Influenza- and MCMV-Induced Memory CD8 T Cells Control Respiratory Vaccinia Virus Infection Despite Residence in Distinct Anatomical Niches

Scientists used influenza virus to induce predominantly tissue resident memory T cells or cytomegalovirus to elicit a large pool of effector-like memory cells in the lungs and determined their early protective capacity and mechanism of reactivation.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Welten, S. P. M., Oderbolz, J., Yilmaz, V., Bidgood, S. R., Gould, V., Mercer, J., Spörri, R., & Oxenius, A. (2021). Influenza- and MCMV-induced memory CD8 T cells control respiratory vaccinia virus infection despite residence in distinct anatomical niches. Mucosal Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00373-4 Cite
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Discriminating Mild From Critical COVID-19 by Innate and Adaptive Immune Single-Cell Profiling of Bronchoalveolar Lavages

In mild COVID-19, CD8+ resident-memory and CD4+ T-helper-17 cells underwent active expansion towards the end of the trajectory, and were characterized by good effector functions, while in critical COVID-19 they remain more naïve.
[Cell Research]
Wauters, E., Van Mol, P., Garg, A. D., Jansen, S., Van Herck, Y., Vanderbeke, L., Bassez, A., Boeckx, B., Malengier-Devlies, B., Timmerman, A., Van Brussel, T., Van Buyten, T., Schepers, R., Heylen, E., Dauwe, D., Dooms, C., Gunst, J., Hermans, G., Meersseman, P., … Lambrechts, D. (2021). Discriminating mild from critical COVID-19 by innate and adaptive immune single-cell profiling of bronchoalveolar lavages. Cell Research, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-00455-9 Cite
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Spatiotemporal Single-Cell Profiling Reveals That Invasive and Tissue-Resident Memory Donor CD8+ T Cells Drive Gastrointestinal Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease

Scientists combined the serial intravascular staining technique with single-cell RNA sequencing to dissect the tightly connected processes by which donor T cells initially infiltrate tissues and then established a pathogenic tissue residency program in a rhesus macaque allo-HCT model that develops acute graft-versus-host disease.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Spatiotemporal single-cell profiling reveals that invasive and tissue-resident memory donor CD8+ T cells drive gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease | Science Translational Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2021, from https://stm.sciencemag.org/content/13/576/eabc0227 Cite
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Genomic Profiles and Tumor Immune Microenvironment of Primary Lung Carcinoma and Brain Oligo-Metastasis

Scientists recruited 33 lung cancer patients with brain oligo-metastasis to explore the genomic features and tumor immune microenvironment of the lung and brain metastasis independently.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Song, Z., Yang, L., Zhou, Z., Li, P., Wang, W., Cheng, G., Chen, R., Chang, L., Zhang, Y., Guan, Y., Xia, X., Yi, X., Zhou, R., & Chen, M. (2021). Genomic profiles and tumor immune microenvironment of primary lung carcinoma and brain oligo-metastasis. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03410-7 Cite
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Lipophagy Confers a Key Metabolic Advantage That Ensures Protective CD8A T-Cell Responses against HIV-1

Scientists showed that, after both polyclonal and HIV-1-specific activation, CD8A T-cells from ART displayed reduced autophagy-dependent degradation of lysosomal contents when compared to naturally HIV-1 protected elite controllers.
[Autophagy]
Loucif, H., Dagenais-Lussier, X., Beji, C., Cassin, L., Jrade, H., Tellitchenko, R., Routy, J.-P., Olagnier, D., & Grevenynghe, J. van. (2021). Lipophagy confers a key metabolic advantage that ensures protective CD8A T-cell responses against HIV-1. Autophagy, 0(0), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1874134 Cite
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Enoxacin Upregulates microRNA Biogenesis and Downregulates Cytotoxic CD8 T Cell Function in Autoimmune Cholangitis

Scientists showed that liver‐infiltrating dnTGFβRII CD8 T cells have significantly decreased levels of the miRNA biogenesis molecules P4ha1 and Ago2 along with significantly increased levels of granzyme B and perforin.
[Hepatology]
Itoh, A., Adams, D., Huang, W., Wu, Y., Kachapati, K., Bednar, K. J., Leung, P. S. C., Zhang, W., Flavell, R. A., Gershwin, M. E., & Ridgway, W. M. (n.d.). Enoxacin upregulates microRNA biogenesis and downregulates cytotoxic CD8 T cell function in autoimmune cholangitis. Hepatology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.31724 Cite
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Human Intestinal Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells Comprise Transcriptionally and Functionally Distinct Subsets

Researchers investigated transcriptional and functional heterogeneity of human tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells through study of donor-derived TRM cells from intestinal transplant recipients.
[Cell Reports]
FitzPatrick, M. E. B., Provine, N. M., Garner, L. C., Powell, K., Amini, A., Irwin, S. L., Ferry, H., Ambrose, T., Friend, P., Vrakas, G., Reddy, S., Soilleux, E., Klenerman, P., & Allan, P. J. (2021). Human intestinal tissue-resident memory T cells comprise transcriptionally and functionally distinct subsets. Cell Reports, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108661 Cite
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Beyond Conventional Immune-Checkpoint Inhibition — Novel Immunotherapies for Renal Cell Carcinoma

Using the structure provided by the well-described cancer–immunity cycle, scientists outline the key steps required for a successful antitumour immune response in the context of renal cell carcinoma, and describe the development of promising new immunotherapies within the context of this framework.
[Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology]
Braun, D. A., Bakouny, Z., Hirsch, L., Flippot, R., Van Allen, E. M., Wu, C. J., & Choueiri, T. K. (2021). Beyond conventional immune-checkpoint inhibition — novel immunotherapies for renal cell carcinoma. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41571-020-00455-z Cite
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RORα Is a Critical Checkpoint for T Cell and ILC2 Commitment in the Embryonic Thymus

The authors demonstrated that functional innate lymphoid cells cells could arise in the embryonic thymus from shared T cell precursors, preceding the emergence of CD4+CD8+ T cells.
[Nature Immunology]
Ferreira, A. C. F., Szeto, A. C. H., Heycock, M. W. D., Clark, P. A., Walker, J. A., Crisp, A., Barlow, J. L., Kitching, S., Lim, A., Gogoi, M., Berks, R., Daly, M., Jolin, H. E., & McKenzie, A. N. J. (2021). RORα is a critical checkpoint for T cell and ILC2 commitment in the embryonic thymus. Nature Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-00833-w Cite
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Tumor-Infiltrating Mast Cells Are Associated With Resistance to Anti-PD-1 Therapy

Researchers generated a humanized-mouse melanoma model by injecting fetal liver-derived CD34+ cells and implanting autologous thymus in immune-deficient NOD-scid IL2Rγnull mice.
[Nature Communications]
Somasundaram, R., Connelly, T., Choi, R., Choi, H., Samarkina, A., Li, L., Gregorio, E., Chen, Y., Thakur, R., Abdel-Mohsen, M., Beqiri, M., Kiernan, M., Perego, M., Wang, F., Xiao, M., Brafford, P., Yang, X., Xu, X., Secreto, A., … Herlyn, M. (2021). Tumor-infiltrating mast cells are associated with resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. Nature Communications, 12(1), 346. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20600-7 Cite
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Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

More studies reveal that CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and neutralizing antibodies all contribute to control of SARS-CoV-2, in both non-hospitalized and hospitalized cases of COVID-19. The specific functions and kinetics of these adaptive immune responses are discussed.
[Cell]
Sette, A., & Crotty, S. (2021). Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.007 Cite
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