
Functional characterization of three-dimensional cortical cultures for in vitro modeling of brain networks: iScience. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/iscience/fulltext/S2589-0042(20)30624-6 Cite
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Immune Phenotyping of Diverse Syngeneic Murine Brain Tumors Identifies Immunologically Distinct Types

Researchers generated distinct imageable syngeneic mouse glioblastoma-tumor models and utilized RNA-sequencing, CyTOF and correlative immunohistochemistry to assess immune-profiles in these models.
[Nature Communications]
Khalsa, J. K., Cheng, N., Keegan, J., Chaudry, A., Driver, J., Bi, W. L., Lederer, J., & Shah, K. (2020). Immune phenotyping of diverse syngeneic murine brain tumors identifies immunologically distinct types. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3912. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17704-5 Cite
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A Widespread Neurogenic Potential of Neocortical Astrocytes Is Induced by Injury

Scientists showed that notch signaling-deficient astrocytes could generate new neurons after injury. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, they found that, when notch signaling was blocked, astrocytes transitioned to a neural stem cell-like state.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Zamboni, M., Llorens-Bobadilla, E., Magnusson, J. P., & Frisén, J. (2020). A Widespread Neurogenic Potential of Neocortical Astrocytes Is Induced by Injury. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.07.006 Cite
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Activation of a Neural Stem Cell Transcriptional Program in Parenchymal Astrocytes

Researchers used single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize neurogenesis by notch-depleted striatal astrocytes in vivo.
[eLife]
Activation of a neural stem cell transcriptional program in parenchymal astrocytes | eLife. (n.d.). Retrieved August 5, 2020, from https://elifesciences.org/articles/59733 Cite
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Diversity and Function of Corticopetal and Corticofugal GABAergic Projection Neurons

Research conducted over the past 10 years has revealed that cortical GABAergic projection neurons are highly diverse in terms of molecular marker expression, synaptic targeting, activity pattern during distinct behavioural states and precise temporal recruitment relative to ongoing neuronal network oscillations.
[Nature Reviews Neuroscience]
Melzer, S., & Monyer, H. (2020). Diversity and function of corticopetal and corticofugal GABAergic projection neurons. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41583-020-0344-9 Cite
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Interplay between V-ATPase G1 and Small EV-miRNAs Modulates ERK1/2 Activation in GBM Stem Cells and Non-Neoplastic Milieu

The authors investigated the role of V1G1 in glioma stem cell small extracellular vesicles and their effects on primary brain cultures.
[Molecular Cancer Research]
Bertolini, I., Storaci, A. M., Terrasi, A., Cristofori, A. D., Locatelli, M., Caroli, M., Ferrero, S., Altieri, D. C., & Vaira, V. (2020). Interplay between V-ATPase G1 and small EV-miRNAs modulates ERK1/2 activation in GBM stem cells and non-neoplastic milieu. Molecular Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0078 Cite
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Single-Cell Transcriptomics Reveals Multiple Neuronal Cell Types in Human Midbrain-Specific Organoids

Investigators demonstrated that human midbrain organoids showed essential neuronal functional properties as spontaneous electrophysiological activity of different neuronal subtypes, including dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurons.
[Cell and Tissue Research]
Smits, L. M., Magni, S., Kinugawa, K., Grzyb, K., Luginbühl, J., Sabate-Soler, S., Bolognin, S., Shin, J. W., Mori, E., Skupin, A., & Schwamborn, J. C. (2020). Single-cell transcriptomics reveals multiple neuronal cell types in human midbrain-specific organoids. Cell and Tissue Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-020-03249-y Cite
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Fabrication of Homotypic Neural Ribbons as a Multiplex Platform Optimized for Spinal Cord Delivery

Neural ribbons offer multifunctionality in vitro including co-encapsulation of the injury site ESM modifier chondroitinase ABC, tested in glial scar models, and ability of cervically-patterned spinal cord neural stem cells to differentiate within neural ribbons and project axons for integration with 3D external matrices.
[Scientific Reports]
Olmsted, Z. T., Stigliano, C., Badri, A., Zhang, F., Williams, A., Koffas, M. A. G., Xie, Y., Linhardt, R. J., Cibelli, J., Horner, P. J., & Paluh, J. L. (2020). Fabrication of homotypic neural ribbons as a multiplex platform optimized for spinal cord delivery. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12939. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69274-7 Cite
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Intrathecal Administration of the Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Human Wharton’s Jelly Stem Cells Inhibit Inflammation and Attenuate the Activity of Inflammasome Complexes after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

Scientists investigated immunomodulatory potential of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles on inflammasome activity one week after spinal cord injury in rats.
[Neuroscience Research]
Noori, L., Arabzadeh, S., Mohamadi, Y., Mojaverrostami, S., Mokhtari, T., Akbari, M., & Hassanzadeh, G. (2020). Intrathecal administration of the extracellular vesicles derived from human Wharton’s jelly stem cells inhibit inflammation and attenuate the activity of inflammasome complexes after spinal cord injury in rats. Neuroscience Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2020.07.011 Cite
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Developmental GABA Polarity Switch and Neuronal Plasticity in Bioengineered Neuronal Organoids

The authors report the directed self-organization of human induced pluripotent stem cells in a collagen hydrogel towards a highly interconnected neuronal network at a macroscale tissue format.
[Nature Communications]
Zafeiriou, M.-P., Bao, G., Hudson, J., Halder, R., Blenkle, A., Schreiber, M.-K., Fischer, A., Schild, D., & Zimmermann, W.-H. (2020). Developmental GABA polarity switch and neuronal plasticity in Bioengineered Neuronal Organoids. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3791. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17521-w Cite
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