The authors uncovered a fundamental role of commensal skin microbiota and showed that it was mediated by the recruitment and the activation of type I interferon (IFN)-producing plasmacytoid DC.
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Scientists demonstrated that aveolar macrophages, but not epithelial cells (ECs), constitutively secreted paracrine activity localized to extracellular vesicles which inhibited influenza infection of ECs in vitro and in vivo .
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Scientists showed that the Parkinson’s disease‐related kinase LRRK 2 was activated in macrophages by pathogen‐ or sterile‐induced endomembrane damage.
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Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and phagocytosis and intracellular survival were quantified by immunofluorescence and colony counts, respectively.
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Scentists identified erythroid membrane-associated protein (ERMAP) as a novel T cell inhibitory molecule. ERMAP shared significant sequence and structural homology with existing B7 family members in its extracellular domain.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
The authors report an efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based approach that targeted glucocerebrosidase expression cassettes with a monocyte/macrophage-specific element to the CCR5 safe-harbor locus in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
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Scharenberg, S. G., Poletto, E., Lucot, K. L., Colella, P., Sheikali, A., Montine, T. J., … Gomez-Ospina, N. (2020). Engineering monocyte/macrophage−specific glucocerebrosidase expression in human hematopoietic stem cells using genome editing. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3327. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17148-x Cite
The authors showed that Rab44 was highly expressed in bone marrow cells among various mouse tissues.
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Mechanistically, several immune receptors, adapter proteins, ubiquitin ligases, and transcription factors formed complex signal transduction networks to control ACOD1 expression in a context-dependent manner.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Investigators used single-cell transcriptomics to profile 32,000 synovial tissue macrophages and identified phenotypic changes in patients with early/active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), treatment-refractory/active RA and RA in sustained remission.
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Mechanism dissection revealed that miR-92a-2-5p from the exosomes could target the 3′UTR of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA to suppress AR translation, altering the PHLPP/p-AKT/β-catenin signaling to increase liver cancer cells invasion.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
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Liu, G., Ouyang, X., Sun, Y., Xiao, Y., You, B., Gao, Y., Yeh, S., Li, Y., & Chang, C. (2020). The miR-92a-2-5p in exosomes from macrophages increases liver cancer cells invasion via altering the AR/PHLPP/p-AKT/β-catenin signaling. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0575-3 Cite
A novel and viable cell-free therapeutic strategy by umbilical cord-MSC-derived exosomes was proposed.
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Xin, L., Lin, X., Zhou, F., Li, C., Wang, X., Yu, H., … Zhang, S. (2020). A scaffold laden with mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes for promoting endometrium regeneration and fertility restoration through macrophage immunomodulation. Acta Biomaterialia. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.06.029 Cite