Tools for prostate cancer diagnosis have the potential to further improve the identification of men with low-risk disease who can be appropriately managed using active surveillance.
[Nature Reviews Urology]
Researchers characterized circulating tumor cells for expression of immune checkpoint ligands in men with metastatic prostate cancer as a non-invasive biomarker of immune evasion and immunotherapy benefit.
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Zhang, T., Agarwal, A., Almquist, R. G., Runyambo, D., Park, S., Bronson, E., Boominathan, R., Rao, C., Anand, M., Oyekunle, T., Healy, P., McNamara, M. A., Ware, K., Somarelli, J. A., George, D. J., & Armstrong, A. J. (2021). Expression of immune checkpoints on circulating tumor cells in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Biomarker Research, 9(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40364-021-00267-y Cite
Investigators summarize the multiple factors that may contribute to the therapeutic burden of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, including the interplay between age, comorbidities, concomitant medications, the use of androgen receptor inhibitors, and financial distress.
[Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases]
Researchers enhanced the acute activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) using radiation and ONC201, an UPR activator. Treating prostate cancer cells with ONC201 quickly increased the expression of all the key regulators of the UPR and reduced the oxidative phosphorylation, with cell death.
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Amoroso, F., Glass, K., Singh, R., Liberal, F., Steele, R. E., Maguire, S., Tarapore, R., Allen, J. E., Van Schaeybroeck, S., Butterworth, K. T., Prise, K., O’Sullivan, J. M., Jain, S., Waugh, D. J., & Mills, I. G. (2021). Modulating the unfolded protein response with ONC201 to impact on radiation response in prostate cancer cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 4252. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83215-y Cite
An in vitro study with the castration resistant prostate cancer cell exhibited a significant photothermal therapeutic effect as well as enhanced thermodynamic therapy via generating free radicals.
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The authors found that EWI-2 localized on both the cell membrane and exosomes regulated the distribution of miR-3934-5p between cells and exosomes.
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EWI‐2 controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of EGFR signaling molecules and miRNA sorting in exosomes to inhibit prostate cancer cell metastasis - Fu - - Molecular Oncology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2021, from https://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1878-0261.12930 Cite
Scientists demonstrated that MAPK4 activated androgen receptor (AR) by enhancing GATA2 transcriptional expression and stabilizing GATA2 protein through repression of GATA2 ubiquitination/degradation. MAPK4 expression correlated with AR activation in human castration-resistant prostate cancer.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Shen, T., Wang, W., Zhou, W., Coleman, I., Cai, Q., Dong, B., Ittmann, M. M., Creighton, C. J., Bian, Y., Meng, Y., Rowley, D. R., Nelson, P. S., Moore, D. D., & Yang, F. (2021). MAPK4 promotes prostate cancer by concerted activation of androgen receptor and AKT. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 131(4). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI135465 Cite
The authors describe an androgen-dependent prostate cancer patient-derived xenograft model from treatment-naïve, soft tissue metastasis.
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Karkampouna, S., La Manna, F., Benjak, A., Kiener, M., De Menna, M., Zoni, E., Grosjean, J., Klima, I., Garofoli, A., Bolis, M., Vallerga, A., Theurillat, J.-P., De Filippo, M. R., Genitsch, V., Keller, D., Booij, T. H., Stirnimann, C. U., Eng, K., Sboner, A., … Kruithof-de Julio, M. (2021). Patient-derived xenografts and organoids model therapy response in prostate cancer. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1117. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21300-6 Cite
Investigators probed the functions of BRG1 on a background of prostate cancer to investigate how BRG1 controls gene expression programs and cancer cell behavior.
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Giles, K. A., Gould, C. M., Achinger-Kawecka, J., Page, S. G., Kafer, G. R., Rogers, S., Luu, P.-L., Cesare, A. J., Clark, S. J., & Taberlay, P. C. (2021). BRG1 knockdown inhibits proliferation through multiple cellular pathways in prostate cancer. Clinical Epigenetics, 13(1), 37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01023-7 Cite
Ultimovacs ASA announced the treatment of the first patient in the Phase I TENDU trial, representing the start of clinical evaluation for the company’s Tetanus-Epitope Targeting (TET)-platform.
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Researchers in vitro analyzed the combinatory effects of calcitriol and transforming growth factors beta (TGF-β) on cell growth and apoptosis using PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cell lines.
[Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology]
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García-Olivares, M., Romero-Córdoba, S., Ortíz-Sánchez, E., García-Becerra, R., Segovia-Mendoza, M., Rangel-Escareño, C., Halhali, A., Larrea, F., & Barrera, D. (2021). Regulation of anti-tumorigenic pathways by the combinatory treatment of calcitriol and TGF-β in PC-3 and DU145 cells. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 105831. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105831 Cite