The Commensal Skin Microbiota Triggers Type I IFN–Dependent Innate Repair Responses in Injured Skin

The authors uncovered a fundamental role of commensal skin microbiota and showed that it was mediated by the recruitment and the activation of type I interferon (IFN)-producing plasmacytoid DC.
[Nature Immunology]
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Alveolar Macrophage-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Inhibit Endosomal Fusion of Influenza Virus

Scientists demonstrated that aveolar macrophages, but not epithelial cells (ECs), constitutively secreted paracrine activity localized to extracellular vesicles which inhibited influenza infection of ECs in vitro and in vivo .
[EMBO Journal]
Schneider, D. J., Smith, K. A., Latuszek, C. E., Wilke, C. A., Lyons, D. M., Penke, L. R., … Peters-Golden, M. (2020). Alveolar macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles inhibit endosomal fusion of influenza virus. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e105057. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020105057 Cite
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LRRK 2 Activation Controls the Repair of Damaged Endomembranes in Macrophages

Scientists showed that the Parkinson’s disease‐related kinase LRRK 2 was activated in macrophages by pathogen‐ or sterile‐induced endomembrane damage.
[EMBO Journal]
Herbst, S., Campbell, P., Harvey, J., Bernard, E. M., Papayannopoulos, V., Wood, N. W., … Gutierrez, M. G. (2020). LRRK2 activation controls the repair of damaged endomembranes in macrophages. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e104494. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020104494 Cite
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Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infects and Replicates within Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and phagocytosis and intracellular survival were quantified by immunofluorescence and colony counts, respectively.
[Microorganisms]
Rees, W. D., Lorenzo-Leal, A. C., Steiner, T. S., & Bach, H. (2020). Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infects and Replicates within Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells. Microorganisms, 8(7), 994. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8070994 Cite
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ERMAP Is a B7 Family-Related Molecule That Negatively Regulates T Cell and Macrophage Responses

Scentists identified erythroid membrane-associated protein (ERMAP) as a novel T cell inhibitory molecule. ERMAP shared significant sequence and structural homology with existing B7 family members in its extracellular domain.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Su, M., Lin, Y., Cui, C., Tian, X., & Lai, L. (2020). ERMAP is a B7 family-related molecule that negatively regulates T cell and macrophage responses. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0494-8 Cite
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Engineering Monocyte/Macrophage-Specific Glucocerebrosidase Expression in Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells Using Genome Editing

The authors report an efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based approach that targeted glucocerebrosidase expression cassettes with a monocyte/macrophage-specific element to the CCR5 safe-harbor locus in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
[Nature Communications]
Scharenberg, S. G., Poletto, E., Lucot, K. L., Colella, P., Sheikali, A., Montine, T. J., … Gomez-Ospina, N. (2020). Engineering monocyte/macrophage−specific glucocerebrosidase expression in human hematopoietic stem cells using genome editing. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3327. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17148-x Cite
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Expression and Localisation of Rab44 in Immune-Related Cells Change during Cell Differentiation and Stimulation

The authors showed that Rab44 was highly expressed in bone marrow cells among various mouse tissues.
[Scientific Reports]
Tokuhisa, M., Kadowaki, T., Ogawa, K., Yamaguchi, Y., Kido, M. A., Gao, W., … Tsukuba, T. (2020). Expression and localisation of Rab44 in immune-related cells change during cell differentiation and stimulation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 10728. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67638-7 Cite
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ACOD1 in Immunometabolism and Disease

Mechanistically, several immune receptors, adapter proteins, ubiquitin ligases, and transcription factors formed complex signal transduction networks to control ACOD1 expression in a context-dependent manner.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Wu, R., Chen, F., Wang, N., Tang, D., & Kang, R. (2020). ACOD1 in immunometabolism and disease. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0489-5 Cite
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Distinct Synovial Tissue Macrophage Subsets Regulate Inflammation and Remission in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Investigators used single-cell transcriptomics to profile 32,000 synovial tissue macrophages and identified phenotypic changes in patients with early/active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), treatment-refractory/active RA and RA in sustained remission.
[Nature Medicine]
Alivernini, S., MacDonald, L., Elmesmari, A., Finlay, S., Tolusso, B., Gigante, M. R., … Kurowska-Stolarska, M. (2020). Distinct synovial tissue macrophage subsets regulate inflammation and remission in rheumatoid arthritis. Nature Medicine, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0939-8 Cite
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The miR-92a-2-5p in Exosomes from Macrophages Increases Liver Cancer Cells Invasion via Altering the Ar/Phlpp/P-Akt/β-Catenin Signaling

Mechanism dissection revealed that miR-92a-2-5p from the exosomes could target the 3′UTR of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA to suppress AR translation, altering the PHLPP/p-AKT/β-catenin signaling to increase liver cancer cells invasion.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Liu, G., Ouyang, X., Sun, Y., Xiao, Y., You, B., Gao, Y., Yeh, S., Li, Y., & Chang, C. (2020). The miR-92a-2-5p in exosomes from macrophages increases liver cancer cells invasion via altering the AR/PHLPP/p-AKT/β-catenin signaling. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0575-3 Cite
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A Scaffold Laden with Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes for Promoting Endometrium Regeneration and Fertility Restoration through Macrophage Immunomodulation

A novel and viable cell-free therapeutic strategy by umbilical cord-MSC-derived exosomes was proposed.
[Acta Biomaterialia]
Xin, L., Lin, X., Zhou, F., Li, C., Wang, X., Yu, H., … Zhang, S. (2020). A scaffold laden with mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes for promoting endometrium regeneration and fertility restoration through macrophage immunomodulation. Acta Biomaterialia. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.06.029 Cite
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