LMCs were less responsive to toll-like receptor stimulation than blood mononuclear cells, with fewer pro-inflammatory gene-expression pathways up-regulated after in vitro exposure to lipopolysaccharide and a TLR-7/8 agonist.
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Doyle, E. H., Aloman, C., El-Shamy, A., Eng, F., Rahman, A., Klepper, A. L., Haydel, B., Florman, S. S., Fiel, M. I., Schiano, T., & Branch, A. D. (2021). A subset of liver resident natural killer cells is expanded in hepatitis C-infected patients with better liver function. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1551. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80819-8 Cite
Alcoholic hepatitis mice model and primarily cultured mice hepatic stellate cells model were constructed. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were analyzed by ELISA.
[Annals of Hepatology]
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Gilead Sciences, Inc. and Vir Biotechnology, Inc. announced that the companies have entered into a clinical collaboration to evaluate novel therapeutic combination strategies aimed at developing a functional cure for chronic hepatitis B virus.
[Gilead Sciences, Inc. (BusinessWire, Inc)]
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Researchers report a progenitor–progeny relationship between memory-like and terminally exhausted hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells via an intermediate subset.
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Hensel, N., Gu, Z., Sagar, Wieland, D., Jechow, K., Kemming, J., Llewellyn-Lacey, S., Gostick, E., Sogukpinar, O., Emmerich, F., Price, D. A., Bengsch, B., Boettler, T., Neumann-Haefelin, C., Eils, R., Conrad, C., Bartenschlager, R., Grün, D., Ishaque, N., … Hofmann, M. (2021). Memory-like HCV-specific CD8 + T cells retain a molecular scar after cure of chronic HCV infection. Nature Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-00817-w Cite
The authors report that hepatitis B virus (HBV) activated glycolysis to impede retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-induced interferon production. They demonstrated that HBV sequesters MAVS from RIG-I by forming a ternary complex including hexokinase.
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Zhou, L., He, R., Fang, P., Li, M., Yu, H., Wang, Q., Yu, Y., Wang, F., Zhang, Y., Chen, A., Peng, N., Lin, Y., Zhang, R., Trilling, M., Broering, R., Lu, M., Zhu, Y., & Liu, S. (2021). Hepatitis B virus rigs the cellular metabolome to avoid innate immune recognition. Nature Communications, 12(1), 98. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20316-8 Cite
Scientists showed that PKCδ is a secretory protein that regulated cell growth of liver cancer. Full-length PKCδ was secreted to the extracellular space in living liver cancer cells under normal cell culture conditions and in xenograft mouse models.
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Yamada, K., Oikawa, T., Kizawa, R., Motohashi, S., Yoshida, S., Kumamoto, T., Saeki, C., Nakagawa, C., Shimoyama, Y., Aoki, K., Tachibana, T., Saruta, M., Ono, M., & Yoshida, K. (2020). Unconventional secretion of PKCδ exerts tumorigenic function via stimulation of ERK1/2 signaling in liver cancer. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2009 Cite
As Maryland deals with a record number of people hospitalized due to COVID-19, state officials also are working to contain an outbreak of hepatitis A, a highly contagious infectious disease for which a vaccine exists.
[The Baltimore Sun]
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Scientists found that inhibiting the function of the TRPM7 chanzyme potentiated the thymic development of Treg cells in mice and led to a substantially higher frequency of functional Treg cells in the periphery.
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Mendu, S. K., Stremska, M. E., Schappe, M. S., Moser, E. K., Krupa, J. K., Rogers, J. S., Stipes, E. J., Parker, C. A., Braciale, T. J., Perry, J. S. A., & Desai, B. N. (2020). Targeting the ion channel TRPM7 promotes the thymic development of regulatory T cells by promoting IL-2 signaling. Science Signaling, 13(661). https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.abb0619 Cite
Overexpression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) decreased hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA, whereas ablating MCPIP1 in vitro enhanced HBV production. The domains responsible for RNase activity or oligomerization, were required for MCPIP1-mediated viral RNA reduction.
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Li, Y., Que, L., Fukano, K., Koura, M., Kitamura, K., Zheng, X., Kato, T., Aly, H. H., Watashi, K., Tsukuda, S., Aizaki, H., Watanabe, N., Sato, Y., Suzuki, T., Suzuki, H. I., Hosomichi, K., Kurachi, M., Wakae, K., & Muramatsu, M. (2020). MCPIP1 reduces HBV-RNA by targeting its epsilon structure. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20763. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77166-z Cite
In mouse models of human leukemia, prostate cancer and hepatitis B-induced hepatocellular carcinoma, repeated infusions of these polymer nanocarriers induced sufficient host T cells expressing tumor-specific CARs or virus-specific TCRs to cause disease regression at levels similar to bolus infusions of ex vivo engineered lymphocytes.
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Researchers demonstrated that overexpression of Linc‐Pint inhibited the expression of lipogenesis related genes, such as FASN and ACLYM. They also observed that Linc‐Pint significantly inhibits Hepatitis C virus replication.