Investigators outline the results of preclinical research on fetal stem cell therapy, mainly involving human amniotic fluid stem cells, in the context of perinatal neurological diseases.
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The authors reported that TEAD1 is required for postmitotic cardiomyocyte (CM) survival. They found that adult mice with ubiquitous or CM-specific loss of Tead1 present with a rapid lethality due to an acute-onset dilated cardiomyopathy.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
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Liu, J., Wen, T., Dong, K., He, X., Zhou, H., Shen, J., Fu, Z., Hu, G., Ma, W., Li, J., Wang, W., Wang, L., Akerberg, B. N., Xu, J., Osman, I., Zheng, Z., Wang, W., Du, Q., Pu, W. T., … Zhou, J. (2021). TEAD1 protects against necroptosis in postmitotic cardiomyocytes through regulation of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial genes. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00732-5 Cite
Invasion of macrophages by L. monocytogenes induced mitochondrial Ca2+ (mtCa2+) uptake through the mtCa2+ uniporter, which in turn increased acetyl-coenzyme A production by pyruvate dehydrogenase.
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Li, T., Kong, L., Li, X., Wu, S., Attri, K. S., Li, Y., Gong, W., Zhao, B., Li, L., Herring, L. E., Asara, J. M., Xu, L., Luo, X., Lei, Y. L., Ma, Q., Seveau, S., Gunn, J. S., Cheng, X., Singh, P. K., … Wen, H. (2021). Listeria monocytogenes upregulates mitochondrial calcium signalling to inhibit LC3-associated phagocytosis as a survival strategy. Nature Microbiology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-00843-2 Cite
Using atg5-deficient and atg7-/- macrophages, scientists provide evidence that loss of ATG5 but not of ATG7 resulted in LC3-II depletion.
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The roles and mechanisms of dopamine to affect the chemotherapeutic efficacy for pancreatic cancer were studied. Multi-omics results revealed that there was a tumor-promoting vicious cycle involving murine pancreatic cancer cells and tumor-associated macrophages.
[Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy]
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Liu, Q., Zhang, R., Zhang, X., Liu, J., Wu, H., Li, Y., Cui, M., Li, T., Song, H., Gao, J., Zhang, Y., Yang, S., & Liao, Q. (2021). Dopamine improves chemotherapeutic efficacy for pancreatic cancer by regulating macrophage-derived inflammations. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02816-0 Cite
Researchers studied the cytotoxic, proinflammatory, and DNA damaging properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone‐capped silver and titanium dioxide engineered nanomaterials in four in vitro models of increasing complexity—from proliferating Caco‐2 and HT29‐MTX‐E12 monocultures to long‐term transwell triple cultures including THP‐1 macrophages to reproduce the human intestine in healthy versus inflamed‐like state.
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Kämpfer, A. A. M., Busch, M., Büttner, V., Bredeck, G., Stahlmecke, B., Hellack, B., Masson, I., Sofranko, A., Albrecht, C., & Schins, R. P. F. (n.d.). Model Complexity as Determining Factor for In Vitro Nanosafety Studies: Effects of Silver and Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials in Intestinal Models. Small, n/a(n/a), 2004223. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202004223 Cite
Researchers examined a role for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in hematopoietic cells in regulating white adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin sensitivity.
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Researchers analyzed the molecular determinants of monocytic and macrophagic commitment by profiling the EGR1 transcription factor. EGR1 is essential for monopoiesis and binds enhancers that regulate monocytic developmental genes such as CSF1R.
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The authors discuss the cardiac lymphatic vasculature with a focus on developments over the past five years arising from the study of mammalian and zebrafish model organisms.
[Nature Reviews Cardiology]
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Dong, X., Wang, F., Liu, C., Ling, J., Jia, X., Shen, F., Yang, N., Zhu, S., Zhong, L., & Li, Q. (2021). Single-cell analysis reveals the intra-tumor heterogeneity and identifies MLXIPL as a biomarker in the cellular trajectory of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cell Death Discovery, 7(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00403-5 Cite
Scientists investigated whether pretreatment with IFN-γ could potentiate the anti-fibrotic ability of MSCs in rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury and unilateral ureter obstruction.
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Kanai, R., Nakashima, A., Doi, S., Kimura, T., Yoshida, K., Maeda, S., Ishiuchi, N., Yamada, Y., Ike, T., Doi, T., Kato, Y., & Masaki, T. (2021). Interferon-γ enhances the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells on experimental renal fibrosis. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 850. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79664-6 Cite
Researchers obtained third trimester amniotic fluid from term cesarean delivery and isolated and expanded MSCs in vitro. They then generated 10 mm wounds in Leprdb/db diabetic mouse skin, and splinted them open to allow for humanized wound modeling.
[Journal of Translational Medicine]
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