The Long Non-Coding RNA ET-20 Mediates EMT by Impairing Desmosomes in Breast Cancer Cells

Researchers reported the identification of 114 novel long non-coding RNAs that changed their expression during TGFβ-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in murine breast cancer cells.
[Journal of Cell Science]
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The Extracellular Matrix Glycoprotein ADAMTSL2 Is Increased in Heart Failure and Inhibits TGFβ Signaling in Cardiac Fibroblasts

The authors aimed to determine a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin type 1 motifs-like (ADAMTSL) levels in failing hearts, and to elucidate the role of ADAMTSL2 in fibrosis using cultured human cardiac fibroblasts
[Scientific Reports]
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BMP7 Reduces the Fibrocartilage Chondrocyte Phenotype

Scientists demonstrated that short-term exposure to BMP7 decreased the fibrocartilage chondrocyte phenotype. The BMP7-dependent reduction of Collagen type I protein expression seemed MMP2-dependent and inhibition of Smad2/3-PAI1 activity was identified as a potential pathway via which BMP7 exerted its anti-fibrotic action.
[Scientific Reports]
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Cancer Cells with Defective RB and CDKN2A Are Resistant to the Apoptotic Effects of Rapamycin

Scientists observed that DU145 prostate and NCI–H2228 lung cancer cells were resistant to the cytotoxic effect of rapamycin.
[Cancer Letters]
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CD137 Costimulation Counteracts TGFβ Inhibition of NK-Cell Antitumor Function

Researchers demonstrated that the anti-CD137 agonist urelumab can overcome TGFβ-mediated inhibition of human NK-cell proliferation and antitumor function.
[Cancer Immunology Research]
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The Megakaryocytic Transcription Factor ARID3A Suppresses Leukemia Pathogenesis

The authors reported that post-transcriptional repression of the transcription factor ARID3A by miR-125b was a key event in megakaryoblastic leukemia pathogenesis, and showed that chromosome 21-encoded miR-125b synergized with Gata1s to drive leukemogenesis in this context.
[Blood]
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Negative Regulation of TGFβ-Induced Apoptosis by RAC1B Enhances Intestinal Tumorigenesis

By modeling early stages of adenoma initiation researchers observed a reduced apoptotic rate in RAC1B overexpressing tumors, suggesting protection from apoptosis as a mediator of this phenotype.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Chronic Ethanol Exposure Induces Deleterious Changes in Cardiomyocytes Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Understanding biological mechanisms involved in the long-term alcohol exposure-induced cardiotoxicity is pivotal to the discovery of therapeutic strategies. Cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells were treated with clinically relevant doses of ethanol for various durations up to five weeks.
[Stem Cell Reviews and Reports]
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Modelling Human Liver Fibrosis in the Context of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Using a Microphysiological System

Researchers investigated how liver fibrosis and features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) could be modelled using an in vitro microphysiological system (MPS). The NASH MPS model comprised a co-culture of primary human liver cells, which were cultured in a variety of conditions including +/− excess sugar, fat, exogenous TGFβ or LPS.
[Communications Biology]
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Optogenetic Modeling of Human Neuromuscular Circuits in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy with CRISPR and Pharmacological Corrections

Investigators combined transcriptome analysis and modeling of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patient-derived neuromuscular circuits with CRISPR-corrected isogenic controls in compartmentalized microdevices and showed that neuromuscular junction volumes and optogenetic motor neuron–stimulated myofiber contraction were compromised in DMD neuromuscular circuits.
[Science Advances]
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Anti-Latent TGFβ Binding Protein 4 Antibody Improves Muscle Function and Reduces Muscle Fibrosis in Muscular Dystrophy

Scientists generated a monoclonal human anti-latent transforming growth factor β binding protein 4 (LTBP4) antibody directed toward LTBP4’s hinge region. In vitro, anti-LTBP4 bound LTBP4 protein and reduced LTBP4 proteolytic cleavage. In isolated myofibers, the LTBP4 antibody stabilized the sarcolemma from injury.
[Science Translational Medicine]
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