Researchers found that extracellular vesicles released by neoplastic mast cells and present in the serum of patients with systemic mastocytosis blocked osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in culture, and when injected into mice diminished the expression of osteoblast markers, and trabecular bone volume and microarchitecture.
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Hoth Therapeutics, Inc. announced it intends to pursue development of its HT-KIT mRNA Frame Shifting Therapeutic for multiple orphan diseases, which are rare diseases that affect less than 200,000 people in the US. HT-KIT targets a shared cell signaling pathway that may have therapeutic potential for multiple rare cancers.
[Hoth Therapeutics, Inc.]
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The authors review both beneficial and detrimental functions of skin mast cells (MC), from skin barrier integrity via host defense mechanisms to MC-driven inflammatory skin disorders.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
To better understand the mechanistic effect cromolyn has in slowing down or halting the neuroinflammatory response associated with Alzheimer’s Disease progression, the authors tested the effect of cromolyn to dampen the inflammatory response in the human HMC3 microglia cell line.
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Researchers revealed that epidermal nerve endings from a subset of sensory nonpeptidergic neurons expressing MrgprD were reduced by the absence of Langerhans cells.
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Zhang, S., Edwards, T. N., Chaudhri, V. K., Wu, J., Cohen, J. A., Hirai, T., Rittenhouse, N., Schmitz, E. G., Zhou, P. Y., McNeil, B. D., Yang, Y., Koerber, H. R., Sumpter, T. L., Poholek, A. C., Davis, B. M., Albers, K. M., Singh, H., & Kaplan, D. H. (2021). Nonpeptidergic neurons suppress mast cells via glutamate to maintain skin homeostasis. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.002 Cite
The authors demonstratef that the splenic microenvironment, specifically 15-PGDH high-expressing macrophages, megakaryocytes, and mast cells, regulated steady-state hematopoiesis and potentiated recovery after bone-marrow transplantation.
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Smith, J. N. P., Dawson, D. M., Christo, K. F., Jogasuria, A. P., Cameron, M. J., Antczak, M. I., Ready, J. M., Gerson, S. L., Markowitz, S. D., & Desai, A. B. (2021). 15-PGDH inhibition activates the splenic niche to promote hematopoietic regeneration. JCI Insight. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.143658 Cite
In adaptive immunity, effector T cells, especially Th17 cells, lead to the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, including the distal fibrosis and scar formation. Cardiomyocytes protectors, Treg cells, inhibit reduce the inflammatory response, then directly trigger the regeneration of local progenitor cell via IL-10.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Investigators showed that mast cells activated PAR-2 in intestinal epithelial cells, downregulate the related proteins of cell tight junctions and cytoskeletal proteins, and increase the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells.
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Intestinal epithelial cell line was applied with diclofenac sodium and its activity was detected by CCK-8.IEC-6 and RBL-2H3 were co-cultured to evaluate the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells by detecting the concentration of potassium ion and LDH.
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In a Phase I/IIa trial, scientists evaluated the safety and possible clinical efficacy of intravenous infusion of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood–derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.
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The authors exploited gene targeted and transgenic mice, and demonstrated that signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 was not required under normal, steady-state conditions.
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Ichii, M., Oritani, K., Toda, J., Saito, H., Shi, H., Shibayama, H., Motooka, D., Kitai, Y., Muromoto, R., Kashiwakura, J., Saitoh, K., Okuzaki, D., Matsuda, T., & Kanakura, Y. (2021). Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 delays recovery of B lineage lymphocytes during hematopoietic stress. Haematologica, 106(2), 424–436. https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.225573 Cite