Role of miRNAs Shuttled by Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles in Modulating Neuroinflammation

Scientists identified nine miRNAs significantly dysregulated in IFN-γ-primed MSCs, but present at different levels in their derived small extracellular vesicles.
[Scientific Reports]
Giunti, D., Marini, C., Parodi, B., Usai, C., Milanese, M., Bonanno, G., Kerlero de Rosbo, N., & Uccelli, A. (2021). Role of miRNAs shuttled by mesenchymal stem cell-derived small extracellular vesicles in modulating neuroinflammation. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1740. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81039-4 Cite
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Role of miRNAs Shuttled by Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles in Modulating Neuroinflammation

Investigators showed that miR-467f and miR-466q modulate the pro-inflammatory phenotype of activated N9 microglia cells and of primary microglia acutely isolated from late symptomatic SOD1G93A mice, a murine ALS model, by downregulating Tnf and Il1b expression.
[Scientific Reports]
Giunti, D., Marini, C., Parodi, B., Usai, C., Milanese, M., Bonanno, G., Kerlero de Rosbo, N., & Uccelli, A. (2021). Role of miRNAs shuttled by mesenchymal stem cell-derived small extracellular vesicles in modulating neuroinflammation. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1740. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81039-4 Cite
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miR-558 Reduces the Damage of HBE Cells Exposed to Cigarette Smoke Extract by Targeting TNFRSF1A and Inactivating TAK1/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway

Up-regulation of miR-558 alleviated cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced damage on HBE cells. The alleviative effect of miR-558 mimic on CSE-induced damage was suppressed by miR-558/TNF receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) overexpression.
[Immunological Investigations]
Jing, X., Luan, Z., & Liu, B. (2021). miR-558 Reduces the Damage of HBE Cells Exposed to Cigarette Smoke Extract by Targeting TNFRSF1A and Inactivating TAK1/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway. Immunological Investigations, 0(0), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2021.1874977 Cite
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Conditioned Media from Endothelial Progenitor Cells Cultured in Simulated Microgravity Promote Angiogenesis and Bone Fracture Healing

Human peripheral blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells were cultured under microgravity (MG) or normal gravity (NG) followed by analysis for angiogenic gene expression. Furthermore, the serum-free cultured medium under MG or NG were collected, and their pro-angiogenic properties were examined in HUVECs.
[Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Kong, L., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Pan, Q., Zuo, R., Bai, S., Zhang, X., Lee, W. Y., Kang, Q., & Li, G. (2021). Conditioned media from endothelial progenitor cells cultured in simulated microgravity promote angiogenesis and bone fracture healing. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 47. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02074-y Cite
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Cryptosporidial Infection Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Cell MAPK Signaling Impairing Host Anti-Parasitic Defense

Using various models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, the authors found that Cryptosporidium infection caused suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in infected murine intestinal epithelial cells.
[Microorganisms]
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Melatonin Interrupts Osteoclast Functioning and Suppresses Tumor-Secreted RANKL Expression: Implications for Bone Metastases

Investigators observed that melatonin inhibited RANKL production in lung and prostate cancer cells by downregulating the p38 MAPK pathway, which in turn prevented cancer-associated osteoclast differentiation.
[Oncogene]
Liu, P.-I., Chang, A.-C., Lai, J.-L., Lin, T.-H., Tsai, C.-H., Chen, P.-C., Jiang, Y.-J., Lin, L.-W., Huang, W.-C., Yang, S.-F., & Tang, C.-H. (2021). Melatonin interrupts osteoclast functioning and suppresses tumor-secreted RANKL expression: implications for bone metastases. Oncogene, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01613-4 Cite
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Generation of Proliferating Human Adult Hepatocytes Using Optimized 3D Culture Conditions

The authors describe optimized 3D culture conditions of primary human hepatocytes to trigger two waves of proliferation and identified matrix stiffness and cell–cell interactions as the main actors necessary for this proliferation.
[Scientific Reports]
Rose, S., Ezan, F., Cuvellier, M., Bruyère, A., Legagneux, V., Langouët, S., & Baffet, G. (2021). Generation of proliferating human adult hepatocytes using optimized 3D culture conditions. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 515. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80019-4 Cite
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The Role of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in the Development and Progression of Glioblastoma

The authors consider how knowledge of E3 ligase biology may be used for future therapeutic interventions in glioblastoma, including the use of blood-brain barrier permeable proteolysis targeting chimeras.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Humphreys, L. M., Smith, P., Chen, Z., Fouad, S., & D’Angiolella, V. (2021). The role of E3 ubiquitin ligases in the development and progression of glioblastoma. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00696-6 Cite
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Vascular Tumor Recapitulated in Endothelial Cells from hiPSCs Engineered to Express the SERPINE1-FOSB Translocation

Investigators engineered the pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma chromosomal translocation into human induced pluripotent stem cells using CRISPR/Cas9 and differentiate these into endothelial cells.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
IJzendoorn, D. G. P. van, Salvatori, D. C. F., Cao, X., Hil, F. van den, Bruijn, I. H. B., Jong, D. de, Mei, H., Mummery, C. L., Szuhai, K., Bovée, J. V. M. G., & Orlova, V. V. (2020). Vascular Tumor Recapitulated in Endothelial Cells from hiPSCs Engineered to Express the SERPINE1-FOSB Translocation. Cell Reports Medicine, 1(9). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100153 Cite
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Durable Suppression of Acquired MEK Inhibitor Resistance in Cancer by Sequestering MEK from ERK and Promoting Anti-Tumor T-cell Immunity

Scientists showed that combining a type II RAFi with an allosteric MEKi durably prevents and overcomes acquired resistance among cancers with KRAS, NRAS, NF1, BRAFnon-V600 and BRAFV600 mutations.
[Cancer Discovery]
Hong, A., Piva, M., Liu, S., Hugo, W., Lomeli, S. H., Zoete, V., Randolph, C. E., Yang, Z., Wang, Y., Lee, J. J., Lo, S. J., Sun, L., Vega-Crespo, A., Garcia, A. J., Shackelford, D. B., Dubinett, S. M., Scumpia, P. O., Byrum, S. D., Tackett, A. J., … Lo, R. S. (2020). Durable Suppression of Acquired MEK Inhibitor Resistance in Cancer by Sequestering MEK from ERK and Promoting Anti-Tumor T-cell Immunity. Cancer Discovery. https://doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0873 Cite
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Transplantation of Wnt5a-Modified NSCs Promotes Tissue Repair and Locomotor Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

Researchers demonstrated that both Wnt5a and miRNA200b-3p could promote neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation into neurons and that Wnt5a upregulated miRNA200b-3p expression through MAPK/JNK signaling to promote NSC differentiation into neurons.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Li, X., Peng, Z., Long, L., Lu, X., Zhu, K., Tuo, Y., Chen, N., Zhao, X., Wang, L., & Wan, Y. (2020). Transplantation of Wnt5a-modified NSCs promotes tissue repair and locomotor functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-00536-0 Cite
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