Modest Changes in Spi1 Dosage Reveal the Potential for Altered Microglial Function as Seen in Alzheimer’s Disease

Investigators determined how the microglial transcriptome was altered following modest changes to Spi1 expression in primary mouse microglia.
[Scientific Reports]
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Depletion of High-Content CD14+ Cells from Apheresis Products Is Critical for the Successful Transduction and Expansion of CAR T Cells during Large-Scale cGMP Manufacturing

Investigators found that high CD14+ cell content posed a challenge for manufacturing CAR T cells especially in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma due to the non-specific phagocytosis of the magnetic beads used to activate CD3+ T cells.
[Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development]
Wang, X., Borquez-Ojeda, O., Stefanski, J., Du, F., Qu, J., Chaudhari, J., Thummar, K., Zhu, M., Shen, L., Hall, M., Gautam, P., Wang, Y., Senechal, B., Sikder, D., Adusumilli, P. S., Brentjens, R. J., Curran, K., Geyer, M. B., Mailankhody, S., … Rivière, I. (2021). Depletion of High-Content CD14+ Cells from Apheresis Products is Critical for the Successful Transduction and Expansion of CAR T cells during Large-scale cGMP Manufacturing. Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2021.06.014 Cite
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Early Invasion of the Bladder Wall by Solitary Bacteria Protects UPEC from Antibiotics and Neutrophil Swarms in an Organoid Model

Bacteria injected into the organoid lumen entered umbrella-like cells and proliferated to form intracellular bacterial communities -like bodies.
[Cell Reports]
Sharma, K., Thacker, V. V., Dhar, N., Cabrer, M. C., Dubois, A., Signorino-Gelo, F., Mullenders, J., Knott, G. W., Clevers, H., & McKinney, J. D. (2021). Early invasion of the bladder wall by solitary bacteria protects UPEC from antibiotics and neutrophil swarms in an organoid model. Cell Reports, 36(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109351 Cite
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The Neutrophil

Neutrophils are immune cells with unusual biological features that furnish potent antimicrobial properties. These cells phagocytose and subsequently kill prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms very efficiently.
[Immunity]
Burn, G. L., Foti, A., Marsman, G., Patel, D. F., & Zychlinsky, A. (2021). The Neutrophil. Immunity, 54(7), 1377–1391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.06.006 Cite
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Role of Tim4 in the Regulation of ABCA1+ Adipose Tissue Macrophages and Post-prandial Cholesterol Levels

Single-cell RNA sequencing and protected bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that ingestion of lipids led to specific transcriptional activation of a population of resident macrophages expressing Lyve1, Tim4, and ABCA1.
[Nature Communications]
Magalhaes, M. S., Smith, P., Portman, J. R., Jackson-Jones, L. H., Bain, C. C., Ramachandran, P., Michalidou, Z., Stimson, R. H., Dweck, M. R., Denby, L., Henderson, N. C., Jenkins, S. J., & Bénézech, C. (2021). Role of Tim4 in the regulation of ABCA1+ adipose tissue macrophages and post-prandial cholesterol levels. Nature Communications, 12(1), 4434. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24684-7 Cite
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Systemic Inhibition of PTPN22 Augments Anticancer Immunity

In mice, lack of PTPN22 augmented antitumor activity with greater infiltration and activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Ho, W. J., Croessmann, S., Lin, J., Phyo, Z. H., Charmsaz, S., Danilova, L., Mohan, A. A., Gross, N. E., Chen, F., Dong, J., Aggarwal, D., Bai, Y., Wang, J., He, J., Leatherman, J. M., Yarchoan, M., Armstrong, T. D., Zaidi, N., Fertig, E. J., … Jaffee, E. M. (2021). Systemic inhibition of PTPN22 augments anticancer immunity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI146950 Cite
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mRNA-Engineered Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Expressing CXCR2 Enhances Cell Migration and Improves Recovery in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

A new strategy to modify MSCs to express specific chemokine receptors using mRNA engineering was developed to evaluate the homing ability of MSCs and its therapeutic effects for inflammatory bowel disease.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
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Dynamin-Related Protein 1 Deficiency Accelerates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Injury and Inflammation in Mice

Researchers hypothesized that dynamin-related protein 1 defects were a causal factor directly involved in liver disease development and stimulated liver disease progression.
[Communications Biology]
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Inhibition of the Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway by a β-Catenin/CBP Inhibitor Prevents Heart Failure by Ameliorating Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis

Researchers investigated how ICG001 could prevent cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by transverse aortic constriction and found it may have mediated the substrates in the glycolysis pathway and the distinct alteration of oxidative stress during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
[Scientific Reports]
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S100A9 in Adult Asthmatic Patients: A Biomarker for Neutrophilic Asthma

Researchers investigated the mechanism by which S100A9 was involved in neutrophil activation, neutrophil extracellular trap-induced airway inflammation, and macrophage polarization in neutrophilic asthma.
[Experimental & Molecular Medicine]
Quoc, Q. L., Choi, Y., Thi Bich, T. C., Yang, E.-M., Shin, Y. S., & Park, H.-S. (2021). S100A9 in adult asthmatic patients: a biomarker for neutrophilic asthma. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00652-5 Cite
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TNFα Increases Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Human Monocytes

The authors reported the development of a highly sensitive and reproducible Bio-ELISA to quantify picogram levels of TH in multiple model systems. They applied this assay to monocytes isolated from blood of persons with Parkinson’s disease and to age-matched, healthy controls.
[npj Parkinson’s Disease]
Gopinath, A., Badov, M., Francis, M., Shaw, G., Collins, A., Miller, D. R., Hansen, C. A., Mackie, P., Tansey, M. G., Dagra, A., Madorsky, I., Ramirez-Zamora, A., Okun, M. S., Streit, W. J., & Khoshbouei, H. (2021). TNFα increases tyrosine hydroxylase expression in human monocytes. Npj Parkinson’s Disease, 7(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41531-021-00201-x Cite
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