Antigen Presentation, Autoantibody Production, and Therapeutic Targets in Autoimmune Liver Disease

Investigators summarize emerging aspects of antigen presentation, autoantibody production, and the application of novel therapeutic approaches in the characterization and treatment of autoimmune liver diseases.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Horst, A. K., Kumashie, K. G., Neumann, K., Diehl, L., & Tiegs, G. (2020). Antigen presentation, autoantibody production, and therapeutic targets in autoimmune liver disease. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00568-6 Cite
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MAIT Cell Dysregulation Correlates with Conjugated Bilirubin Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Researchers tested the antiviral potential of MAIT cells, and investigated their dynamic changes and regulating factors during chronic HBV infection.
[Hepatology]
MAIT Cell Dysregulation Correlates with Conjugated Bilirubin Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection - Liu - - Hepatology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.31602 Cite
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Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus in Pregnant Rhesus Macaques

Pregnant rhesus macaques were infected with HEV to explore the pathogenesis of genotype 4 HEV infection during pregnancy. Active HEV infections were established with shedding viruses in the feces and blood, and elevated liver enzymes.
[Scientific Reports]
Vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus in pregnant rhesus macaques | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-74461-7 Cite
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Multiscale Fluorescent Tracking of Immune Cells in the Liver with a Highly Biocompatible Far-Red Emitting Polymer Probe

A newly-designed water-soluble far-red emitting polymer probe, 19K-6H, with a large Stokes shift, was thus evaluated for the tracking of primary immune CD8 T cells. 19K-6H-labelled primary CD8 T cells were injected to mice in a classical model of immune mediated hepatitis.
[Scientific Reports]
Multiscale fluorescent tracking of immune cells in the liver with a highly biocompatible far-red emitting polymer probe | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-74621-9 Cite
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Hepatocyte-Intrinsic Type I Interferon Signaling Reprograms Metabolism and Reveals a Novel Compensatory Mechanism of the Tryptophan-Kynurenine Pathway in Viral Hepatitis

IFN-I specifically rewired tryptophan metabolism and induced hepatic tryptophan oxidation to kynurenine via Tdo2, correlating with altered concentrations of serum metabolites upon viral infection.
[PLoS Pathogens]
Lercher, A., Popa, A. M., Viczenczova, C., Kosack, L., Klavins, K., Agerer, B., Opitz, C. A., Lanz, T. V., Platten, M., & Bergthaler, A. (2020). Hepatocyte-intrinsic type I interferon signaling reprograms metabolism and reveals a novel compensatory mechanism of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway in viral hepatitis. PLOS Pathogens, 16(10), e1008973. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008973 Cite
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Viral Hepatitis and Pregnancy

Researchers present the epidemiology of acute and chronic viral hepatitis infection in pregnancy, the effect of pregnancy on the course of viral infection and, conversely, the influence of the viral infection on maternal and infant outcomes, including mother-to-child transmission.
[Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology]
Terrault, N. A., Levy, M. T., Cheung, K. W., & Jourdain, G. (2020). Viral hepatitis and pregnancy. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41575-020-00361-w Cite
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Anti-Oncogene PTPN13 Inactivation by Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Counteracts IGF2BP1 to Promote Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression

Researchers found that decreased tyrosine-protein phosphatase nonreceptor type 13 (PTPN13) expression was associated with hepatitis B virus/hepatitis B x protein. Patients with low PTPN13 expression showed a poor prognosis. Functional assays revealed that PTPN13 inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.
[Oncogene]
Yan, Y., Huang, P., Mao, K., He, C., Xu, Q., Zhang, M., Liu, H., Zhou, Z., Zhou, Q., Zhou, Q., Ou, B., Liu, Q., Lin, J., Chen, R., Wang, J., Zhang, J., & Xiao, Z. (2020). Anti-oncogene PTPN13 inactivation by hepatitis B virus X protein counteracts IGF2BP1 to promote hepatocellular carcinoma progression. Oncogene, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01498-3 Cite
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Virologists Who Discovered Hepatitis C Win Medicine Nobel

A trio of scientists who identified and characterized the virus responsible for many cases of hepatitis and liver disease- hepatitis C- are the recipients of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
[Nature News]
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Hepatitis Is Still a Silent Killer in Africa and Elsewhere

New blood tests and drugs for this deadly disease have already saved millions of lives. But for millions more around the world, the celebration is bittersweet and the revolution in diagnosis and treatment remains a distant dream.
[STAT News]
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Aligos Therapeutics Receives Clinical Trial Application Approval for Chronic Hepatitis B Capsid Assembly Modulator Candidate ALG-000184

Aligos Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the company has received approval for a clinical trial application for a first-in-human Phase Ia/b proof-of-concept clinical trial. Aligos may now commence study ALG-000184-201 to evaluate ALG-000184, a small molecule class II capsid assembly modulator that targets hepatitis B virus capsid assembly as well as the establishment of covalently closed circular DNA.
[Aligos Therapeutics (GlobeNewswire, Inc.)]
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Decrease of T-Cells Exhaustion Markers Programmed Cell Death-1 and T-Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Domain-Containing Protein 3 and Plasma IL-10 Levels after Successful Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C

Researchers studied 76 DAA-treated hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive patients and 18 non-infected controls. Flow cytometry measured pretreatment frequencies of CD4+PD-1+, CD4+PD-1+Tim-3+ and CD8+PD-1+Tim-3+ T-cells and IL-10 levels measured by ELISA were significantly higher and CD4+PD-1βˆ’Tim-3βˆ’ and CD8+PD-1βˆ’Tim-3βˆ’ T-cells were significantly lower in patients than in controls.
[Scientific Reports]
Decrease of T-cells exhaustion markers programmed cell death-1 and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 and plasma IL-10 levels after successful treatment of chronic hepatitis C | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73137-6 Cite
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