Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells as a Novel Strategy for the Treatment of Fetal and Neonatal Neurological Diseases

Investigators outline the results of preclinical research on fetal stem cell therapy, mainly involving human amniotic fluid stem cells, in the context of perinatal neurological diseases.
[Placenta]
Abe, Y., Ochiai, D., Sato, Y., Otani, T., Fukutake, M., Ikenoue, S., Kasuga, Y., & Tanaka, M. (2021). Amniotic fluid stem cells as a novel strategy for the treatment of fetal and neonatal neurological diseases. Placenta, 104, 247–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2021.01.009 Cite
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TEAD1 Protects against Necroptosis in Postmitotic Cardiomyocytes through Regulation of Nuclear DNA-Encoded Mitochondrial Genes

The authors reported that TEAD1 is required for postmitotic cardiomyocyte (CM) survival. They found that adult mice with ubiquitous or CM-specific loss of Tead1 present with a rapid lethality due to an acute-onset dilated cardiomyopathy.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Liu, J., Wen, T., Dong, K., He, X., Zhou, H., Shen, J., Fu, Z., Hu, G., Ma, W., Li, J., Wang, W., Wang, L., Akerberg, B. N., Xu, J., Osman, I., Zheng, Z., Wang, W., Du, Q., Pu, W. T., … Zhou, J. (2021). TEAD1 protects against necroptosis in postmitotic cardiomyocytes through regulation of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial genes. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00732-5 Cite
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Listeria monocytogenes Upregulates Mitochondrial Calcium Signaling To Inhibit LC3-Associated Phagocytosis as a Survival Strategy

Invasion of macrophages by L. monocytogenes induced mitochondrial Ca2+ (mtCa2+) uptake through the mtCa2+ uniporter, which in turn increased acetyl-coenzyme A production by pyruvate dehydrogenase.
[Nature Microbiology]
Li, T., Kong, L., Li, X., Wu, S., Attri, K. S., Li, Y., Gong, W., Zhao, B., Li, L., Herring, L. E., Asara, J. M., Xu, L., Luo, X., Lei, Y. L., Ma, Q., Seveau, S., Gunn, J. S., Cheng, X., Singh, P. K., … Wen, H. (2021). Listeria monocytogenes upregulates mitochondrial calcium signalling to inhibit LC3-associated phagocytosis as a survival strategy. Nature Microbiology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-00843-2 Cite
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ATG7 Is Dispensable for LC3–PE Conjugation in Thioglycolate-Elicited Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages

Using atg5-deficient and atg7-/- macrophages, scientists provide evidence that loss of ATG5 but not of ATG7 resulted in LC3-II depletion.
[Autophagy]
Vujić, N., Bradić, I., Goeritzer, M., Kuentzel, K. B., Rainer, S., Kratky, D., & Radović, B. (2021). ATG7 is dispensable for LC3–PE conjugation in thioglycolate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages. Autophagy, 0(0), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1874132 Cite
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Dopamine Improves Chemotherapeutic Efficacy for Pancreatic Cancer by Regulating Macrophage-Derived Inflammations

The roles and mechanisms of dopamine to affect the chemotherapeutic efficacy for pancreatic cancer were studied. Multi-omics results revealed that there was a tumor-promoting vicious cycle involving murine pancreatic cancer cells and tumor-associated macrophages.
[Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy]
Liu, Q., Zhang, R., Zhang, X., Liu, J., Wu, H., Li, Y., Cui, M., Li, T., Song, H., Gao, J., Zhang, Y., Yang, S., & Liao, Q. (2021). Dopamine improves chemotherapeutic efficacy for pancreatic cancer by regulating macrophage-derived inflammations. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02816-0 Cite
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Model Complexity as Determining Factor for In Vitro Nanosafety Studies: Effects of Silver and Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials in Intestinal Models

Researchers studied the cytotoxic, proinflammatory, and DNA damaging properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone‐capped silver and titanium dioxide engineered nanomaterials in four in vitro models of increasing complexity—from proliferating Caco‐2 and HT29‐MTX‐E12 monocultures to long‐term transwell triple cultures including THP‐1 macrophages to reproduce the human intestine in healthy versus inflamed‐like state.
[Small]
Kämpfer, A. A. M., Busch, M., Büttner, V., Bredeck, G., Stahlmecke, B., Hellack, B., Masson, I., Sofranko, A., Albrecht, C., & Schins, R. P. F. (n.d.). Model Complexity as Determining Factor for In Vitro Nanosafety Studies: Effects of Silver and Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials in Intestinal Models. Small, n/a(n/a), 2004223. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202004223 Cite
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Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Systemic Insulin Resistance in Mice with Diet-Induced Obesity Is Possibly Associated with Disruption of PFKFB3 in Hematopoietic Cells

Researchers examined a role for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in hematopoietic cells in regulating white adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin sensitivity.
[Laboratory Investigation]
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EGR1 Is a Gatekeeper of Inflammatory Enhancers in Human Macrophages

Researchers analyzed the molecular determinants of monocytic and macrophagic commitment by profiling the EGR1 transcription factor. EGR1 is essential for monopoiesis and binds enhancers that regulate monocytic developmental genes such as CSF1R.
[Science Advances]
EGR1 is a gatekeeper of inflammatory enhancers in human macrophages | Science Advances. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2021, from https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/3/eaaz8836 Cite
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The Evolving Cardiac Lymphatic Vasculature In Development, Repair And Regeneration

The authors discuss the cardiac lymphatic vasculature with a focus on developments over the past five years arising from the study of mammalian and zebrafish model organisms.
[Nature Reviews Cardiology]
Dong, X., Wang, F., Liu, C., Ling, J., Jia, X., Shen, F., Yang, N., Zhu, S., Zhong, L., & Li, Q. (2021). Single-cell analysis reveals the intra-tumor heterogeneity and identifies MLXIPL as a biomarker in the cellular trajectory of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cell Death Discovery, 7(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00403-5 Cite
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Interferon-γ Enhances the Therapeutic Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Experimental Renal Fibrosis

Scientists investigated whether pretreatment with IFN-γ could potentiate the anti-fibrotic ability of MSCs in rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury and unilateral ureter obstruction.
[Scientific Reports]
Kanai, R., Nakashima, A., Doi, S., Kimura, T., Yoshida, K., Maeda, S., Ishiuchi, N., Yamada, Y., Ike, T., Doi, T., Kato, Y., & Masaki, T. (2021). Interferon-γ enhances the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells on experimental renal fibrosis. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 850. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79664-6 Cite
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Amniotic Fluid-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells Drive Diabetic Wound Healing through Modulation of Macrophages

Researchers obtained third trimester amniotic fluid from term cesarean delivery and isolated and expanded MSCs in vitro. They then generated 10 mm wounds in Leprdb/db diabetic mouse skin, and splinted them open to allow for humanized wound modeling.
[Journal of Translational Medicine]
Subhan, B. S., Kwong, J., Kuhn, J. F., Monas, A., Sharma, S., & Rabbani, P. S. (2021). Amniotic fluid-derived multipotent stromal cells drive diabetic wound healing through modulation of macrophages. Journal of Translational Medicine, 19(1), 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02674-5 Cite
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