Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosome miR-542-3p Suppresses Inflammation and Prevents Cerebral Infarction

Microarray indicated a decrease of miR-542-3p and an increase of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice comparing with sham mice. And luciferase and RIP analysis indicated a binding of miR-542-3p and TLR4.
[Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Cai, G., Cai, G., Zhou, H., Zhuang, Z., Liu, K., Pei, S., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, X., Xu, S., Cui, C., Sun, M., Guo, S., Jia, K., Wang, X., & Zhang, D. (2021). Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosome miR-542-3p suppresses inflammation and prevents cerebral infarction. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02030-w Cite
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Late p65 Nuclear Translocation in Glioblastoma Cells Indicates Non-Canonical TLR4 Signaling and Activation of DNA Repair Genes

Scientists analyzed Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in different grades of astrocytoma, and observed increased expression in tumors, mainly in glioblastoma, compared to non-neoplastic brain tissue.
[Scientific Reports]
Moretti, I. F., Lerario, A. M., Trombetta-Lima, M., Sola, P. R., da Silva Soares, R., Oba-Shinjo, S. M., & Marie, S. K. N. (2021). Late p65 nuclear translocation in glioblastoma cells indicates non-canonical TLR4 signaling and activation of DNA repair genes. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1333. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79356-1 Cite
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LECT2 as a Hepatokine Links Liver Steatosis to Inflammation via Activating Tissue Macrophages in NASH

Hepatic expression of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) was upregulated in association with the inflammatory signature in human liver tissues. The elevation of LECT2 shifted liver residual macrophage to the M1-like phenotype, and contributed to the development of liver inflammation.
[Scientific Reports]
Takata, N., Ishii, K., Takayama, H., Nagashimada, M., Kamoshita, K., Tanaka, T., Kikuchi, A., Takeshita, Y., Matsumoto, Y., Ota, T., Yamamoto, Y., Yamagoe, S., Seki, A., Sakai, Y., Kaneko, S., & Takamura, T. (2021). LECT2 as a hepatokine links liver steatosis to inflammation via activating tissue macrophages in NASH. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 555. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80689-0 Cite
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IL-10 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Skin Scarring via IL-10R/STAT3 Axis Regulating TLR4/NF-κB Pathway in Dermal Fibroblasts

Scientists investigated whether IL‐10 alleviated lipopolysaccharide‐induced inflammatory response and skin scarring and explored the possible mechanism of scar formation.
[Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine]
Shi, J., Shi, S., Xie, W., Zhao, M., Li, Y., Zhang, J., Li, N., Bai, X., Cai, W., Hu, X., Hu, D., Han, J., & Guan, H. (n.d.). IL-10 alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced skin scarring via IL-10R/STAT3 axis regulating TLR4/NF-κB pathway in dermal fibroblasts. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16250 Cite
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Olfactory Ecto-Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Ameliorate Murine Sjögren’s Syndrome by Modulating the Function of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

Scientists found that murine olfactory ecto-MSC-derived exosomes significantly enhanced the suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by upregulating arginase expression and increasing ROS and NO levels.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Rui, K., Hong, Y., Zhu, Q., Shi, X., Xiao, F., Fu, H., Yin, Q., Xing, Y., Wu, X., Kong, X., Xu, H., Tian, J., Wang, S., & Lu, L. (2021). Olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes ameliorate murine Sjögren’s syndrome by modulating the function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00587-3 Cite
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Outer Membrane Vesicles Derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae Influence the miRNA Expression Profile in Human Bronchial Epithelial BEAS-2B Cells

miRNA expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells were evaluated during infection with standard and clinical K. pneumoniae strains.
[Microorganisms]
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Salidroside Regulates Inflammatory Pathway of Alveolar Macrophages by Influencing the Secretion of miRNA-146a Exosomes by Lung Epithelial Cells

Scientists explored the investigative mechanism of salidroside on LPS-induced acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome.
[Scientific Reports]
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Commensal Microbiota Modulation of Natural Resistance to Virus Infection

Using Bacteroides fragilis and its OM-associated polysaccharide A, scientists determined that IFN-β expression was induced via TLR4-TRIF signaling.
[Cell]
Commensal Microbiota Modulation of Natural Resistance to Virus Infection: Cell. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)31454-9 Cite
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Toll-Like Receptor 4 Regulates Intestinal Fibrosis via Cytokine Expression and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

The authors investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in intestinal fibrosis using not only a murine fibrosis model but also human myofibroblasts and intestinal epithelial cells. Colon fibrosis was induced in TLR4-deficient mice and its wild-type counterparts with 3% dextran sulfate sodium.
[Scientific Reports]
Jun, Y. K., Kwon, S. H., Yoon, H. T., Park, H., Soh, H., Lee, H. J., Im, J. P., Kim, J. S., Kim, J. W., & Koh, S.-J. (2020). Toll-like receptor 4 regulates intestinal fibrosis via cytokine expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19867. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76880-y Cite
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Tumor Necrosis Factor α Inhibition Overcomes Immunosuppressive M2b Macrophage-Induced Bevacizumab Resistance in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Scientists developed a TNBC model resistant to bevacizumab under bevacizumab continuous administration. It was found that proportion of a specific subset of tumor-associated macrophages characterized as M2b increased and responsible for acquired resistance to bevacizumab.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Tumor necrosis factor α inhibition overcomes immunosuppressive M2b macrophage-induced bevacizumab resistance in triple-negative breast cancer | Cell Death & Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-020-03161-x Cite
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Activation of Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Promotes Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis through SIRT2 Dependent p53 Deacetylation

Scientists attempted to find the role of TLR4 in cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis, and molecular mechanism thereof.
[Scientific Reports]
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