The use of human prostate cancer tissues in experiments has enabled the collection and verification of clinically relevant data, including chemical reactions, changes in proteins, and specific gene expression. Tissue recombination models have been employed for studying prostate development, the initiation and progression of prostate cancer, and the tumor microenvironment.
[International Journal of Urology]
Hepsin expression was upregulated in prostate cancer tissue samples and cell lines. Inhibition of hepsin attenuated EMT and cell invasion and downregulated the expression of miR-222. Decreased miR-222 expression enhanced the level of PPP2R2A, which in turn attenuated the AKT signaling.
[OncoTargets and Therapy]
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Li, R., Li, J., Yang, H., Bai, Y., Hu, C., Wu, H., Jiang, H., & Wang, Q. (2020, November 24). <p>Hepsin Promotes Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cell Invasion Through the miR-222/PPP2R2A/AKT Axis in Prostate Cancer</p>. OncoTargets and Therapy. https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S268025 Cite
The transcriptomic profile of paired enzalutamide-sensitive and resistant LNCaP and C4-2B prostate cancer cells were compared for identification of genes involved in drug resistance by performing an unbiased bioinformatics analysis and further validation. Next-Gen sequencing detected 9409 and 7757 genes differentially expressed in LNCaP and C4-2B cells, compared to their parental counterparts.
Scientists tested the targeted toxins epidermal growth factor (EGF)-PE40 and EGF-PE24mut consisting of the natural ligand EGF as binding domain and PE40, the natural toxin domain of Pseudomonas Exotoxin A, or PE24mut, the de-immunized variant thereof, as toxin domains.
Efficacy and mechanism of action of marine alkaloid 3,10-dibromofascaplysin were investigated in human prostate cancer cells harboring different levels of drug resistance. Anticancer activity was observed across all cell lines examined without signs of cross-resistance to androgen receptor targeting agents or taxane based chemotherapy.
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Dyshlovoy, S. A., Kaune, M., Hauschild, J., Kriegs, M., Hoffer, K., Busenbender, T., Smirnova, P. A., Zhidkov, M. E., Poverennaya, E. V., Oh-Hohenhorst, S. J., Spirin, P. V., Prassolov, V. S., Tilki, D., Bokemeyer, C., Graefen, M., & von Amsberg, G. (2020). Efficacy and Mechanism of Action of Marine Alkaloid 3,10-Dibromofascaplysin in Drug-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells. Marine Drugs, 18(12), 609. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18120609 Cite
Testing autocrine and paracrine effects in an avascular tumor spheroid growth assay, both exogenous monoacylglyceride-conjugated form of eicosapentaenoic acid and endogenous ω3 reduced VEGF secretion and in vitro endothelial cell tube formation and blocked tumor spheroid growth, suggesting that ω3 molecules could directly hinder prostate cancer cell growth.
[Molecular Cancer Research]
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Gevariya, N., Lachance, G., Robitaille, K., Beauparlant, C. J., Beaudoin, L., Fournier, E., Fradet, Y., Droit, A., Julien, P., Marette, A., Bergeron, A., & Fradet, V. (2020). Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid Reduces Prostate Tumor Vascularity. Molecular Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0316 Cite
5-AzadC induced HEXIM1 expression in prostate cancer cell lines and triple negative breast cancers. 5-AzadC-induced DNA damage enhanced P-TEFb occupancy via a mechanism that involved activation of ATR and ATM and induction of NF-ĸB recruitment to the HEXIM1 promoter.
Saturation binding experiments were conducted by incubation of LNCaP cells with 18F-PSMA-11 or 68Ga-PSMA-11 for 1 h, followed by determination of the specific and aspecific binding.
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Piron, S., Verhoeven, J., Descamps, B., Kersemans, K., De Man, K., Van Laeken, N., Pieters, L., Vral, A., Vanhove, C., & De Vos, F. (2020). Intra-individual dynamic comparison of 18 F-PSMA-11 and 68 Ga-PSMA-11 in LNCaP xenograft bearing mice. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21068. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78273-7 Cite
In overexpression and CRISPR/Cas9 knockout experiments in prostate cancer cell lines, FRMD6 inhibited viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression, colony formation, 3D spheroid growth, and tumor xenograft growth in mice.
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Haldrup, J., Strand, S. H., Cieza-Borrella, C., Jakobsson, M. E., Riedel, M., Norgaard, M., Hedensted, S., Dagnaes-Hansen, F., Ulhoi, B. P., Eeles, R., Borre, M., Olsen, J. V., Thomsen, M., Kote-Jarai, Z., & Sorensen, K. D. (2020). FRMD6 has tumor suppressor functions in prostate cancer. Oncogene, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01548-w Cite
Blue Earth Diagnostics’ manufacturing partner, Nucleis (Liege, Belgium) has manufactured and shipped their first patient doses of rhPSMA-7.3 (18F), an investigational Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-targeted radiohybrid PET imaging agent, currently under evaluation in clinical trials in men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and suspected prostate cancer recurrence.
[Blue Earth Diagnostics]
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The authors expand on the clinical development of PARP inhibitors (PARPis) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, discuss potential biomarkers that may predict successful tumor control, and summarize present and future clinical research on PARPis in the metastatic disease landscape.