An Acquired and Endogenous Glycocalyx Forms a Bidirectional “Don’t Eat” and “Don’t Eat Me” Barrier to Phagocytosis

Researchers report that certain ligands could be obscured by the glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins that coat pathogenic as well as malignant phagocytic targets.
[Current Biology]
Imbert, P. R. C., Saric, A., Pedram, K., Bertozzi, C. R., Grinstein, S., & Freeman, S. A. (2020). An Acquired and Endogenous Glycocalyx Forms a Bidirectional “Don’t Eat” and “Don’t Eat Me” Barrier to Phagocytosis. Current Biology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.09.082 Cite
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Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome by McC950 Improves the Metabolic Outcome of Islet Transplantation by Suppressing IL-1β and Islet Cellular Death

NLRP3 inflammasome-related gene (Nlrp3 and Il1b) expression was upregulated in islets stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines and suppressed when incubated with MCC950.
[Scientific Reports]
Matsuoka, T., Yoshimatsu, G., Sakata, N., Kawakami, R., Tanaka, T., Yamada, T., Yoshida, Y., Hasegawa, S., & Kodama, S. (2020). Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by MCC950 improves the metabolic outcome of islet transplantation by suppressing IL-1β and islet cellular death. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17920. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74786-3 Cite
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Lung Gene Expression Signatures Suggest Pathogenic Links and Molecular Markers for Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Adenocarcinoma and Sarcoidosis

The authors revealed a distinct ossification-related tuberculosis (TB) lung signature, which may be associated with the activation of the BMP/SMAD/RUNX2 pathway in Mtb-infected macrophages that can restrain mycobacterial survival and promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.
[Communications Biology]
Chai, Q., Lu, Z., Liu, Z., Zhong, Y., Zhang, F., Qiu, C., Li, B., Wang, J., Zhang, L., Pang, Y., & Liu, C. H. (2020). Lung gene expression signatures suggest pathogenic links and molecular markers for pulmonary tuberculosis, adenocarcinoma and sarcoidosis. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01318-0 Cite
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Ror β Expression in Activated Macrophages and Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Retinoic acid‐related orphan receptor beta (Ror β) was expressed in THP‐1 macrophages and human inflamed dental pulp stem cells during their resting stage. Upregulated expression of Ror β occurred following an anti‐inflammatory stimulus.
[International Endodontic Journal]
Gopinath, V. K., Soumya, S., & Mohammad, M. G. (n.d.). Ror β expression in Activated macrophages and Dental pulp stem cells. International Endodontic Journal, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1111/iej.13431 Cite
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Distinct Tissue Damage and Microbial Cues Drive Neutrophil and Macrophage Recruitment to Thermal Injury

The authors identified distinct cues in the tissue microenvironment that differentially drive neutrophil and macrophage responses to sterile injury. Using live imaging, they found a motile zone for neutrophils, but not macrophages, in collagen-free regions and identified a specific role for interleukin-6 receptor signaling in neutrophil responses to thermal damage.
[iScience]
Barros-Becker, F., Squirrell, J. M., Burke, R., Chini, J., Rindy, J., Karim, A., Eliceiri, K. W., Gibson, A., & Huttenlocher, A. (2020). Distinct tissue damage and microbial cues drive neutrophil and macrophage recruitment to thermal injury. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101699 Cite
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Soluble Factors Released by Dedifferentiated Fat Cells Reduce the Functional Activity of iPS Cell‐Derived Cardiomyocytes

Scientists evaluated the effects of soluble factor interactions in indirect cocultures of dedifferentiated fat cells and induced pluripotent stem cell‐derived cardiomyocytes.
[Cell Biology International]
Watanabe, H., Kanemaru, K., Hagikura, K., Matsumoto, T., Ayusawa, M., & Morioka, I. (n.d.). Soluble factors released by dedifferentiated fat cells reduce the functional activity of iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Cell Biology International, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11487 Cite
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Selective SIRPα Blockade Reverses Tumor T Cell Exclusion and Overcomes Cancer Immunotherapy Resistance

Scientists report a potent synergy between selective SIRPα blockade and immune checkpoint blockade in increasing memory T cell responses and reverting exclusion in syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Gauttier, V., Pengam, S., Durand, J., Biteau, K., Mary, C., Morello, A., Néel, M., Porto, G., Teppaz, G., Thepenier, V., Danger, R., Vince, N., Wilhelm, E., Girault, I., Abes, R., Ruiz, C., Trilleaud, C., Ralph, K.-L., Trombetta, E. S., … Poirier, N. (2020). Selective SIRPα blockade reverses tumor T cell exclusion and overcomes cancer immunotherapy resistance. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(11). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI135528 Cite
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Immune Receptor Inhibition through Enforced Phosphatase Recruitment

Researchers present an alternative approach for attenuating cell-surface receptor signaling, termed receptor inhibition by phosphatase recruitment.
[Nature]
Immune receptor inhibition through enforced phosphatase recruitment | Nature. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2851-2#Abs1 Cite
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Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of First-Trimester Human Placental Macrophages, Hofbauer Cells

The authors identified a number of factors that Hofbauer cells (HBCs) secreted that could affect placental angiogenesis and remodeling. They determined that HBCs had the capacity to play a defensive role, where they were responsive to Toll-like receptor stimulation and were microbicidal.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
Thomas, J. R., Appios, A., Zhao, X., Dutkiewicz, R., Donde, M., Lee, C. Y. C., Naidu, P., Lee, C., Cerveira, J., Liu, B., Ginhoux, F., Burton, G., Hamilton, R. S., Moffett, A., Sharkey, A., & McGovern, N. (2021). Phenotypic and functional characterization of first-trimester human placental macrophages, Hofbauer cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(1). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200891 Cite
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The Differential Immune Responses to COVID-19 in Peripheral and Lung Revealed by Single-Cell RNA Sequencing

Using single-cell RNA sequencing, researchers characterized the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected controls and COVID-19 patients and cells in paired broncho-alveolar lavage fluid.
[Cell Discovery]
The differential immune responses to COVID-19 in peripheral and lung revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing | Cell Discovery. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41421-020-00225-2 Cite
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M2 Macrophage-Derived Exosomal-miR-590-3p Attenuates DSS-Induced Mucosal Damage and Promotes Epithelial Repair via the LATS1/YAP/β-Catenin Signalling Axis

M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR-590-3p reduced inflammatory signals and promoted epithelial regeneration by targeting LATS1 and subsequently activating YAP/β-catenin-regulated transcription
[Journal of Crohns & Colitis]
M2 macrophage-derived exosomal-miR-590-3p attenuates DSS-induced mucosal damage and promotes epithelial repair via the LATS1/YAP/β-catenin signalling axis | Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis | Oxford Academic. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://academic.oup.com/ecco-jcc/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa214/5930684?redirectedFrom=fulltext Cite
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