City of Hope Enters Licensing Agreements with CytoImmune Therapeutics Inc. to Develop Portfolio of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Natural Killer Therapies

City of Hope and CytoImmune Therapeutics Inc. have entered into worldwide exclusive license agreements to several patent applications related to methods to generate large numbers of fully functional natural killer (NK) cells derived from umbilical cord blood and compositions of chimeric receptors (CAR) for targeting NK cells to tumors.
[CytoImmune Therapeutics, Inc. (BusinessWire, Inc)]
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Improving Outcomes in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia through Harnessing the Immunological Landscape

Scientists focus on immune dysfunction in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia patients, and the role that tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other therapies have in restoring immune surveillance.
[Leukemia]
Hsieh, Y.-C., Kirschner, K., & Copland, M. (2021). Improving outcomes in chronic myeloid leukemia through harnessing the immunological landscape. Leukemia, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01238-w Cite
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Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Mount a Distinct Antiviral Response to Virus-Infected Cells

Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells produced high amounts of type I interferon when incubated with live cytomegalovirus-infected fibroblasts but not with free cytomegalovirus
[Science Immunology]
Yun, T. J., Igarashi, S., Zhao, H., Perez, O. A., Pereira, M. R., Zorn, E., Shen, Y., Goodrum, F., Rahman, A., Sims, P. A., Farber, D. L., & Reizis, B. (2021). Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells mount a distinct antiviral response to virus-infected cells. Science Immunology, 6(58). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abc7302 Cite
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A Slowly Cleaved Viral Signal Peptide Acts as a Protein-Integral Immune Evasion Domain

Researchers showed that the N-terminal signal peptide was the major US9 functional domain targeting MICA*008 to proteasomal degradation.
[Nature Communications]
Seidel, E., Dassa, L., Kahlon, S., Tirosh, B., Halenius, A., Seidel Malkinson, T., & Mandelboim, O. (2021). A slowly cleaved viral signal peptide acts as a protein-integral immune evasion domain. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2061. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21983-x Cite
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Post-Transplant Food Anaphylaxis in an Adult Cord Blood Transplant Recipient (Ms. No. IJHM-D-20-01037R1)

Scientists describe a case of new-onset food anaphylaxis after cord blood transplantation (CBT) in an adult patient that demonstrated that post-CBT allergen-challenge was not a risk for long-term allergic sensitization, even in adult recipients.
[International Journal of Hematology]
Kawahara, A., Nakanishi, T., Goto, M., Akao, K., Katsuragi, T., & Tsukada, J. (2021). Post-transplant food anaphylaxis in an adult cord blood transplant recipient (Ms. No. IJHM-D-20-01037R1). International Journal of Hematology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03140-8 Cite
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Clearance of Pegylated Interferon by Kupffer Cells Limits NK Cell Activation and Therapy Response of Patients with HBV Infection

Scientists found that patients with early natural killer cell activation after PEG–IFN-α injection experienced greater liver inflammation, lysis of HBV-infected hepatocytes, and hepatitis B surface antigen decline than those without.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Nishio, A., Bolte, F. J., Takeda, K., Park, N., Yu, Z.-X., Park, H., Valdez, K., Ghany, M. G., & Rehermann, B. (2021). Clearance of pegylated interferon by Kupffer cells limits NK cell activation and therapy response of patients with HBV infection. Science Translational Medicine, 13(587). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aba6322 Cite
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A Cross-Talk between CAR T Cell Subsets and the Tumor Microenvironment Is Essential for Sustained Cytotoxic Activity

Researchers report an essential cross-talk between CAR T cell subsets and the TME for tumor control in an immunocompetent mouse B cell lymphoma model of anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy.
[Science Immunology]
Boulch, M., Cazaux, M., Loe-Mie, Y., Thibaut, R., Corre, B., Lemaître, F., Grandjean, C. L., Garcia, Z., & Bousso, P. (2021). A cross-talk between CAR T cell subsets and the tumor microenvironment is essential for sustained cytotoxic activity. Science Immunology, 6(57). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abd4344 Cite
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Realizing Innate Potential: CAR-NK Cell Therapies for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

While acute myeloid leukemia represents an intuitive disease in which to investigate chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) based immunotherapies, key biological differences to B-cell malignancies have complicated progress to date.
[Cancers]
Gurney, M., & O’Dwyer, M. (2021). Realizing Innate Potential: CAR-NK Cell Therapies for Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Cancers, 13(7), 1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071568 Cite
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Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1) Downregulates Checkpoint Kinase 1 (CHK1) through miR-195 to Upregulate Apoptosis and PD-L1 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Cells

IRF-1 induces miR-195 to suppress CHK1 protein expression. Both increased IRF-1 and decreased CHK1 upregulate cellular apoptosis and PD-L1 expression in HCC.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Yan, Y., Zheng, L., Du, Q., Cui, X., Dong, K., Guo, Y., & Geller, D. A. (2021). Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) downregulates Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) through miR-195 to upregulate apoptosis and PD-L1 expression in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. British Journal of Cancer, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01337-6 Cite
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Exacis Biotherapeutics Develops mRNA-Engineered iPSC-Derived NK Cells For Difficult-To-Treat Tumors

Exacis Biotherapeutics Inc., announced several important steps in the preclinical development of its ExaNK engineered NK cell-therapy candidates.
[Exacis Biotherapeutics Inc. (PR Newswire LLC.)]
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Engineered Cells as Glioblastoma Therapeutics

Scientists focus on the use of engineered cells to treat glioblastoma, with an emphasis on data from the small number of clinical trials that have been performed to date and the lessons learned from these.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
Ramanathan, A., & Lorimer, I. A. J. (2021). Engineered cells as glioblastoma therapeutics. Cancer Gene Therapy, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41417-021-00320-w Cite
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