M2 Macrophages, but Not M1 Macrophages, Support Megakaryopoiesis by Upregulating PI3K-AKT Pathway Activity

Aberrant bone marrow-M1/M2 MФ polarization, characterized by increased M1 MФs and decreased M2 MФs and accompanied by impaired megakaryopoiesis-supporting abilities, was found in patients with thrombocytopenia post-allotransplant.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
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Acrolein Contributes to Human Colorectal Tumorigenesis through the Activation of RAS-MAPK Pathway

Scientists found that acrolein induced oncogenic transformation, including faster cell cycling, proliferation, sphere formation and cell migration, in fibroblast cells, and acrolein-induced DNA damages were higher in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor tissues than in normal epithelial cells in CRC patients.
[Scientific Reports]
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Deficiency of Myostatin Protects Skeletal Muscle Cells from Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

Examining human specimens from free myocutaneous flap transfer demonstrated increased myostatin signaling and tissue damage in terms of apoptotic activity, cell death, tissue edema, and lipid peroxidation.
[Scientific Reports]
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Cabozantinib Promotes Erythroid Differentiation in K562 Erythroleukemia Cells through Global Changes in Gene Expression and JNK Activation

The authors reported that cabozantinib could promote differentiation in erythroid leukemia cells and found that K562 erythroid leukemia cells treated with 1 μM cabozantinib for 72 hours underwent erythroid lineage differentiation.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
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Depalmitoylation Rewires FLT3-ITD Signaling and Exacerbates Leukemia Progression

Investigators discovered that FLT3-ITD, one of the most frequent mutations in acute myeloid leukemia, was S-palmitoylated by the ZDHHC6 palmitoyl acyltransferase. Disruption of palmitoylation redirected FLT3-ITD to the plasma membrane and rewired its downstream signaling by activating AKT and ERK pathways in addition to STAT5.
[Blood]
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Oncogenic BRAF, Unrestrained by TGFβ-Receptor Signaling, Drives Right-Sided Colonic Tumorigenesis

The proximal colonic tumors that developed in a mouse model of right-sided colon cancer exhibited a fetal-like progenitor phenotype (Ly6a/Sca1+) and lacked expression of Lgr5 and its associated intestinal stem cell signature.
[Nature Communications]
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Extensive Remodeling of the Extracellular Matrix during Aging Contributes to Age-Dependent Impairments of Muscle Stem Cell Functionality

Scientists used quantitative mass spectrometry to characterize intrinsic changes in the muscle stem cell (MuSC) proteome and remodeling of the MuSC niche during aging.
[Cell Reports]
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RAL GTPases Mediate EGFR-Driven Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation and Tumorigenesis

In addition to impacting stem cell proliferation during damage-induced intestinal regeneration, the role of RAL GTPases impacted on EGFR-dependent tumorigenic growth in the intestine and in human mammary epithelium.
[eLife]
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HTR1A Antagonist Enhances GnRH Transcription via PRC1 Complex Degradation and H2AK119ub Loss Driven by Reduced CBX4 Expression through PI3K/Akt Pathway Suppression in GnRH Neurons for Pubertal Initiation Control

The upregulated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression in GT1-7 GnRH neuronal cells induced by the 5-HT receptor 1A (HTR1A) antagonist WAY-100635 maleate was observed in vitro.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
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Probiotic Aspergillus oryzae Produces Anti-Tumor Mediator and Exerts Anti-Tumor Effects in Pancreatic Cancer through the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

Investigators assessed the anti-tumor effects of probiotic bacteria against pancreatic cancer cells. Among the known probiotic bacteria, Aspergillus oryzae exhibited a strong pancreatic tumor suppression effect.
[Scientific Reports]
Konishi, H., Isozaki, S., Kashima, S., Moriichi, K., Ichikawa, S., Yamamoto, K., Yamamura, C., Ando, K., Ueno, N., Akutsu, H., Ogawa, N., & Fujiya, M. (2021). Probiotic Aspergillus oryzae produces anti-tumor mediator and exerts anti-tumor effects in pancreatic cancer through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 11070. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90707-4 Cite
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PNO1 Regulates Autophagy and Apoptosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma via the MAPK Signaling Pathway

Researchers explored the molecular mechanisms of PNO1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Han, Z., Liu, D., Chen, L., He, Y., Tian, X., Qi, L., Chen, L., Luo, Y., Chen, Z., Hu, X., Li, G., Zhan, L., Wang, Y., Li, Q., Chen, P., Liu, Z., & Guo, H. (2021). PNO1 regulates autophagy and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via the MAPK signaling pathway. Cell Death & Disease, 12(6), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03837-y Cite
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