Mastocytosis-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Deliver miR-23a and miR-30a Into Pre-Osteoblasts and Prevent Osteoblastogenesis and Bone Formation

Researchers found that extracellular vesicles released by neoplastic mast cells and present in the serum of patients with systemic mastocytosis blocked osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in culture, and when injected into mice diminished the expression of osteoblast markers, and trabecular bone volume and microarchitecture.
[Nature Communications]
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Hoth Therapeutics Announces Development of HT-KIT to Treat Multiple Orphan Diseases, Including Rare Cancers

Hoth Therapeutics, Inc. announced it intends to pursue development of its HT-KIT mRNA Frame Shifting Therapeutic for multiple orphan diseases, which are rare diseases that affect less than 200,000 people in the US. HT-KIT targets a shared cell signaling pathway that may have therapeutic potential for multiple rare cancers.
[Hoth Therapeutics, Inc.]
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Mast Cells in the Skin: Defenders of Integrity or Offenders in Inflammation?

The authors review both beneficial and detrimental functions of skin mast cells (MC), from skin barrier integrity via host defense mechanisms to MC-driven inflammatory skin disorders.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Voss, M., Kotrba, J., Gaffal, E., Katsoulis-Dimitriou, K., & Dudeck, A. (2021). Mast Cells in the Skin: Defenders of Integrity or Offenders in Inflammation? International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(9), 4589. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094589 Cite
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Cromolyn Inhibits the Secretion of Inflammatory Cytokines by Human Microglia (HMC3)

To better understand the mechanistic effect cromolyn has in slowing down or halting the neuroinflammatory response associated with Alzheimer’s Disease progression, the authors tested the effect of cromolyn to dampen the inflammatory response in the human HMC3 microglia cell line.
[Scientific Reports]
Wang, Y.-J., Monteagudo, A., Downey, M. A., Ashton-Rickardt, P. G., & Elmaleh, D. R. (2021). Cromolyn inhibits the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by human microglia (HMC3). Scientific Reports, 11(1), 8054. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85702-8 Cite
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Nonpeptidergic Neurons Suppress Mast Cells via Glutamate to Maintain Skin Homeostasis

Researchers revealed that epidermal nerve endings from a subset of sensory nonpeptidergic neurons expressing MrgprD were reduced by the absence of Langerhans cells.
[Cell]
Zhang, S., Edwards, T. N., Chaudhri, V. K., Wu, J., Cohen, J. A., Hirai, T., Rittenhouse, N., Schmitz, E. G., Zhou, P. Y., McNeil, B. D., Yang, Y., Koerber, H. R., Sumpter, T. L., Poholek, A. C., Davis, B. M., Albers, K. M., Singh, H., & Kaplan, D. H. (2021). Nonpeptidergic neurons suppress mast cells via glutamate to maintain skin homeostasis. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.002 Cite
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15-PGDH Inhibition Activates the Splenic Niche to Promote Hematopoietic Regeneration

The authors demonstratef that the splenic microenvironment, specifically 15-PGDH high-expressing macrophages, megakaryocytes, and mast cells, regulated steady-state hematopoiesis and potentiated recovery after bone-marrow transplantation.
[JCI Insight]
Smith, J. N. P., Dawson, D. M., Christo, K. F., Jogasuria, A. P., Cameron, M. J., Antczak, M. I., Ready, J. M., Gerson, S. L., Markowitz, S. D., & Desai, A. B. (2021). 15-PGDH inhibition activates the splenic niche to promote hematopoietic regeneration. JCI Insight. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.143658 Cite
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A Double-Edged Sword of Immuno-Microenvironment in Cardiac Homeostasis and Injury Repair

In adaptive immunity, effector T cells, especially Th17 cells, lead to the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, including the distal fibrosis and scar formation. Cardiomyocytes protectors, Treg cells, inhibit reduce the inflammatory response, then directly trigger the regeneration of local progenitor cell via IL-10.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Sun, K., Li, Y., & Jin, J. (2021). A double-edged sword of immuno-microenvironment in cardiac homeostasis and injury repair. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00455-6 Cite
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Effects of Mast Cells Induced by NSAIDs Impair Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function In Vivo and In Vitro

Investigators showed that mast cells activated PAR-2 in intestinal epithelial cells, downregulate the related proteins of cell tight junctions and cytoskeletal proteins, and increase the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells.
[Inflammation]
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Effects of Mast Cells Induced by NSAIDs Impair Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function In Vivo and In Vitro

Intestinal epithelial cell line was applied with diclofenac sodium and its activity was detected by CCK-8.IEC-6 and RBL-2H3 were co-cultured to evaluate the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells by detecting the concentration of potassium ion and LDH.
[Inflammation]
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Intravenous Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Blood–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Patients

In a Phase I/IIa trial, scientists evaluated the safety and possible clinical efficacy of intravenous infusion of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood–derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.
[JCI Insight]
Lee, S. E., Lee, S.-J., Kim, S.-E., Kim, K., Cho, B., Roh, K., & Kim, S.-C. (2021). Intravenous allogeneic umbilical cord blood–derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa patients. JCI Insight, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.143606 Cite
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Signal-Transducing Adaptor Protein-2 Delays Recovery of B Lineage Lymphocytes during Hematopoietic Stress

The authors exploited gene targeted and transgenic mice, and demonstrated that signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 was not required under normal, steady-state conditions.
[Haematologica]
Ichii, M., Oritani, K., Toda, J., Saito, H., Shi, H., Shibayama, H., Motooka, D., Kitai, Y., Muromoto, R., Kashiwakura, J., Saitoh, K., Okuzaki, D., Matsuda, T., & Kanakura, Y. (2021). Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 delays recovery of B lineage lymphocytes during hematopoietic stress. Haematologica, 106(2), 424–436. https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.225573 Cite
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