Severe COVID-19 Is Marked by a Dysregulated Myeloid Cell Compartment

In a dual-center, two-cohort study, researchers combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild vs. severe COVID-19 over time.
[Cell]
Schulte-Schrepping, J., Reusch, N., Paclik, D., Baßler, K., Schlickeiser, S., Zhang, B., Krämer, B., Krammer, T., Brumhard, S., Bonaguro, L., Domenico, E. D., Wendisch, D., Grasshoff, M., Kapellos, T. S., Beckstette, M., Pecht, T., Saglam, A., Dietrich, O., Mei, H. E., … Sander, L. E. (2020). Severe COVID-19 is marked by a dysregulated myeloid cell compartment. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.001 Cite
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Suppressive Myeloid Cells Are Expanded by Biliary Tract Cancer-Derived Cytokines In Vitro and Associate with Aggressive Disease

Activated signaling pathways and cytokine production were evaluated in a panel of human biliary tract cancer (BTC) cell lines. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with BTC supernatants, with and without cytokine neutralising antibodies, and analysed by flow cytometry or immunoblot.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Ware, M. B., Zaidi, M. Y., Yang, J., Turgeon, M. K., Krasinskas, A., Mace, T. A., Keenan, K., Farren, M. R., Ruggieri, A. N., Li, Y., Zhang, C., Chen, Z., Young, G. S., Elnaggar, O., Che, Z., Maithel, S. K., Bekaii-Saab, T., El-Rayes, B., & Lesinski, G. B. (2020). Suppressive myeloid cells are expanded by biliary tract cancer-derived cytokines in vitro and associate with aggressive disease. British Journal of Cancer, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-1018-0 Cite
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MSCs-Released TGFβ1 Generate CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ in T-Reg Cells of Human SLE PBMC

The authors used a post-test control group design. MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord blood and characterized according to their surface antigen expression and multilineage differentiation capacities.
[Journal of the Formosan Medical Association]
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Toll-Like Receptor Dual-Acting Agonists Are Potent Inducers of PBMC-Produced Cytokines That Inhibit Hepatitis B Virus Production in Primary Human Hepatocytes

Researchers found that conditioned media (CM) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with dual-acting TLR7/8 and TLR2/7 agonists were more potent drivers of inhibition of hepatisis e and hepatitis s antigen secretion from hepatitis B virus-infected primary human hepatocytes than CM from PBMCs stimulated with single-acting TLR7 or TLR9 agonists.
[Scientific Reports]
Janovec, V., Hodek, J., Clarova, K., Hofman, T., Dostalik, P., Fronek, J., Chlupac, J., Chaperot, L., Durand, S., Baumert, T. F., Pichova, I., Lubyova, B., Hirsch, I., & Weber, J. (2020). Toll-like receptor dual-acting agonists are potent inducers of PBMC-produced cytokines that inhibit hepatitis B virus production in primary human hepatocytes. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12767. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69614-7 Cite
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CD200 Promotes Immunosuppression in the Pancreatic Tumor Microenvironment

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells isolated from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma expressed elevated levels of the CD200 receptor.
[Journal For ImmunoTherapy of Cancer]
Choueiry, F., Torok, M., Shakya, R., Agrawal, K., Deems, A., Benner, B., Hinton, A., Shaffer, J., Blaser, B. W., Noonan, A. M., Williams, T. M., Dillhoff, M., Conwell, D. L., Hart, P. A., Cruz-Monserrate, Z., Bai, X.-F., Iii, W. E. C., & Mace, T. A. (2020). CD200 promotes immunosuppression in the pancreatic tumor microenvironment. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, 8(1), e000189. https://doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2019-000189 Cite
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