Translational Neuroendocrinology of Human Skin: Concepts and Perspectives

The authors focus on how neurohormones impact human skin physiology and pathology. They highlight basic concepts, major open questions, and translational research perspectives in cutaneous neuroendocrinology and argue that greater emphasis on neuroendocrine human skin research will foster the development of novel dermatological therapies.
[Trends in Molecular Medicine]
Ramot, Y., Böhm, M., & Paus, R. (2020). Translational Neuroendocrinology of Human Skin: Concepts and Perspectives. Trends in Molecular Medicine, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2020.09.002 Cite
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The Transcription Factor NRF2 Enhances Melanoma Malignancy by Blocking Differentiation and Inducing COX2 Expression

Investigators showed that NRF2 suppressed the activity of the melanocyte lineage marker MITF in melanoma, thereby reducing the expression of pigmentation markers.
[Oncogene]
Jessen, C., Kreß, J. K. C., Baluapuri, A., Hufnagel, A., Schmitz, W., Kneitz, S., Roth, S., Marquardt, A., Appenzeller, S., Ade, C. P., Glutsch, V., Wobser, M., Friedmann-Angeli, J. P., Mosteo, L., Goding, C. R., Schilling, B., Geissinger, E., Wolf, E., & Meierjohann, S. (2020). The transcription factor NRF2 enhances melanoma malignancy by blocking differentiation and inducing COX2 expression. Oncogene, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01477-8 Cite
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Type XVII Collagen Interacts with the aPKC‐PAR Complex and Maintains Epidermal Cell Polarity

Investigators uncovered COL17 as a binding partner of the aPKC‐PAR complex, which is a key regulating factor of cell polarity. Immunoprecipitation‐immunoblot assay and protein‐protein binding assay revealed that COL17 interacts with aPKC and PAR3. Type XVII collagen (COL17) deficiency or epidermis‐specific aPKCλ deletion destabilized PAR3 distribution in the epidermis, while aPKCζ knockout did not.
[Experimental Dermatology]
Watanabe, M., Kosumi, H., Osada, S.-I., Takashima, S., Wang, Y., Nishie, W., Oikawa, T., Hirose, T., Shimizu, H., & Natsuga, K. (n.d.). Type XVII collagen interacts with the aPKC-PAR complex and maintains epidermal cell polarity. Experimental Dermatology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1111/exd.14196 Cite
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Optimization of Human Papillomavirus-Based Pseudovirus Techniques for Efficient Gene Transfer

Scientists describe optimization of current methods and present new protocols for using human papillomavirus capsids to deliver non-viral DNA, thereby providing an alternative to DNA transfection. Using keratinocyte generated extracellular matrices could enhance infection efficiency in keratinocytes, hepatocytes and neuronal cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Gilson, T. D., Gibson, R. T., & Androphy, E. J. (2020). Optimization of human papillomavirus-based pseudovirus techniques for efficient gene transfer. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15517. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72027-1 Cite
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Early-Stage Bilayer Tissue-Engineered Skin Substitute Formed by Adult Skin Progenitor Cells Produces an Improved Skin Structure In Vivo

Adult scalp dermal progenitor cells and epidermal stem cells together with type I collagen as a scaffold material were used to reconstitute bilayer tissue-engineered skin substitutes in vitro.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Zhang, Q., Wen, J., Liu, C., Ma, C., Bai, F., Leng, X., Chen, Z., Xie, Z., Mi, J., & Wu, X. (2020). Early-stage bilayer tissue-engineered skin substitute formed by adult skin progenitor cells produces an improved skin structure in vivo. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 407. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01924-z Cite
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Keratinocyte Autophagy Enables the Activation of Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts and Facilitates Wound Healing

Using cytokine array screening, scientists found that autophagy deficiency inhibited the transcription and production of the cytokine CCL2/MCP-1 by TNF.
[Autophagy]
Qiang, L., Yang, S., Cui, Y.-H., & He, Y.-Y. (2020). Keratinocyte autophagy enables the activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts and facilitates wound healing. Autophagy, 0(0), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1816342 Cite
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New Insight Into the Role of Exosomes in Vitiligo

The authors investigate the association of exosomes with vitiligo and emphasize the role of exosomes in immune regulation, melanocyte–keratinocyte interactions, and melanogenesis.
[Autoimmunity Reviews]
Wong, P. M., Yang, L., Yang, L., Wu, H., Li, W., Ma, X., Katayama, I., & Zhang, H. (2020). New insight into the role of exosomes in vitiligo. Autoimmunity Reviews, 102664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102664 Cite
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Multiple Signaling Pathways Converge on Proapoptotic Protein BAD to Promote Survival of Melanocytes

The authors showed that melanocyte survival was mediated by diverse, nonredundant signaling pathways, including ERK1/2, AKT, PKA, and PKC.
[FASEB Journal]
Sastry, K. S., Ibrahim, W. N., & Chouchane, A. I. (n.d.). Multiple signaling pathways converge on proapoptotic protein BAD to promote survival of melanocytes. The FASEB Journal, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001260RR Cite
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Exosome-Mediated Crosstalk between Keratinocytes and Macrophages in Cutaneous Wound Healing

Investigators elucidated the significance of exosome in keratinocyte-macrophage crosstalk following injury.
[ACS Nano]
Zhou, X., Brown, B. A., Siegel, A. P., El Masry, M., Zeng, X., Song, W., Das, A., Khandelwal, P., Clark, A., Singh, K., Guda, P. R., Gorain, M., Timsina, L., Xuan, Y., Jacobson, S. C., Novotny, M. V., Roy, S., Agarwal, M., Lee, R. J., … Ghatak, S. (2020). Exosome-Mediated Crosstalk between Keratinocytes and Macrophages in Cutaneous Wound Healing. ACS Nano. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c03064 Cite
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IER5, a DNA Damage Response Gene, Is Required for Notch-Mediated Induction of Squamous Cell Differentiation

Among direct Notch target genes were multiple DNA damage response genes, including IER5, which researchers showed were required for Notch-induced differentiation of squamous carcinoma cells and TERT-immortalized keratinocytes.
[eLife]
IER5, a DNA damage response gene, is required for Notch-mediated induction of squamous cell differentiation | eLife. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2020, from https://elifesciences.org/articles/58081 Cite
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CYP2S1 Might Regulate Proliferation and Immune Response of Keratinocyte in Psoriasis

Investigators performed methylation loci fine-mapping to search the top signals in the entire CYP2S1 gene region, and further carried out gene expression assay, cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration in CYP2S1 overexpressed (CYP2S1over) and silenced human keratinocytes.
[Epigenetics]
Sheng, Y., Wen, L., Zheng, X., Li, M., Wang, D., Chen, S., Li, R., Tang, L., & Zhou, F. (2020). CYP2S1 might regulate proliferation and immune response of keratinocyte in psoriasis. Epigenetics, 0(0), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2020.1814486 Cite
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