The Differential Immune Responses to COVID-19 in Peripheral and Lung Revealed by Single-Cell RNA Sequencing

Using single-cell RNA sequencing, researchers characterized the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected controls and COVID-19 patients and cells in paired broncho-alveolar lavage fluid.
[Cell Discovery]
The differential immune responses to COVID-19 in peripheral and lung revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing | Cell Discovery. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41421-020-00225-2 Cite
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Assessment of Long Non-Coding RNA Expression Reveals Novel Mediators of the Lung Tumor Immune Response

Scientists identified the landscape of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the context of long non-coding RNA, known regulators of gene expression. They examined the lncRNA profiles of lung adenocarcinoma tumors by interrogating RNA sequencing data from microdissected and non-microdissected samples.
[Scientific Reports]
Assessment of long non-coding RNA expression reveals novel mediators of the lung tumour immune response | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73787-6 Cite
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Establishment and Validation of an In Vitro Co-Culture Model for Oral Cell Lines Using Human PBMC-Derived Osteoclasts, Osteoblasts, Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes

Researchers investigated the viability and proliferation of osteoblasts, fibroblasts and oral keratinocytes under stratified medium modification and assessed the differentiation of osteoclasts in each co-culture.
[Scientific Reports]
Establishment and validation of an in vitro co-culture model for oral cell lines using human PBMC-derived osteoclasts, osteoblasts, fibroblasts and keratinocytes | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73941-0 Cite
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SET8 Suppression Mediates High Glucose-Induced Vascular Endothelial Inflammation via the Upregulation of PTEN

The authors’ in vitro study indicated that high glucose increased monocyte/endothelial adhesion, endothelial adhesion molecule expression and p65 phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
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Effects of Degradable Magnesium on Paracrine Signaling between Human Umbilical Cord Perivascular Cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

The proliferation and viability of both cell types were not significantly influenced by magnesium (Mg). When human umbilical cord perivascular cells were cultured with degradable Mg, a moderate inflammation, and an increased pro-healing M2 macrophage phenotype were observed.
[Biomaterials Science]
Wang, Q., Xu, L., Helmholz, H., Willumeit-Römer, R., & Luthringer-Feyerabend, B. J. C. (2020). Effects of degradable magnesium on paracrine signaling between human umbilical cord perivascular cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Biomaterials Science. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0BM00834F Cite
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SERRS Multiplexing with Multivalent Nanostructures for the Identification and Enumeration of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cells

The authors present a new protocol based on surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) gold multivalent nanostructures to identify and enumerate tumor cells with epithelial and mesenchymal markers.
[Scientific Reports]
Litti, L., Colusso, A., Pinto, M., Ruli, E., Scarsi, A., Ventura, L., Toffoli, G., Colombatti, M., Fracasso, G., & Meneghetti, M. (2020). SERRS multiplexing with multivalent nanostructures for the identification and enumeration of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15805. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72911-w Cite
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An Atlas of Immune Cell Exhaustion in HIV-Infected Individuals Revealed by Single-Cell Transcriptomics

Scientists investigated the effects of HIV infection on immune cell exhaustion at the transcriptomic level by analyzing single-cell RNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four healthy subjects and six HIV-infected donors.
[Emerging Microbes & Infections]
Wang, S., Zhang, Q., Hui, H., Agrawal, K., Karris, M. A. Y., & Rana, T. M. (2020). An Atlas of Immune Cell Exhaustion in HIV-Infected Individuals Revealed by Single-Cell Transcriptomics. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 0(ja), 1–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1826361 Cite
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Sarcoidosis Exosomes Stimulate Monocytes to Produce Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and CCL2

The authors found that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exosomes from sarcoidosis patients, but not from healthy individuals, induced a dose-dependent elevation of intracellular IL-1β in monocytes.
[Scientific Reports]
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Suboptimal SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ T Cell Response Associated with the Prominent HLA-A*02:01 Phenotype

SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ T cells recovered from convalescent COVID-19 patients had an atypically high prevalence of stem cell memory, central memory, and naïve phenotypes.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Habel, J. R., Nguyen, T. H. O., Sandt, C. E. van de, Juno, J. A., Chaurasia, P., Wragg, K., Koutsakos, M., Hensen, L., Jia, X., Chua, B., Zhang, W., Tan, H.-X., Flanagan, K. L., Doolan, D. L., Torresi, J., Chen, W., Wakim, L. M., Cheng, A. C., Doherty, P. C., … Kedzierska, K. (2020). Suboptimal SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ T cell response associated with the prominent HLA-A*02:01 phenotype. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2015486117 Cite
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IL-17 Sustains the Plasma Cell Response via p38-Mediated Bcl-XL RNA Stability in Lupus Pathogenesis

Using a humanized lupus mouse model, researchsrs showed that the transfer of Th17 cell-depleted PBMCs from lupus patients resulted in a significantly reduced plasma cell response and attenuated renal damage in recipient mice compared to the transfer of total systemic lupus erythematosus PBMCs.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
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COVID-19-Activated SREBP2 Disturbs Cholesterol Biosynthesis and Leads to Cytokine Storm

Researchers report the first observation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) C-terminal fragment in COVID-19 patients’ blood and proposed SREBP-2 C-terminal fragment as an indicator for determining severity.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Lee, W., Ahn, J. H., Park, H. H., Kim, H. N., Kim, H., Yoo, Y., Shin, H., Hong, K. S., Jang, J. G., Park, C. G., Choi, E. Y., Bae, J.-S., & Seo, Y.-K. (2020). COVID-19-activated SREBP2 disturbs cholesterol biosynthesis and leads to cytokine storm. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00292-7 Cite
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