Consensus Opinion on Immune-Mediated Cytopenias after Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Inherited Metabolic Disorders

The authors summarize the literature, provide an approach to better understanding of the possible etiology of immune mediated cytopenias, and propose a diagnostic and management plan for patients with inherited metabolic disorders who develop single or multi-lineage cytopenias after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
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The Adverse Events of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Are Associated with Gene Polymorphism within Human Leukocyte Antigen Region

Scientists investigated the correlation between the gene polymorphisms within the HLA region and the adverse reactions of post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute leukemia, where 72 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 104 were acute myeloid leukemia.
[Scientific Reports]
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Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Sustains Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Function

Scientists showed that chaperone-mediated autophagy, a selective form of lysosomal protein degradation, is involved in sustaining hematopoietic stem cell function in adult mice.
[Nature]
Dong, S., Wang, Q., Kao, Y.-R., Diaz, A., Tasset, I., Kaushik, S., Thiruthuvanathan, V., Zintiridou, A., Nieves, E., Dzieciatkowska, M., Reisz, J. A., Gavathiotis, E., D’Alessandro, A., Will, B., & Cuervo, A. M. (2021). Chaperone-mediated autophagy sustains haematopoietic stem-cell function. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03129-z Cite
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Feasibility of Reduced-Dose Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide and Cotransplantation of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells and Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for SAA

Scientists evaluated the effectiveness and safety of reduced-dose cyclophosphamide, 20 mg/kg for 13 patients in matched sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cohort and 25 mg/kg for 22 patients in haplo-HSCT cohort, on days +3, +4 combined with cotransplantation of peripheral blood stem cells and human umbilical cord-derived MSCs for severe aplastic anemia (SAA).
[Scientific Reports]
Zu, Y., Zhou, J., Fu, Y., Fang, B., Liu, X., Zhang, Y., Yu, F., Zuo, W., Zhou, H., Gui, R., Li, Z., Liu, Y., Zhao, H., Zhang, C., & Song, Y. (2021). Feasibility of reduced-dose posttransplant cyclophosphamide and cotransplantation of peripheral blood stem cells and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells for SAA. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 253. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80531-7 Cite
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Dynamic Immune Profiling Identifies the Stronger Graft-Versus-Leukemia (GVL) Effects With Haploidentical Allografts Compared to HLA-Matched Stem Cell Transplantation

Researchers employed two nonirradiated leukemia mouse models which carried human AML-ETO or MLL-AF9 fusion gene to establish haplo-identical and major histocompatibility-matched transplantation models and investigated the immune cell dynamic response during leukemia development in vivo.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Guo, H., Chang, Y.-J., Hong, Y., Xu, L.-P., Wang, Y., Zhang, X.-H., Wang, M., Chen, H., Chen, Y.-H., Wang, F.-R., Wei-Han, Sun, Y.-Q., Yan, C.-H., Tang, F.-F., Mo, X.-D., Liu, K.-Y., & Huang, X.-J. (2021). Dynamic immune profiling identifies the stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects with haploidentical allografts compared to HLA-matched stem cell transplantation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00597-1 Cite
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A Modular and Controllable T Cell Therapy Platform for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Researchers developed a modular and controllable MHC-unrestricted adoptive T cell therapy platform tailored to acute myeloid leukemia.
[Leukemia]
Benmebarek, M.-R., Cadilha, B. L., Herrmann, M., Lesch, S., Schmitt, S., Stoiber, S., Darwich, A., Augsberger, C., Brauchle, B., Rohrbacher, L., Oner, A., Seifert, M., Schwerdtfeger, M., Gottschlich, A., Rataj, F., Fenn, N. C., Klein, C., Subklewe, M., Endres, S., … Kobold, S. (2021). A modular and controllable T cell therapy platform for acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01109-w Cite
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Mitigating Oxygen Stress Enhances Aged Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cell Numbers and Function

Scientists detected an increase in the number of both young and aged mouse bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM HSCs) collected and processed in 3% O2 compared with the number of young BM HSCs collected and processed in ambient air.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Effect of Donor Type on Volume of Blood Transfusions Required after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

Scientists reviewed blood product use in 729 consecutive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients at our center to assess the volume of red blood cells and platelets required after allo-HCT.
[International Journal of Hematology]
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Tandem Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Sequential Use of Total Marrow Irradiation and High-Dose Melphalan in Multiple Myeloma

Scientists evaluated safety and efficacy of a tandem autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation using sequentially total marrow irradiation at the dose of 12 Gy and melphalan 200 mg/m2 for patients with multiple myeloma.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
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Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for Aplastic Anemia: The Current Advances and Future Challenges

Scientists provide an overview of clinical results obtained through the use of haploidentical transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, mainly focusing on current advances and future challenges.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
Xu, Z.-L., & Huang, X.-J. (2020). Haploidentical stem cell transplantation for aplastic anemia: the current advances and future challenges. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01169-7 Cite
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Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Therapy Improves Survival After Radiation Injury but Does Not Restore Endogenous Hematopoiesis

Scientists examine the efficacy of a human bone marrow-derived MSC therapy delivered at three or 30 hours in ameliorating radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome and show that pancytopenia persists despite MSC therapy.
[Scientific Reports]
Diaz, M. F., Horton, P. lina D., Dumbali, S. P., Kumar, A., Livingston, M., Skibber, M. A., Mohammadalipour, A., Gill, B. S., Zhang, S., Cox, C. S., & Wenzel, P. L. (2020). Bone marrow stromal cell therapy improves survival after radiation injury but does not restore endogenous hematopoiesis. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 22211. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79278-y Cite
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