A Subset of Liver Resident Natural Killer Cells Is Expanded in Hepatitis C-Infected Patients with Better Liver Function

LMCs were less responsive to toll-like receptor stimulation than blood mononuclear cells, with fewer pro-inflammatory gene-expression pathways up-regulated after in vitro exposure to lipopolysaccharide and a TLR-7/8 agonist.
[Scientific Reports]
Doyle, E. H., Aloman, C., El-Shamy, A., Eng, F., Rahman, A., Klepper, A. L., Haydel, B., Florman, S. S., Fiel, M. I., Schiano, T., & Branch, A. D. (2021). A subset of liver resident natural killer cells is expanded in hepatitis C-infected patients with better liver function. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1551. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80819-8 Cite
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MicroRNA-494-3p Prevents Liver Fibrosis and Attenuates Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation by Inhibiting Proliferation and Inducing Apoptosis through Targeting TRAF3

Alcoholic hepatitis mice model and primarily cultured mice hepatic stellate cells model were constructed. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were analyzed by ELISA.
[Annals of Hepatology]
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Gilead and Vir Biotechnology Establish Clinical Collaboration to Explore Combination Strategies for Functional Cure for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus

Gilead Sciences, Inc. and Vir Biotechnology, Inc. announced that the companies have entered into a clinical collaboration to evaluate novel therapeutic combination strategies aimed at developing a functional cure for chronic hepatitis B virus.
[Gilead Sciences, Inc. (BusinessWire, Inc)]
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Memory-Like HCV-Specific CD8+ T Cells Retain a Molecular Scar after Cure of Chronic HCV Infection

Researchers report a progenitor–progeny relationship between memory-like and terminally exhausted hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells via an intermediate subset.
[Nature Immunology]
Hensel, N., Gu, Z., Sagar, Wieland, D., Jechow, K., Kemming, J., Llewellyn-Lacey, S., Gostick, E., Sogukpinar, O., Emmerich, F., Price, D. A., Bengsch, B., Boettler, T., Neumann-Haefelin, C., Eils, R., Conrad, C., Bartenschlager, R., Grün, D., Ishaque, N., … Hofmann, M. (2021). Memory-like HCV-specific CD8 + T cells retain a molecular scar after cure of chronic HCV infection. Nature Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-00817-w Cite
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Hepatitis B Virus Rigs the Cellular Metabolome To Avoid Innate Immune Recognition

The authors report that hepatitis B virus (HBV) activated glycolysis to impede retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-induced interferon production. They demonstrated that HBV sequesters MAVS from RIG-I by forming a ternary complex including hexokinase.
[Nature Communications]
Zhou, L., He, R., Fang, P., Li, M., Yu, H., Wang, Q., Yu, Y., Wang, F., Zhang, Y., Chen, A., Peng, N., Lin, Y., Zhang, R., Trilling, M., Broering, R., Lu, M., Zhu, Y., & Liu, S. (2021). Hepatitis B virus rigs the cellular metabolome to avoid innate immune recognition. Nature Communications, 12(1), 98. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20316-8 Cite
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Unconventional Secretion of PKCδ Exerts Tumorigenic Function via Stimulation of ERK1/2 Signaling in Liver Cancer

Scientists showed that PKCδ is a secretory protein that regulated cell growth of liver cancer. Full-length PKCδ was secreted to the extracellular space in living liver cancer cells under normal cell culture conditions and in xenograft mouse models.
[Cancer Research]
Yamada, K., Oikawa, T., Kizawa, R., Motohashi, S., Yoshida, S., Kumamoto, T., Saeki, C., Nakagawa, C., Shimoyama, Y., Aoki, K., Tachibana, T., Saruta, M., Ono, M., & Yoshida, K. (2020). Unconventional secretion of PKCδ exerts tumorigenic function via stimulation of ERK1/2 signaling in liver cancer. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2009 Cite
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Maryland One of Several States with a Hepatitis A Outbreak; 190 Hospitalized This Year

As Maryland deals with a record number of people hospitalized due to COVID-19, state officials also are working to contain an outbreak of hepatitis A, a highly contagious infectious disease for which a vaccine exists.
[The Baltimore Sun]
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Targeting the Ion Channel TRPM7 Promotes the Thymic Development of Regulatory T Cells by Promoting IL-2 Signaling

Scientists found that inhibiting the function of the TRPM7 chanzyme potentiated the thymic development of Treg cells in mice and led to a substantially higher frequency of functional Treg cells in the periphery.
[Science Signaling]
Mendu, S. K., Stremska, M. E., Schappe, M. S., Moser, E. K., Krupa, J. K., Rogers, J. S., Stipes, E. J., Parker, C. A., Braciale, T. J., Perry, J. S. A., & Desai, B. N. (2020). Targeting the ion channel TRPM7 promotes the thymic development of regulatory T cells by promoting IL-2 signaling. Science Signaling, 13(661). https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.abb0619 Cite
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MCPIP1 Reduces HBV-RNA by Targeting Its Epsilon Structure

Overexpression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) decreased hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA, whereas ablating MCPIP1 in vitro enhanced HBV production. The domains responsible for RNase activity or oligomerization, were required for MCPIP1-mediated viral RNA reduction.
[Scientific Reports]
Li, Y., Que, L., Fukano, K., Koura, M., Kitamura, K., Zheng, X., Kato, T., Aly, H. H., Watashi, K., Tsukuda, S., Aizaki, H., Watanabe, N., Sato, Y., Suzuki, T., Suzuki, H. I., Hosomichi, K., Kurachi, M., Wakae, K., & Muramatsu, M. (2020). MCPIP1 reduces HBV-RNA by targeting its epsilon structure. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20763. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77166-z Cite
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In Vitro-Transcribed Antigen Receptor mRNA Nanocarriers for Transient Expression in Circulating T Cells In Vivo

In mouse models of human leukemia, prostate cancer and hepatitis B-induced hepatocellular carcinoma, repeated infusions of these polymer nanocarriers induced sufficient host T cells expressing tumor-specific CARs or virus-specific TCRs to cause disease regression at levels similar to bolus infusions of ex vivo engineered lymphocytes.
[Nature Communications]
Parayath, N. N., Stephan, S. B., Koehne, A. L., Nelson, P. S., & Stephan, M. T. (2020). In vitro-transcribed antigen receptor mRNA nanocarriers for transient expression in circulating T cells in vivo. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6080. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19486-2 Cite
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Inhibition of Long Noncoding RNA Linc-Pint by Hepatitis C Virus in Infected Hepatocytes Enhances Lipogenesis

Researchers demonstrated that overexpression of Linc‐Pint inhibited the expression of lipogenesis related genes, such as FASN and ACLYM. They also observed that Linc‐Pint significantly inhibits Hepatitis C virus replication.
[Hepatology]
Khatun, M., Sur, S., Steele, R., Ray, R., & Ray, R. B. (n.d.). Inhibition of long noncoding RNA Linc-Pint by hepatitis C virus in infected hepatocytes enhances lipogenesis. Hepatology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.31656 Cite
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