Scientists found that the CCAAT/Enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) protein levels in glioblastoma patients were significantly increased and further contributed to temozolamide resistance by promoting glioma-like stem cell formation.
[Cell Death & Discovery]
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Wang, S.-M., Lin, W.-C., Lin, H.-Y., Chen, Y.-L., Ko, C.-Y., & Wang, J.-M. (2021). CCAAT/Enhancer-binding protein delta mediates glioma stem-like cell enrichment and ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 activation for temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma. Cell Death Discovery, 7(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-00399-4 Cite
Scientists indicate that MUC1-C promotes neuroendocrine prostate cancer progression by integrating activation of E2F1 and esBAF with induction of NOTCH1, NANOG, and stemness.
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Scientists report that MUC1-C bound directly to the E2F1 transcription factor and that the MUC1-C->E2F1 pathway induced expression of embryonic stem cell esBAF components BRG1, ARID1A, BAF60a, BAF155, and BAF170 in castrate-resistant and neuroendocrine prostate cancer cells.
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Using an RNA-seq platform, scientists identified and validated the differential gene expression of five transcription factors that were associated with a remarkable increase in the number of iPSC colonies generated from a patient with Parkinson’s disease.
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Swaidan, N. T., Salloum-Asfar, S., Palangi, F., Errafii, K., Soliman, N. H., Aboughalia, A. T., Wali, A. H. S., Abdulla, S. A., & Emara, M. M. (2020). Identification of potential transcription factors that enhance human iPSC generation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21950. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78932-9 Cite
Overexpression of stemness factors NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 by introduction of gene constructs in Hep3B cells suppressed two miRNA expression levels. Treatment of chromeceptin, an IGF signaling pathway inhibitor, decreased numbers of tumorsphere and inhibited the AKT/mTOR pathway.
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Functional studies with gene-overexpressed and gene-silenced DLBCL cell lines showed that expression of NANOG and HOXA9 promoted cell viability and inhibited apoptosis through suppression of G2 arrest in vitro and enhanced tumor formation and hepatosplenic infiltration in a tail-vein-injected mouse model.
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Using Western blotting and qRT-PCR analyses, investigators revealed that in the T47D and BT20 breast cancer cell lines, astaxanthin inhibited expression of pontin and mutp53, as well as the Oct4 and Nanog cancer stem cell stemness genes.
One promising alternative can be human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) that provide an unlimited source of cells. Human PSCs, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are self-renewing progenitors that can be differentiated to lineages of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Age-related osteoporosis is characterized by the deterioration in bone volume and strength, partly due to aging dysfunction of bone marrow MSCs aging. Alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) is an essential intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Studies have revealed that αKG extends the lifespan of worms and maintains the pluripotency of ESCs.
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Wang, Y., Deng, P., Liu, Y., Wu, Y., Chen, Y., Guo, Y., Zhang, S., Zheng, X., Zhou, L., Liu, W., Li, Q., Lin, W., Qi, X., Ou, G., Wang, C., & Yuan, Q. (2020). Alpha-ketoglutarate ameliorates age-related osteoporosis via regulating histone methylations. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5596. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19360-1 Cite
Investigators explore the literature on markers able to identify MSCs as well as the presence of these cells in the healthy periodontal ligament and chronic periapical lesions, highlighting their role in regenerative medicine and implications in the progression of these lesions.
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Couto de Carvalho, L. A., Tosta dos Santos, S. L., Sacramento, L. V., de Almeida, V. R., de Aquino Xavier, F. C., dos Santos, J. N., & Gomes Henriques Leitão, Á. C. (2020). Mesenchymal stem cell markers in periodontal tissues and periapical lesions. Acta Histochemica, 122(8), 151636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2020.151636 Cite
Scientists demonstrated that in vitro transduction of normal human CD4+ T lymphocytes with NPM-ALK resulted in their immortalization and malignant transformation.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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