Enhancing Osteoporosis Treatment with Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: Mechanisms and Advances

The authors review advancements in utilizing MSCs and their derived extracellular vesicles (EV) for osteoporosis (OP) treatment. It systematically examines the most extensively researched MSC-derived EVs for treating OP, delving not only into the molecular mechanisms of EV-based OP therapy but also conducting a comparative analysis of the strengths and limitations of EVs sourced from various cell origins.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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