The proliferation and fate decisions of basal stem cells are highly regulated by their microenvironment, including the basement membrane and underlying mesenchymal cells. Basal progenitors give rise to differentiated progeny that generate the epidermal barrier. The authors present data that differentiated progeny also regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of basal progenitor cells.
[Cell Stem Cell]
The authors showed that in preclinical autoimmunity and established systemic lupus erythematosus, plasmacytoid dendritic cells were not effector cells, had lost capacity for Toll-like-receptor-mediated cytokine production and did not induce T cell activation.
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Psarras, A., Alase, A., Antanaviciute, A., Carr, I. M., Md Yusof, M. Y., Wittmann, M., Emery, P., Tsokos, G. C., & Vital, E. M. (2020). Functionally impaired plasmacytoid dendritic cells and non-haematopoietic sources of type I interferon characterize human autoimmunity. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6149. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19918-z Cite
Using two distinct mouse lines, scientists found that increasing contractility of differentiated cells resulted in non-cell-autonomous hyperproliferation of stem cells and prevented their commitment to a hair follicle lineage.
[Cell Stem Cell]
To address the role of the internalization mode, scientists performed infection studies at low temperature as a tool to interfere with endocytic pathways. Successful Herpes simplex virus-1 entry in primary human keratinocytes and HaCaT cells were observed even at 7°C, although delayed compared to infection at 37°C.
[Journal of Virology]
Scientists demonstrated that miR-93-3p was significantly up-regulated using a in vivo mouse skin wound healing model, there was no change in the expression of miR-93-5p during skin wound healing. In HaCaT cells, miR-93-3p overexpression increased proliferation and migration of the cells, whereas miR-93-3p inhibition had the reverse effect.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
The authors performed single-cell RNA sequencing of human eyelid skin from healthy individuals across different ages and identified 11 canonical cell types, as well as six subpopulations of basal cells.
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Zou, Z., Long, X., Zhao, Q., Zheng, Y., Song, M., Ma, S., Jing, Y., Wang, S., He, Y., Esteban, C. R., Yu, N., Huang, J., Chan, P., Chen, T., Belmonte, J. C. I., Zhang, W., Qu, J., & Liu, G.-H. (2020). A Single-Cell Transcriptomic Atlas of Human Skin Aging. Developmental Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.11.002 Cite
Researchers examined the effect of Lotus seedpod extract (LSE) on melanogenesis and the involved signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. They showed that non-cytotoxic doses of LSE and its main component epigallocatechin reduced both tyrosinase activity and melanin production in the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced melanoma cells.
Researchers assessed whether 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) affected the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in vitro and in vivo. The expression of 11β-HSD1 in the epidermis of AD lesions was higher than that in the epidermis of healthy controls.
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Fernández-Calle, R., Galán-Llario, M., Gramage, E., Zapatería, B., Vicente-Rodríguez, M., Zapico, J. M., de Pascual-Teresa, B., Ramos, A., Ramos-Álvarez, M. P., Uribarri, M., Ferrer-Alcón, M., & Herradón, G. (2020). Role of RPTPβ/ζ in neuroinflammation and microglia-neuron communication. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20259. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76415-5 Cite
Investigators review the potential roles of the unfolded protein response/integrated stress response in the etiology of melanoma and vitiligo.
[Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research]
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Manga, P., & Choudhury, N. (n.d.). The Unfolded Protein and Integrated Stress Response in Melanoma and Vitiligo. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/pcmr.12947 Cite
Scientists analyze four major signaling pathways implicated in melanomagenesis, TGF-β, MAPK, Wnt/β-catenin and Hyppo signaling, from the complementary point of view of tumor cells and the microenvironment.
As a step towards the development of wound healing agents, scientists utilized a human keratinocyte cell line as an in vitro model to define the potential molecular mechanisms of Boesenbergia rotunda extract in enhancing wound-healing.
[Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy]
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Boesenbergia rotunda extract accelerates human keratinocyte proliferation through activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt kinases - ScienceDirect. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S075333222031194X?via%3Dihub Cite