An Interplay of Microglia and Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP9 under Hypoxic Stress Regulates the Opticin Expression in Retina

Researchers demonstrated that a reduced opticin levels in ROP vitreous are regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by activated microglia.
[Scientific Reports]
Patnaik, S., Rai, M., Jalali, S., Agarwal, K., Badakere, A., Puppala, L., Vishwakarma, S., Balakrishnan, D., Rani, P. K., Kekunnaya, R., Chhablani, P. P., Chakrabarti, S., & Kaur, I. (2021). An interplay of microglia and matrix metalloproteinase MMP9 under hypoxic stress regulates the opticin expression in retina. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7444. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86302-2 Cite
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The Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome Promotes Hepatic Regeneration in Miniature Pigs after Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Combined with Partial Resection

24 miniature pigs were subjected to laparoscopic liver ischemia-reperfusion combined with partial hepatectomy and divided into the following four groups: the saline group, the DMEM group, the adipose-derived MSC (ASC) group and the ASC-secretome group.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Jiao, Z., Ma, Y., Zhang, Q., Wang, Y., Liu, T., Liu, X., Piao, C., Liu, B., & Wang, H. (2021). The adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell secretome promotes hepatic regeneration in miniature pigs after liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined with partial resection. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 218. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02284-y Cite
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The Migratory Pathways of the Cells That Form the Endocardium, Dorsal Aortae, and Head Vasculature in the Mouse Embryo

Investigators describe the pathways that cells follow to form the primary embryonic circulatory system in the mouse embryo.
[BMC Developmental Biology]
Collart, C., Ciccarelli, A., Ivanovitch, K., Rosewell, I., Kumar, S., Kelly, G., Edwards, A., & Smith, J. C. (2021). The migratory pathways of the cells that form the endocardium, dorsal aortae, and head vasculature in the mouse embryo. BMC Developmental Biology, 21(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12861-021-00239-3 Cite
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VEGFR-1/Flt-1 Inhibition Increases Angiogenesis and Improves Muscle Function in a Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Researchers developed monoclonal antibodies that bind to the VEGF receptor VEGFR-1 and its soluble splice variant isoform leading to increased levels of free VEGF and proangiogenic signaling.
[Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development]
Bosco, J., Zhou, Z., Gabriëls, S., Verma, M., Liu, N., Miller, B. K., Gu, S., Lundberg, D. M., Huang, Y., Brown, E., Josiah, S., Meiyappan, M., Traylor, M. J., Chen, N., Asakura, A., Jonge, N. D., Blanchetot, C., Haard, H. de, Duffy, H. S., & Keefe, D. (2021). VEGFR-1/Flt-1 Inhibition Increases Angiogenesis and Improves Muscle Function in a Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2021.03.013 Cite
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Escin Inhibits Angiogenesis by Suppressing Interleukin-8 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Production by Blocking Nuclear Factor-κB Activation in Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines

It was initially confirmed that escin, at concentrations >10 µM, significantly inhibited the proliferation of several pancreatic cancer cell lines.
[Oncology Reports]
Omi, K., Matsuo, Y., Ueda, G., Aoyama, Y., Kato, T., Hayashi, Y., Imafuji, H., Saito, K., Tsuboi, K., Morimoto, M., Ogawa, R., Takahashi, H., & Takiguchi, S. (2021). Escin inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing interleukin‑8 and vascular endothelial growth factor production by blocking nuclear factor‑κB activation in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Oncology Reports, 45(5), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8006 Cite
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Lymphangiogenesis-Inducing Vaccines Elicit Potent and Long-Lasting T Cell Immunity against Melanomas

In mouse melanoma models, VEGFC vax elicited potent tumor-specific T cell immunity and provided effective tumor control and long-term immunological memory.
[Science Advances]
Sasso, M. S., Mitrousis, N., Wang, Y., Briquez, P. S., Hauert, S., Ishihara, J., Hubbell, J. A., & Swartz, M. A. (2021). Lymphangiogenesis-inducing vaccines elicit potent and long-lasting T cell immunity against melanomas. Science Advances, 7(13), eabe4362. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe4362 Cite
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Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Sex Differences and Current Challenges

Scientists discuss the current challenges clinicians are facing with regard to angiogenesis inhibitor treatments, including the need to consider sex differences affecting clinical efficacy and safety.
[Cardiovascular Research]
Cignarella, A., Fadini, G. P., Bolego, C., Trevisi, L., Boscaro, C., Sanga, V., Seccia, T. M., Rosato, A., Rossi, G. P., & Barton, M. (2021). Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Sex Differences and Current Challenges. Cardiovascular Research, cvab096. https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab096 Cite
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Extracellular Vesicles from Human Airway Basal Cells Respond to Cigarette Smoke Extract and Affect Vascular Endothelial Cells

Researchers showed that exposure of endothelial cells to exosome-enriched airway basal cell extracellular vesicles (EVs) promoted the survival of these cells and that this effect also involved VEGFR2 activation and is, at least in part, mediated by VEGFA present in the EVs.
[Scientific Reports]
Saxena, A., Walters, M. S., Shieh, J.-H., Shen, L.-B., Gomi, K., Downey, R. J., Crystal, R. G., & Moore, M. A. S. (2021). Extracellular vesicles from human airway basal cells respond to cigarette smoke extract and affect vascular endothelial cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 6104. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85534-6 Cite
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Heparin-Modified Alginate Microspheres Enhance Neovessel Formation in hiPSC-Derived Endothelial Cells and Heterocellular In Vitro Models by Controlled Release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Investigators developed a biomimetic approach to increase the binding affinity of the extracellular matrix for the class of heparin‐binding growth factors to localize and control the release of proangiogenic cues while maintaining their bioactivity.
[Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A]
Munarin, F., Kabelac, C., & Coulombe, K. L. K. (n.d.). Heparin-modified alginate microspheres enhance neovessel formation in hiPSC-derived endothelial cells and heterocellular in vitro models by controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.37168 Cite
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Hepatic Stellate Cells Promote Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Progression via NR4A2/osteopontin/Wnt Signaling Axis

By establishing co-culture models of Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), researchers identified that HSCs triggered the expression of nuclear receptor family 4 subgroup A member 2 (NR4A2), a transcription factor previously reported as a molecular switch between inflammation and cancer, in ICC cells.
[Oncogene]
Jing, C.-Y., Fu, Y.-P., Zhou, C., Zhang, M.-X., Yi, Y., Huang, J.-L., Gan, W., Zhang, J., Zheng, S.-S., Zhang, B.-H., & Qiu, S.-J. (2021). Hepatic stellate cells promote intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma progression via NR4A2/osteopontin/Wnt signaling axis. Oncogene, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01705-9 Cite
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Anti-Cancer Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Sugarcane Extract

Investigators showed that polyphenol-rich sugarcane extract exerted anti-cancer properties on a range of cancer cells including human and mouse colon cancer cells lines; human lung cancer, human ovarian cancer, pro-monocytic human leukemia and mouse melanoma cell lines
[PLoS One]
Prakash, M. D., Stojanovska, L., Feehan, J., Nurgali, K., Donald, E. L., Plebanski, M., Flavel, M., Kitchen, B., & Apostolopoulos, V. (2021). Anti-cancer effects of polyphenol-rich sugarcane extract. PLOS ONE, 16(3), e0247492. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247492 Cite
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