15-PGDH Inhibition Activates the Splenic Niche to Promote Hematopoietic Regeneration

The authors demonstratef that the splenic microenvironment, specifically 15-PGDH high-expressing macrophages, megakaryocytes, and mast cells, regulated steady-state hematopoiesis and potentiated recovery after bone-marrow transplantation.
[JCI Insight]
Smith, J. N. P., Dawson, D. M., Christo, K. F., Jogasuria, A. P., Cameron, M. J., Antczak, M. I., Ready, J. M., Gerson, S. L., Markowitz, S. D., & Desai, A. B. (2021). 15-PGDH inhibition activates the splenic niche to promote hematopoietic regeneration. JCI Insight. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.143658 Cite
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A Double-Edged Sword of Immuno-Microenvironment in Cardiac Homeostasis and Injury Repair

In adaptive immunity, effector T cells, especially Th17 cells, lead to the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, including the distal fibrosis and scar formation. Cardiomyocytes protectors, Treg cells, inhibit reduce the inflammatory response, then directly trigger the regeneration of local progenitor cell via IL-10.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Sun, K., Li, Y., & Jin, J. (2021). A double-edged sword of immuno-microenvironment in cardiac homeostasis and injury repair. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00455-6 Cite
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Effects of Mast Cells Induced by NSAIDs Impair Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function In Vivo and In Vitro

Investigators showed that mast cells activated PAR-2 in intestinal epithelial cells, downregulate the related proteins of cell tight junctions and cytoskeletal proteins, and increase the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells.
[Inflammation]
Chao, G., Hong, X., & Zhang, S. (2021). Effects of Mast Cells Induced by NSAIDs Impair Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function In Vivo and In Vitro. Inflammation. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-021-01424-z Cite
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Effects of Mast Cells Induced by NSAIDs Impair Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function In Vivo and In Vitro

Intestinal epithelial cell line was applied with diclofenac sodium and its activity was detected by CCK-8.IEC-6 and RBL-2H3 were co-cultured to evaluate the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells by detecting the concentration of potassium ion and LDH.
[Inflammation]
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Intravenous Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Blood–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Patients

In a Phase I/IIa trial, scientists evaluated the safety and possible clinical efficacy of intravenous infusion of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood–derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.
[JCI Insight]
Lee, S. E., Lee, S.-J., Kim, S.-E., Kim, K., Cho, B., Roh, K., & Kim, S.-C. (2021). Intravenous allogeneic umbilical cord blood–derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa patients. JCI Insight, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.143606 Cite
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Signal-Transducing Adaptor Protein-2 Delays Recovery of B Lineage Lymphocytes during Hematopoietic Stress

The authors exploited gene targeted and transgenic mice, and demonstrated that signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 was not required under normal, steady-state conditions.
[Haematologica]
Ichii, M., Oritani, K., Toda, J., Saito, H., Shi, H., Shibayama, H., Motooka, D., Kitai, Y., Muromoto, R., Kashiwakura, J., Saitoh, K., Okuzaki, D., Matsuda, T., & Kanakura, Y. (2021). Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 delays recovery of B lineage lymphocytes during hematopoietic stress. Haematologica, 106(2), 424–436. https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.225573 Cite
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Directional Mast Cell Degranulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Into Blood Vessels Primes Neutrophil Extravasation

Scientists demonstrated that mast cell-derived tumor necrosis factor was crucial for neutrophil extravasation to sites of contact hypersensitivity-induced skin inflammation by promoting intraluminal crawling.
[Immunity]
Dudeck, J., Kotrba, J., Immler, R., Hoffmann, A., Voss, M., Alexaki, V. I., Morton, L., Jahn, S. R., Katsoulis-Dimitriou, K., Winzer, S., Kollias, G., Fischer, T., Nedospasov, S. A., Dunay, I. R., Chavakis, T., Müller, A. J., Schraven, B., Sperandio, M., & Dudeck, A. (2021). Directional mast cell degranulation of tumor necrosis factor into blood vessels primes neutrophil extravasation. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.12.017 Cite
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Local Immune Response to Food Antigens Drives Meal-Induced Abdominal Pain

Scientists showed that a bacterial infection and bacterial toxins could trigger an immune response that led to the production of dietary-antigen-specific IgE antibodies in mice, which were limited to the intestine.
[Nature]
Aguilera-Lizarraga, J., Florens, M. V., Viola, M. F., Jain, P., Decraecker, L., Appeltans, I., Cuende-Estevez, M., Fabre, N., Van Beek, K., Perna, E., Balemans, D., Stakenborg, N., Theofanous, S., Bosmans, G., Mondelaers, S. U., Matteoli, G., Ibiza Martínez, S., Lopez-Lopez, C., Jaramillo-Polanco, J., … Boeckxstaens, G. E. (2021). Local immune response to food antigens drives meal-induced abdominal pain. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03118-2 Cite
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Tumor-Infiltrating Mast Cells Are Associated With Resistance to Anti-PD-1 Therapy

Researchers generated a humanized-mouse melanoma model by injecting fetal liver-derived CD34+ cells and implanting autologous thymus in immune-deficient NOD-scid IL2Rγnull mice.
[Nature Communications]
Somasundaram, R., Connelly, T., Choi, R., Choi, H., Samarkina, A., Li, L., Gregorio, E., Chen, Y., Thakur, R., Abdel-Mohsen, M., Beqiri, M., Kiernan, M., Perego, M., Wang, F., Xiao, M., Brafford, P., Yang, X., Xu, X., Secreto, A., … Herlyn, M. (2021). Tumor-infiltrating mast cells are associated with resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. Nature Communications, 12(1), 346. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20600-7 Cite
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Microvascular Density, Endothelial Area, and Ki-67 Proliferative Index Correlate Each Other in Cat Post-Injection Fibrosarcoma

Scientists conducted a crossing study evaluating microvascular density, endothelial area, and Ki-67 proliferative index was reported for a series of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 99 cat patients, affected by cat post-injection fibrosarcoma, by using a till ×400 magnification light microscopy.
[Cells]
Patruno, R., Passantino, G., Laface, C., Tinelli, A., Zito, A., Ruggieri, R., Luposella, F., Gadaleta, P., Laforgia, M., Lacitignola, L., Ammendola, M., Ranieri, G., & Zizzo, N. (2021). Microvascular Density, Endothelial Area, and Ki-67 Proliferative Index Correlate Each Other in Cat Post-Injection Fibrosarcoma. Cells, 10(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010031 Cite
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Orally Desensitized Mast Cells Form a Regulatory Network with Treg Cells for the Control of Food Allergy

To elucidate the mechanisms of oral immunotherapy (OIT), especially during the immunological transition from desensitization to allergy regulation, researchers generated a clinical OIT murine model and used it to examine immunological events of OIT.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Takasato, Y., Kurashima, Y., Kiuchi, M., Hirahara, K., Murasaki, S., Arai, F., Izawa, K., Kaitani, A., Shimada, K., Saito, Y., Toyoshima, S., Nakamura, M., Fujisawa, K., Okayama, Y., Kunisawa, J., Kubo, M., Takemura, N., Uematsu, S., Akira, S., … Kiyono, H. (2020). Orally desensitized mast cells form a regulatory network with Treg cells for the control of food allergy. Mucosal Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00358-3 Cite
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