Mutant KRAS Triggers Functional Reprogramming of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Colorectal Cancer

Mutationally activated KRAS in tumor cells reprograms macrophages to a tumor-associated macrophage-like phenotype via a combination effect of tumor-derived CSF2 and lactate.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Liu, H., Liang, Z., Zhou, C., Zeng, Z., Wang, F., Hu, T., He, X., Wu, X., Wu, X., & Lan, P. (2021). Mutant KRAS triggers functional reprogramming of tumor-associated macrophages in colorectal cancer. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00534-2 Cite
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Pharmacological Effects of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Seed Polysaccharides: GSF3 Inhibits PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cell Growth through Immunotherapy In Vitro

Guava seed polysaccharides (GSPS), GSF1, GSF2, and GSF3 were isolated using Sepharose 6B gel filtration chromatography to assay their inhibitory effects on prostate PC-3 cell growth with direct action or indirect immunotherapy.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Lin, H.-C., & Lin, J.-Y. (2021). Pharmacological Effects of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Seed Polysaccharides: GSF3 Inhibits PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cell Growth through Immunotherapy In Vitro. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(7), 3631. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073631 Cite
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CD47-Mediated Hedgehog/SMO/GLI1 Signaling Promotes Mesenchymal Stem Cell Immunomodulation in Mouse Liver Inflammation

Investigators found that mesenchymal stem cell CD47 and macrophage signal regulatory protein alpha expression were increased after LPS stimulation.
[Hepatology]
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Symbiotic Polyamine Metabolism Regulates Epithelial Proliferation and Macrophage Differentiation in the Colon

Scientists showed that microbial polyamines reinforce colonic epithelial proliferation and regulate macrophage differentiation.
[Nature Communications]
Nakamura, A., Kurihara, S., Takahashi, D., Ohashi, W., Nakamura, Y., Kimura, S., Onuki, M., Kume, A., Sasazawa, Y., Furusawa, Y., Obata, Y., Fukuda, S., Saiki, S., Matsumoto, M., & Hase, K. (2021). Symbiotic polyamine metabolism regulates epithelial proliferation and macrophage differentiation in the colon. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2105. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22212-1 Cite
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Prognostic and Therapeutic Implications of Extracellular Matrix Associated Gene Signature in Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma

The expression of ECM-related genes was explored for prognostic and immunological implication in clear cell renal clear cell carcinoma.
[Scientific Reports]
Ahluwalia, P., Ahluwalia, M., Mondal, A. K., Sahajpal, N., Kota, V., Rojiani, M. V., Rojiani, A. M., & Kolhe, R. (2021). Prognostic and therapeutic implications of extracellular matrix associated gene signature in renal clear cell carcinoma. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7561. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86888-7 Cite
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How to Turn Up the Heat on the Cold Immune Microenvironment of Metastatic Prostate Cancer

The authors discuss the immunopathology of the prostate tumor microenvironment, strategies for treating prostate cancer with immunotherapies, and a perspective on potential approaches to enhancing the efficacy of immunotherapies.
[Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases]
Stultz, J., & Fong, L. (2021). How to turn up the heat on the cold immune microenvironment of metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00340-5 Cite
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Hypoxic Glioma-Derived Exosomes Promote M2-Like Macrophage Polarization by Enhancing Autophagy Induction

The authors investigated the effects of glioma-derived exosomes on autophagy, the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages, and glioma progression.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Xu, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Gao, Z., Qi, Y., Qiu, W., Pan, Z., Guo, Q., Li, B., Zhao, S., Guo, X., Qian, M., Chen, Z., Wang, S., Gao, X., Zhang, S., Wang, H., Guo, X., Zhang, P., … Li, G. (2021). Hypoxic glioma-derived exosomes promote M2-like macrophage polarization by enhancing autophagy induction. Cell Death & Disease, 12(4), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03664-1 Cite
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The Anti-inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-37 Is an Inhibitor of Trained Immunity

The authors showed that administration of recombinant IL-37 abrogated the protective effects of TI in vivo, as revealed by reduced host pro-inflammatory responses and survival to disseminated candidiasis.
[Cell Reports]
Cavalli, G., Tengesdal, I. W., Gresnigt, M., Nemkov, T., Arts, R. J. W., Domínguez-Andrés, J., Molteni, R., Stefanoni, D., Cantoni, E., Cassina, L., Giugliano, S., Schraa, K., Mills, T. S., Pietras, E. M., Eisenmensser, E. Z., Dagna, L., Boletta, A., D’Alessandro, A., Joosten, L. A. B., … Dinarello, C. A. (2021). The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-37 is an inhibitor of trained immunity. Cell Reports, 35(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108955 Cite
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Coordinated Interactions between Endothelial Cells and Macrophages in the Islet Microenvironment Promote β Cell Regeneration

The authors showed that proliferative endothelial cells modulated macrophage (MΦ) infiltration and phenotype during β cell loss, and recruited MΦs were essential for β cell recovery.
[npj Regenerative Medicine]
Saunders, D. C., Aamodt, K. I., Richardson, T. M., Hopkirk, A. J., Aramandla, R., Poffenberger, G., Jenkins, R., Flaherty, D. K., Prasad, N., Levy, S. E., Powers, A. C., & Brissova, M. (2021). Coordinated interactions between endothelial cells and macrophages in the islet microenvironment promote β cell regeneration. Npj Regenerative Medicine, 6(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41536-021-00129-z Cite
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Exosome-Eluting Stents for Vascular Healing after Ischaemic Injury

Researchers showed that stents releasing exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of reactive oxygen species enhanced vascular healing in rats with renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury, promoting endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation, and impairing the migration of smooth muscle cells.
[Nature Biomedical Engineering]
Hu, S., Li, Z., Shen, D., Zhu, D., Huang, K., Su, T., Dinh, P.-U., Cores, J., & Cheng, K. (2021). Exosome-eluting stents for vascular healing after ischaemic injury. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00705-0 Cite
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Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2α Mediates Senescence-Associated Intrinsic Mechanisms of Age-Related Bone Loss

Inhibition of senescence-induced upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α expression during matrix maturation, but not during the proliferation stage of osteoblast differentiation, reversed the age-related decrease in Runx2 and Ocn expression.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Lee, S. Y., Park, K. H., Lee, G., Kim, S.-J., Song, W.-H., Kwon, S.-H., Koh, J.-T., Huh, Y. H., & Ryu, J.-H. (2021). Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α mediates senescence-associated intrinsic mechanisms of age-related bone loss. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00594-y Cite
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