Soluble α-Synuclein–Antibody Complexes Activate the NLRP3 Inflammasome in hiPSC-Derived Microglia

Researchers showed that αSyn activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived microglia via dual stimulation involving Toll-like receptor 2 engagement and mitochondrial damage.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Trudler, D., Nazor, K. L., Eisele, Y. S., Grabauskas, T., Dolatabadi, N., Parker, J., Sultan, A., Zhong, Z., Goodwin, M. S., Levites, Y., Golde, T. E., Kelly, J. W., Sierks, M. R., Schork, N. J., Karin, M., Ambasudhan, R., & Lipton, S. A. (2021). Soluble α-synuclein–antibody complexes activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in hiPSC-derived microglia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(15). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025847118 Cite
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Efficient Conversion of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Microglia by Defined Transcription Factors

The authors report a novel approach that produces, within ten days, the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into microglia by forced expression of both SPI1 and CEBPA.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Chen, S.-W., Hung, Y.-S., Fuh, J.-L., Chen, N.-J., Chu, Y.-S., Chen, S.-C., Fann, M.-J., & Wong, Y.-H. (2021). Efficient conversion of human induced pluripotent stem cells into microglia by defined transcription factors. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.03.010 Cite
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Symbiotic Polyamine Metabolism Regulates Epithelial Proliferation and Macrophage Differentiation in the Colon

Scientists showed that microbial polyamines reinforce colonic epithelial proliferation and regulate macrophage differentiation.
[Nature Communications]
Nakamura, A., Kurihara, S., Takahashi, D., Ohashi, W., Nakamura, Y., Kimura, S., Onuki, M., Kume, A., Sasazawa, Y., Furusawa, Y., Obata, Y., Fukuda, S., Saiki, S., Matsumoto, M., & Hase, K. (2021). Symbiotic polyamine metabolism regulates epithelial proliferation and macrophage differentiation in the colon. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2105. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22212-1 Cite
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Prognostic and Therapeutic Implications of Extracellular Matrix Associated Gene Signature in Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma

The expression of ECM-related genes was explored for prognostic and immunological implication in clear cell renal clear cell carcinoma.
[Scientific Reports]
Ahluwalia, P., Ahluwalia, M., Mondal, A. K., Sahajpal, N., Kota, V., Rojiani, M. V., Rojiani, A. M., & Kolhe, R. (2021). Prognostic and therapeutic implications of extracellular matrix associated gene signature in renal clear cell carcinoma. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7561. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86888-7 Cite
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MCPIP1-Mediated NFIC Alternative Splicing Inhibits Proliferation of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer via Cyclin D1-RB-E2F1 Axis

Investigators showed that monocyte chemotactic protein induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) was downregulated in 80 TNBC tissues and five TNBC cell lines compared to adjacent paracancerous tissues and one human immortalized breast epithelial cell line, while its high expression levels were associated with increased overall survival in TNBC patients.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Chen, F., Wang, Q., Yu, X., Yang, N., Wang, Y., Zeng, Y., Zheng, Z., Zhou, F., & Zhou, Y. (2021). MCPIP1-mediated NFIC alternative splicing inhibits proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer via cyclin D1-Rb-E2F1 axis. Cell Death & Disease, 12(4), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03661-4 Cite
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How to Turn Up the Heat on the Cold Immune Microenvironment of Metastatic Prostate Cancer

The authors discuss the immunopathology of the prostate tumor microenvironment, strategies for treating prostate cancer with immunotherapies, and a perspective on potential approaches to enhancing the efficacy of immunotherapies.
[Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases]
Stultz, J., & Fong, L. (2021). How to turn up the heat on the cold immune microenvironment of metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00340-5 Cite
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Hypoxic Glioma-Derived Exosomes Promote M2-Like Macrophage Polarization by Enhancing Autophagy Induction

The authors investigated the effects of glioma-derived exosomes on autophagy, the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages, and glioma progression.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Xu, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Gao, Z., Qi, Y., Qiu, W., Pan, Z., Guo, Q., Li, B., Zhao, S., Guo, X., Qian, M., Chen, Z., Wang, S., Gao, X., Zhang, S., Wang, H., Guo, X., Zhang, P., … Li, G. (2021). Hypoxic glioma-derived exosomes promote M2-like macrophage polarization by enhancing autophagy induction. Cell Death & Disease, 12(4), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03664-1 Cite
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Intrabone Infusion for Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Children

Investigators conducted a Phase I-II single arm, exploratory clinical trial from 2012 to 2016 in a single center. 15 patients aged from 1.9 to 16.4 years received an intrabone umbilical cord blood transplantation.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
Vairy, S., Louis, I., Vachon, M.-F., Richer, J., Teira, P., Cellot, S., Villeneuve, E., Haddad, E., Duval, M., & Bittencourt, H. (2021). Intrabone infusion for allogeneic umbilical cord blood transplantation in children. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01275-0 Cite
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The Mechanistic Basis of Protection by Non-neutralizing Anti-Alphavirus Antibodies

Scientists evaluated the activity of 13 non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against Mayaro virus, an emerging arthritogenic alphavirus.
[Cell Reports]
Earnest, J. T., Holmes, A. C., Basore, K., Mack, M., Fremont, D. H., & Diamond, M. S. (2021). The mechanistic basis of protection by non-neutralizing anti-alphavirus antibodies. Cell Reports, 35(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108962 Cite
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Endothelial Dysfunction and Immunothrombosis as Key Pathogenic Mechanisms in COVID-19

Scientists propose that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a process known as immunothrombosis, in which activated neutrophils and monocytes interact with platelets and the coagulation cascade, leading to intravascular clot formation in small and larger vessels.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Bonaventura, A., Vecchié, A., Dagna, L., Martinod, K., Dixon, D. L., Van Tassell, B. W., Dentali, F., Montecucco, F., Massberg, S., Levi, M., & Abbate, A. (2021). Endothelial dysfunction and immunothrombosis as key pathogenic mechanisms in COVID-19. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00536-9 Cite
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UDP-Glucose and P2Y14 Receptor Amplify Allergen-Induced Airway Eosinophilia

Researchers showed that UDP-glucose, a nucleotide sugar, was selectively released into the airways of allergen-sensitized mice upon their subsequent challenge with that same allergen.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Karcz, T. P., Whitehead, G. S., Nakano, K., Nakano, H., Grimm, S. A., Williams, J. G., Deterding, L. J., Jacobson, K. A., & Cook, D. N. (2021). UDP-glucose and P2Y14 receptor amplify allergen-induced airway eosinophilia. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 131(7). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI140709 Cite
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