Dextran-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Induced Nanotoxicity in Neuron Cultures

The authors examined the dose-dependent neurotoxicity of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on cultured primary neurons harvested from postnatal day 0-1 mouse brains.
[Scientific Reports]
Badman, R. P., Moore, S. L., Killian, J. L., Feng, T., Cleland, T. A., Hu, F., & Wang, M. D. (2020). Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticle-induced nanotoxicity in neuron cultures. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 11239. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67724-w Cite
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Microglia Phagocytose Myelin Sheaths to Modify Developmental Myelination

To determine whether microglia also prune myelin sheaths, scientists used zebrafish to visualize and manipulate interactions between microglia, oligodendrocytes, and neurons during development.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Hughes, A. N., & Appel, B. (2020). Microglia phagocytose myelin sheaths to modify developmental myelination. Nature Neuroscience, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-0654-2 Cite
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Spiking Neurons with Spatiotemporal Dynamics and Gain Modulation for Monolithically Integrated Memristive Neural Networks

Investigators demonstrated an artificial neuron based on NbOx volatile memristor that not only realized traditional all-or-nothing, threshold-driven spiking and spatiotemporal integration.
[Nature Communications]
Duan, Q., Jing, Z., Zou, X., Wang, Y., Yang, K., Zhang, T., Wu, S., Huang, R., & Yang, Y. (2020). Spiking neurons with spatiotemporal dynamics and gain modulation for monolithically integrated memristive neural networks. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3399. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17215-3 Cite
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Pre-Clinical Study of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Progenitor Cells for Parkinson’s Disease

Scientists evaluated the safety and efficacy of dopaminergic progenitors (DAPs) derived from a clinical-grade human iPSC line. They confirmed the characteristics of DAPs by in vitro analyses.
[Nature Communications]
Doi, D., Magotani, H., Kikuchi, T., Ikeda, M., Hiramatsu, S., Yoshida, K., Amano, N., Nomura, M., Umekage, M., Morizane, A., & Takahashi, J. (2020). Pre-clinical study of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic progenitor cells for Parkinson’s disease. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3369. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17165-w Cite
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C9orf72 Arginine-Rich Dipeptide Repeats Inhibit UPF1-Mediated RNA Decay via Translational Repression

Scientists showed that RNA decay mechanisms involving upstream frameshift, including nonsense-mediated decay, were inhibited in c9ALS/FTD brains and in cultured cells expressing either of two arginine-rich dipeptide repeats, poly(GR) and poly(PR).
[Nature Communications]
Sun, Y., Eshov, A., Zhou, J., Isiktas, A. U., & Guo, J. U. (2020). C9orf72 arginine-rich dipeptide repeats inhibit UPF1-mediated RNA decay via translational repression. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3354. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17129-0 Cite
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Distinct Synchronization, Cortical Coupling and Behavioral Function of Two Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neuron Types

Researchers recorded basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in vivo, to examine their behavioral functions, and in vitro, to study their intrinsic properties.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Laszlovszky, T., Schlingloff, D., Hegedüs, P., Freund, T. F., Gulyás, A., Kepecs, A., & Hangya, B. (2020). Distinct synchronization, cortical coupling and behavioral function of two basal forebrain cholinergic neuron types. Nature Neuroscience, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-0648-0 Cite
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Reversing a Model of Parkinson’s Disease with In Situ Converted Nigral Neurons

Investigators report an efficient one-step conversion of isolated mouse and human astrocytes to functional neurons by depleting the RNA-binding protein PTB.
[Nature]
Qian, H., Kang, X., Hu, J., Zhang, D., Liang, Z., Meng, F., Zhang, X., Xue, Y., Maimon, R., Dowdy, S. F., Devaraj, N. K., Zhou, Z., Mobley, W. C., Cleveland, D. W., & Fu, X.-D. (2020). Reversing a model of Parkinson’s disease with in situ converted nigral neurons. Nature, 582(7813), 550–556. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2388-4 Cite
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Lysosomal Perturbations in Human Dopaminergic Neurons Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with PARK2 Mutation

PARK2 knockout neurons exhibited a perturbed lysosomal morphology with enlarged electron-lucent lysosomes and an increased lysosomal content, which was exacerbated by mitochondrial stress and could be ameliorated by antioxidant treatment.
[Scientific Reports]
Okarmus, J., Bogetofte, H., Schmidt, S. I., Ryding, M., García-López, S., Ryan, B. J., Martínez-Serrano, A., Hyttel, P., & Meyer, M. (2020). Lysosomal perturbations in human dopaminergic neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells with PARK2 mutation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 10278. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67091-6 Cite
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Cortical Neurons Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Lacking FMRP Display Altered Spontaneous Firing Patterns

Electrophysiological whole-cell voltage- and current-clamp recordings were performed on two control and three fragile X syndrome patient lines of human cortical neurons derived from iPSCs.
[Molecular Autism]
Cortical neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells lacking FMRP display altered spontaneous firing patterns | Molecular Autism | Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2020, from https://molecularautism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13229-020-00351-4 Cite
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Distribution of Nerve Fibers and Nerve-Immune Cell Association in Mouse Spleen Revealed by Immunofluorescent Staining

Scientists demonstrated extensive nerve fibers in all splenic compartments including the splenic nodules, periarteriolar lymphoid sheath, marginal zones, trabeculae, and red pulp; close associations of nerve fibers with blood vessels; and close associations of nerve fibers with various subsets of dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes
[Scientific Reports]
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Vagus Nerve Stimulation Even after Injury Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephropathy via Reducing Macrophage Infiltration

To explore the role of the spleen and splenic macrophages, key players in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, splenectomy, and adoptive transfer of macrophages treated with the selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist GTS-21 were conducted.
[Scientific Reports]
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