Engaging Innate Immunity in HIV-1 Cure Strategies

Scientists discuss novel latency-reversing agents targeting DCs as well as DC-based strategies to enhance the clearance of infected cells by CD8+ T cells and strategies to improve the killing activity of natural killer cells.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
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EZH2 Inhibition Compromises α4-1BB-Mediated Antitumor Efficacy by Reducing the Survival and Effector Programming of CD8+ T Cells

The authors explored the combination between zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) inhibitor and an agonist antibody targeting the T cell costimulatory receptor 4-1BB.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
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CD8+ T Cells Expressing an HLA-DR1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor Target Autoimmune CD4+ T Cells in an Antigen-Specific Manner and Inhibit the Development of Autoimmune Arthritis

Through the engineering of an HLA-DR1 chimeric Ag receptor (CAR), the authors produced CD8+ CAR T cells that target CD4+ T cells in an Ag-specific manner and tested their ability to inhibit the development of autoimmune arthritis in a mouse model.
[Journal of Immunology]
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Neoantigen-Reactive CD8+ T Cells Affect Clinical Outcome of Adoptive Transfer with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Melanoma

Using barcoded pMHC multimers, scientists provided a comprehensive mapping of CD8+ T cells recognizing neoepitopes in Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte infusion products and blood samples from 26 metastatic mela-noma patients who received adoptive cell therapy.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Antimetastatic Defense by CD8+ T Cells

Research on CD8+ T cell-dependent antitumor immunity has classically focused on its role in the primary tumor.
[Trends in Cancer]
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PlexinA4 Mediates Cytotoxic T Cell Trafficking and Exclusion in Cancer

The authors showed that expression of the axon guidance molecule PlexinA4 in cytotoxic T cell, especially in effector/memory CD8+ T cells, was induced upon T cell activation, sustained in the circulation, but reduced when entering the tumor bed.
[Cancer Immunology Research]
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A High OXPHOS CD8 T Cell Subset Is Predictive of Immunotherapy Resistance in Melanoma Patients

Using single-cell transcriptomics, researchers discovered a unique CD8 T cell blood/tumor-shared subpopulation in melanoma patients with high levels of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the ectonucleotidases CD38 and CD39, and both exhaustion and cytotoxicity markers.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
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Systemic IL-15 Promotes Allogeneic Cell Rejection in Patients Treated with Natural Killer Cell Adoptive Therapy

Scientists hypothesized that the mechanism responsible was IL-15/N-803 promoting recipient CD8 T cell activation that in turn accelerated donor NK cell rejection.
[Blood]
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Type I Interferon Activates MHC Class I-dressed CD11b+ Conventional Dendritic Cells to Promote Protective Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Immunity

Transcriptional profiling of intra-tumoral dendritic cells (DCs) within regressor tumors revealed an activation state of CD11b+ conventional DCs characterized by expression of interferon-stimulated genes.
[Immunity]
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B7-H3 Suppresses Anti-Tumor Immunity via the CCL2-CCR2-M2 Macrophage Axis and Contributes to Ovarian Cancer Progression

Transcriptome analysis revealed that B7-H3 was highly expressed in PD-L1-low, non-immunoreactive high-grade serous ovarian cancer tumors, and its expression negatively correlated with an IFNγ signature, which reflected the tumor immune-reactivity.
[Cancer Immunology Research]
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Empirical Identification and Validation of Tumor-Targeting T Cell Receptors from Circulation Using Autologous Pancreatic Tumor Organoids

Autologous tumor organoids were stimulated with T cells from the patients’ peripheral blood for two weeks to generate the organoid-primed T cells.
[Journal For Immunotherapy of Cancer]
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