Researchers report that certain ligands could be obscured by the glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins that coat pathogenic as well as malignant phagocytic targets.
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NLRP3 inflammasome-related gene (Nlrp3 and Il1b) expression was upregulated in islets stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines and suppressed when incubated with MCC950.
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Matsuoka, T., Yoshimatsu, G., Sakata, N., Kawakami, R., Tanaka, T., Yamada, T., Yoshida, Y., Hasegawa, S., & Kodama, S. (2020). Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by MCC950 improves the metabolic outcome of islet transplantation by suppressing IL-1β and islet cellular death. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17920. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74786-3 Cite
The authors revealed a distinct ossification-related tuberculosis (TB) lung signature, which may be associated with the activation of the BMP/SMAD/RUNX2 pathway in Mtb-infected macrophages that can restrain mycobacterial survival and promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.
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Chai, Q., Lu, Z., Liu, Z., Zhong, Y., Zhang, F., Qiu, C., Li, B., Wang, J., Zhang, L., Pang, Y., & Liu, C. H. (2020). Lung gene expression signatures suggest pathogenic links and molecular markers for pulmonary tuberculosis, adenocarcinoma and sarcoidosis. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01318-0 Cite
Retinoic acid‐related orphan receptor beta (Ror β) was expressed in THP‐1 macrophages and human inflamed dental pulp stem cells during their resting stage. Upregulated expression of Ror β occurred following an anti‐inflammatory stimulus.
[International Endodontic Journal]
The authors identified distinct cues in the tissue microenvironment that differentially drive neutrophil and macrophage responses to sterile injury. Using live imaging, they found a motile zone for neutrophils, but not macrophages, in collagen-free regions and identified a specific role for interleukin-6 receptor signaling in neutrophil responses to thermal damage.
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Barros-Becker, F., Squirrell, J. M., Burke, R., Chini, J., Rindy, J., Karim, A., Eliceiri, K. W., Gibson, A., & Huttenlocher, A. (2020). Distinct tissue damage and microbial cues drive neutrophil and macrophage recruitment to thermal injury. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101699 Cite
Scientists evaluated the effects of soluble factor interactions in indirect cocultures of dedifferentiated fat cells and induced pluripotent stem cell‐derived cardiomyocytes.
[Cell Biology International]
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Scientists report a potent synergy between selective SIRPα blockade and immune checkpoint blockade in increasing memory T cell responses and reverting exclusion in syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Gauttier, V., Pengam, S., Durand, J., Biteau, K., Mary, C., Morello, A., Néel, M., Porto, G., Teppaz, G., Thepenier, V., Danger, R., Vince, N., Wilhelm, E., Girault, I., Abes, R., Ruiz, C., Trilleaud, C., Ralph, K.-L., Trombetta, E. S., … Poirier, N. (2020). Selective SIRPα blockade reverses tumor T cell exclusion and overcomes cancer immunotherapy resistance. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(11). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI135528 Cite
Researchers present an alternative approach for attenuating cell-surface receptor signaling, termed receptor inhibition by phosphatase recruitment.
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The authors identified a number of factors that Hofbauer cells (HBCs) secreted that could affect placental angiogenesis and remodeling. They determined that HBCs had the capacity to play a defensive role, where they were responsive to Toll-like receptor stimulation and were microbicidal.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
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Thomas, J. R., Appios, A., Zhao, X., Dutkiewicz, R., Donde, M., Lee, C. Y. C., Naidu, P., Lee, C., Cerveira, J., Liu, B., Ginhoux, F., Burton, G., Hamilton, R. S., Moffett, A., Sharkey, A., & McGovern, N. (2021). Phenotypic and functional characterization of first-trimester human placental macrophages, Hofbauer cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(1). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200891 Cite
Using single-cell RNA sequencing, researchers characterized the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected controls and COVID-19 patients and cells in paired broncho-alveolar lavage fluid.
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The differential immune responses to COVID-19 in peripheral and lung revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing | Cell Discovery. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41421-020-00225-2 Cite
M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR-590-3p reduced inflammatory signals and promoted epithelial regeneration by targeting LATS1 and subsequently activating YAP/β-catenin-regulated transcription
[Journal of Crohns & Colitis]
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M2 macrophage-derived exosomal-miR-590-3p attenuates DSS-induced mucosal damage and promotes epithelial repair via the LATS1/YAP/β-catenin signalling axis | Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis | Oxford Academic. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://academic.oup.com/ecco-jcc/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa214/5930684?redirectedFrom=fulltext Cite