Necroptosis Protects against Exacerbation of Acute Pancreatitis

Researchers found that Ripk3−/− mice had significantly more severe pancreatic edema and inflammation associated with macrophage and neutrophil infiltration than control mice.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Boonchan, M., Arimochi, H., Otsuka, K., Kobayashi, T., Uehara, H., Jaroonwitchawan, T., Sasaki, Y., Tsukumo, S., & Yasutomo, K. (2021). Necroptosis protects against exacerbation of acute pancreatitis. Cell Death & Disease, 12(6), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03847-w Cite
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Blocking Siglec-10hi Tumor-Associated Macrophages Improves Anti-Tumor Immunity and Enhances Immunotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were performed to detect the characteristics of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 10high (Siglec-10hi) tumor-associated macrophages and explore their impact on the tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
[Experimental Hematology & Oncology]
Xiao, N., Zhu, X., Li, K., Chen, Y., Liu, X., Xu, B., Lei, M., Xu, J., & Sun, H.-C. (2021). Blocking siglec-10hi tumor-associated macrophages improves anti-tumor immunity and enhances immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Experimental Hematology & Oncology, 10(1), 36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40164-021-00230-5 Cite
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TAM Kinase Signaling Is Indispensable for Proper Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in Mice

The authors investigated the involvement of TAM receptor kinases Mer and Axl in the muscle regeneration process by studying the muscle repair following cardiotoxin-induced injury in Mer−/− mice.In vitro inhibition of TAM kinase signaling in C2C12 myoblasts resulted in decreased viability and in impaired myotube growth.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Tim-4+ Cavity-Resident Macrophages Impair Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Immunity

The authors showed that metastatic disease in the pleural and peritoneal cavities is associated with poor clinical outcomes after immune checkpoint blockade therapy.
[Cancer Cell]
Chow, A., Schad, S., Green, M. D., Hellmann, M. D., Allaj, V., Ceglia, N., Zago, G., Shah, N. S., Sharma, S. K., Mattar, M., Chan, J., Rizvi, H., Zhong, H., Liu, C., Bykov, Y., Zamarin, D., Shi, H., Budhu, S., Wohlhieter, C., … Merghoub, T. (2021). Tim-4+ cavity-resident macrophages impair anti-tumor CD8+ T cell immunity. Cancer Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.05.006 Cite
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Monocyte Metabolic Transcriptional Programs Associate with Resistance to Tuberculin Skin Test/Interferon-γ Release Assay Conversion

To identify mechanisms of resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, scientists compared transcriptional profiles from highly-exposed contacts who resist tuberculin skin test/interferon-γ release assay conversion and controls with latent Mtb infection using RNAseq.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Simmons, J. D., Van, P. T., Stein, C. M., Chihota, V., Ntshiqa, T., Maenetje, P., Peterson, G. J., Reynolds, A., Benchek, P., Velen, K., Fielding, K. L., Grant, A. D., Graustein, A. D., Nguyen, F. K., Seshadri, C., Gottardo, R., Mayanja-Kizza, H., Wallis, R. S., Churchyard, G., … Hawn, T. R. (2021). Monocyte metabolic transcriptional programs associate with resistance to tuberculin skin test/interferon-γ release assay conversion. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI140073 Cite
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Characteristics and Spatially-Defined Immune (Micro)landscapes of Early-Stage PD-L1-Positive Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

A large cohort of chemotherapy-naïve triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), clinicopathologic features, deconvoluted RNA immune signatures, and intraepithelial and stromal TIME were identified in subsets of PD-L1+ and PD-L1- TNBC.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
Carter, J. M., Polley, M.-Y. C., Leon-Ferre, R. A., Sinnwell, J., Thompson, K. J., Wang, X., Ma, Y., Zahrieh, D., Kachergus, J. M., Solanki, M., Boughey, J. C., Liu, M. C., Ingle, J. N., Kalari, K. R., Couch, F. J., Thompson, E. A., & Goetz, M. P. (2021). Characteristics and spatially-defined immune (micro)landscapes of early-stage PD-L1-positive triple-negative breast cancer. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0343 Cite
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SARS-CoV-2 Envelope Protein Causes Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)-Like Pathological Damages and Constitutes an Antiviral Target

Researchers showed that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome-like damages in vitro and in vivo.
[Cell Research]
Xia, B., Shen, X., He, Y., Pan, X., Liu, F.-L., Wang, Y., Yang, F., Fang, S., Wu, Y., Duan, Z., Zuo, X., Xie, Z., Jiang, X., Xu, L., Chi, H., Li, S., Meng, Q., Zhou, H., Zhou, Y., … Gao, Z. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like pathological damages and constitutes an antiviral target. Cell Research, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00519-4 Cite
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D-Dopachrome Tautomerase Contributes to Lung Epithelial Repair via Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3-Dependent Akt Signaling

Investigators studied effects of recombinant D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) on cell proliferation and survival by clonogenic assay and annexin V-PI staining respectively. DDT-induced signaling was investigated by Western blot.
[Ebiomedicine]
Song, S., Liu, B., Habibie, H., Bor, J. van den, Smit, M. J., Gosens, R., Wu, X., Brandsma, C.-A., Cool, R. H., Haisma, H. J., Poelarends, G. J., & Melgert, B. N. (2021). D-dopachrome tautomerase contributes to lung epithelial repair via atypical chemokine receptor 3-dependent Akt signaling. EBioMedicine, 68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103412 Cite
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Alternative Activation of Macrophages by Prostacyclin Synthase Ameliorates Alcohol Induced Liver Injury

Investigators demonstrated that PTGIS was downregulated in alchoholic liver disease and forced PTGIS expression in vivo using recombinant adeno-associated viral vector-packed prostacyclin synthase overexpression plasmid, which alleviated the inflammatory response and suppressed the macrophage M1 phenotype in mice.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Pan, X., Wang, L., You, H., Cheng, M., Yang, Y., Huang, C., & Li, J. (2021). Alternative activation of macrophages by prostacyclin synthase ameliorates alcohol induced liver injury. Laboratory Investigation, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00531-7 Cite
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Targeting Monoamine Oxidase A-Regulated Tumor-Associated Macrophage Polarization for Cancer Immunotherapy

Scientists observed monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) induction in mouse and human tumor-associated macrophages (tAMs). MAO-A-deficient mice exhibit decreased TAM immunosuppressive functions corresponding with enhanced antitumor immunity.
[Nature Communications]
Wang, Y.-C., Wang, X., Yu, J., Ma, F., Li, Z., Zhou, Y., Zeng, S., Ma, X., Li, Y.-R., Neal, A., Huang, J., To, A., Clarke, N., Memarzadeh, S., Pellegrini, M., & Yang, L. (2021). Targeting monoamine oxidase A-regulated tumor-associated macrophage polarization for cancer immunotherapy. Nature Communications, 12(1), 3530. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23164-2 Cite
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Metformin Inhibition of Mitochondrial ATP and DNA Synthesis Abrogates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Pulmonary Inflammation

Researchers showed that metformin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1β production in cultured and alveolar macrophages along with inflammasome-independent IL-6 secretion, thus attenuating lipopolysaccharide- and SARS-CoV-2-induced Acute respiratory distress syndrome.
[Immunity]
Xian, H., Liu, Y., Nilsson, A. R., Gatchalian, R., Crother, T. R., Tourtellotte, W. G., Zhang, Y., Aleman-Muench, G. R., Lewis, G., Chen, W., Kang, S., Luevanos, M., Trudler, D., Lipton, S. A., Soroosh, P., Teijaro, J., Torre, J. C. de la, Arditi, M., Karin, M., & Sanchez-Lopez, E. (2021). Metformin inhibition of mitochondrial ATP and DNA synthesis abrogates NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pulmonary inflammation. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.05.004 Cite
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