MicroRNA Regulation of Cancer Stem Cells in the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

Investigators summarize the critical roles of miRNAs in regulating multiple signaling pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, BMI-1 and STAT3 that are important for the breast cancer stem cell maintenance.
[Cancer Cell International]
Niu, T., Zhang, W., & Xiao, W. (2021). MicroRNA regulation of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Cancer Cell International, 21(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-020-01716-8 Cite
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OCT4 Induces Embryonic Pluripotency via STAT3 Signaling and Metabolic Mechanisms

Scientists used single-cell whole-genome transcriptional profiling and protein quantification to investigate the role of OCT4 in establishing pluripotency in the murine embryo.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Stirparo, G. G., Kurowski, A., Yanagida, A., Bates, L. E., Strawbridge, S. E., Hladkou, S., Stuart, H. T., Boroviak, T. E., Silva, J. C. R., & Nichols, J. (2021). OCT4 induces embryonic pluripotency via STAT3 signaling and metabolic mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(3). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2008890118 Cite
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Essential Roles of Insulin and IGF-1 Receptors during Embryonic Lineage Development

To directly define the roles of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in the maintenance of pluripotency and differentiation of stem cells, scientists knocked out both the receptors in induced pluripotent stem cells.
[Molecular Medicine]
Okawa, E. R., Gupta, M. K., Kahraman, S., Goli, P., Sakaguchi, M., Hu, J., Duan, K., Slipp, B., Lennerz, J. K., & Kulkarni, R. N. (2021). Essential roles of insulin and IGF-1 receptors during embryonic lineage development. Molecular Metabolism, 101164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2021.101164 Cite
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Transneuronal Delivery of Hyper-Interleukin-6 Enables Functional Recovery after Severe Spinal Cord Injury in Mice

The authors report significant locomotor recovery of both hindlimbs after a complete spinal cord crush. This was achieved by the unilateral transduction of cortical motoneurons with an AAV expressing hyper-IL-6, a potent designer cytokine stimulating JAK/STAT3 signaling and axon regeneration.
[Nature Communications]
Transneuronal delivery of hyper-interleukin-6 enables functional recovery after severe spinal cord injury in mice | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-20112-4 Cite
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LncRNA TINCR Favors Tumorigenesis via STAT3–TINCR–EGFR-Feedback Loop by Recruiting DNMT1 and Acting as a Competing Endogenous RNA in Human Breast Cancer

The oncogenic role of TINCR was examined in vitro and in vivo in breast cancer. The interaction between TINCR, DNMT1, and miR-503-5p methylation was explored.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Wang, Q., Liu, J., You, Z., Yin, Y., Liu, L., Kang, Y., Li, S., Ning, S., Li, H., Gong, Y., Xu, S., & Pang, D. (2021). LncRNA TINCR favors tumorigenesis via STAT3–TINCR–EGFR-feedback loop by recruiting DNMT1 and acting as a competing endogenous RNA in human breast cancer. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03188-0 Cite
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Targeting STAT3 by a Small Molecule Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer Progression

Researchers report a new small-molecule inhibitor with potent antitumor bioactivity, which inhibited multiple oncogenic processes in pancreatic cancer.
[Oncogene]
Chen, H., Bian, A., Yang, L., Yin, X., Wang, J., Ti, C., Miao, Y., Peng, S., Xu, S., Liu, M., Qiu, W.-W., & Yi, Z. (2021). Targeting STAT3 by a small molecule suppresses pancreatic cancer progression. Oncogene, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01626-z Cite
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CXCR4 Uses STAT3-Mediated Slug Expression to Maintain Radioresistance of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells: Emerges as a Potential Prognostic Biomarker for Lung Cancer

Researchers inferred that CXCR4 confers resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells. Further, on the basis of colony forming ability, they found that drug-resistant A549/GR cells with improved CXCR4 expression exhibited more resistance to IR than A549 cells evidenced along with a reduction in the formation of γ-H2AX foci after IR.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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IL-10 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Skin Scarring via IL-10R/STAT3 Axis Regulating TLR4/NF-κB Pathway in Dermal Fibroblasts

Scientists investigated whether IL‐10 alleviated lipopolysaccharide‐induced inflammatory response and skin scarring and explored the possible mechanism of scar formation.
[Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine]
Shi, J., Shi, S., Xie, W., Zhao, M., Li, Y., Zhang, J., Li, N., Bai, X., Cai, W., Hu, X., Hu, D., Han, J., & Guan, H. (n.d.). IL-10 alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced skin scarring via IL-10R/STAT3 axis regulating TLR4/NF-κB pathway in dermal fibroblasts. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16250 Cite
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Olfactory Ecto-Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Ameliorate Murine Sjögren’s Syndrome by Modulating the Function of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

Scientists found that murine olfactory ecto-MSC-derived exosomes significantly enhanced the suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by upregulating arginase expression and increasing ROS and NO levels.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Rui, K., Hong, Y., Zhu, Q., Shi, X., Xiao, F., Fu, H., Yin, Q., Xing, Y., Wu, X., Kong, X., Xu, H., Tian, J., Wang, S., & Lu, L. (2021). Olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes ameliorate murine Sjögren’s syndrome by modulating the function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00587-3 Cite
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Combination of Anti-PD-1 Antibody with P-GEMOX as a Potentially Effective Immunochemotherapy for Advanced Natural Killer/T Cell Lymphoma

Scientists report the efficacy of anti-programmed death 1 antibody with the P-GEMOX (pegaspargase, gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin) regimen in advanced natural killer/T cell lymphoma.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Cai, J., Liu, P., Huang, H., Li, Y., Ma, S., Zhou, H., Tian, X., Zhang, Y., Gao, Y., Xia, Y., Zhang, X., Yang, H., Li, L., & Cai, Q. (2020). Combination of anti-PD-1 antibody with P-GEMOX as a potentially effective immunochemotherapy for advanced natural killer/T cell lymphoma. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00331-3 Cite
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Extracellular Vesicles Derived from miR-199a-5p-Modified Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Immune Thrombocytopenia by Inhibiting T Helper 17 Differentiation

Researchers investigated the role of miR-199a-5p in T helper 17 (Th17) differentiation and determined whether extracellular vesicles derived from miR-199a-5p-modified adipose-derived MSCs could relieve immune thrombocytopenia by inhibiting Th17 differentiation.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Li, J., Xia, Y., Fan, X., Wu, X., Yang, F., Hu, S., & Wang, Z. (2021). Extracellular vesicles derived from miR-199a-5p-modified adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate immune thrombocytopenia by inhibiting T helper 17 differentiation. Laboratory Investigation, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-00515-z Cite
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