To determine if Hhex was intrinsically required throughout NK cell development or for NK cell function, scientists generated mice that specifically lacked Hhex in NK cells.
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Goh, W., Scheer, S., Jackson, J. T., Hediyeh-Zadeh, S., Delconte, R. B., Schuster, I. S., Andoniou, C. E., Rautela, J., Degli-Esposti, M. A., Davis, M. J., McCormack, M. P., Nutt, S. L., & Huntington, N. D. (2020). Hhex Directly Represses BIM-Dependent Apoptosis to Promote NK Cell Development and Maintenance. Cell Reports, 33(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108285 Cite
To target acute myeloid leukemia blasts and leukemic stem cells using natural killer (NK) cells, scientists developed a trispecific killer engager molecule containing a humanized anti-CD16 heavy chain camelid single-domain antibody that activates NK cells.
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Arvindam, U. S., van Hauten, P. M. M., Schirm, D., Schaap, N., Hobo, W., Blazar, B. R., Vallera, D. A., Dolstra, H., Felices, M., & Miller, J. S. (2020). A trispecific killer engager molecule against CLEC12A effectively induces NK-cell mediated killing of AML cells. Leukemia, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01065-5 Cite
Using single-cell RNA sequencing, researchers characterized the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected controls and COVID-19 patients and cells in paired broncho-alveolar lavage fluid.
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The differential immune responses to COVID-19 in peripheral and lung revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing | Cell Discovery. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41421-020-00225-2 Cite
Investigators combined immune landscape signatures with hepatocellular carcinoma clinical and prognostic features to classify them into distinct subtypes. The immunogenomic profiles, stromal cell features and immune cell composition of the subtypes were then systematically analyzed.
Scientists report that tumor cells embedded in a 3-dimensional collagen gel, however, are killed by cryopreserved natural killer (NK) cells at a 5.6-fold lower rate compared to fresh NK cells.
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Cryopreservation impairs 3-D migration and cytotoxicity of natural killer cells | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19094-0 Cite
Scientists observed that the increased macroautophagy/autophagy of decidual stromal cells during decidualization, facilitates the adhesion and retention of decidual NK cells during normal pregnancy.
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Lu, H., Yang, H.-L., Zhou, W.-J., Lai, Z.-Z., Qiu, X.-M., Fu, Q., Zhao, J.-Y., Wang, J., Li, D.-J., & Li, M.-Q. (2020). Rapamycin prevents spontaneous abortion by triggering decidual stromal cell autophagy-mediated NK cell residence. Autophagy, 0(ja), null. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1833515 Cite
Scientists showed changes in the abundance and activation states of more than 50 immune cell subsets in 35 individuals over 11 time points during human A/California/2009 (H1N1) virus challenge monitored using mass cytometry along with other clinical assessments.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Rahil, Z., Leylek, R., Schürch, C. M., Chen, H., Bjornson-Hooper, Z., Christensen, S. R., Gherardini, P. F., Bhate, S. S., Spitzer, M. H., Fragiadakis, G. K., Mukherjee, N., Kim, N., Jiang, S., Yo, J., Gaudilliere, B., Affrime, M., Bock, B., Hensley, S. E., Idoyaga, J., … McIlwain, D. R. (2020). Landscape of coordinated immune responses to H1N1 challenge in humans. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(11). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI137265 Cite
Scientists identified the landscape of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the context of long non-coding RNA, known regulators of gene expression. They examined the lncRNA profiles of lung adenocarcinoma tumors by interrogating RNA sequencing data from microdissected and non-microdissected samples.
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Assessment of long non-coding RNA expression reveals novel mediators of the lung tumour immune response | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73787-6 Cite
Allele Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has been using mRNA as its core technology for creating cGMP-grade iPSC lines for regenerative medicine and oncology for over a decade. The have recently shown that mRNAs encoding the SARS-CoV-2 antigen proteins could be packaged in iPSCs and delivered in extracellular vesicles, potentially together with the viral proteins these mRNAs encode—a dual mRNA and protein vaccine, all naturally packaged in cells.
[Allele Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Businesswire, Inc.)]
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Oncolytic virus therapy can potentially overcome resistance to immunotherapy in prostate cancers by transforming cold tumors into ‘hot’, immune cell-infiltrated tumors. Scientists investigated whether the combination of intratumoural oncolytic reovirus, followed by targeted blockade of PD-1 checkpoint inhibition and/or the immunomodulatory CD73/Adenosine system could enhance anti-tumor immunity.
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Annels, N. E., Simpson, G. R., Denyer, M., Arif, M., Coffey, M., Melcher, A., Harrington, K., Vile, R., & Pandha, H. (2020). Oncolytic reovirus-mediated recruitment of early innate immune response reverses immunotherapy-resistance in prostate tumours by inducing a T-cell inflamed microenvironment. Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.09.010 Cite
Epigenomic and transcriptomic analyses of regions near highly induced genes in NK cells both in vitro and in a model of Toxoplasma gondii infection revealed de novo chromatin accessibility and enhancer remodeling controlled by signal-regulated transcription factors STATs.
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Rapid Enhancer Remodeling and Transcription Factor Repurposing Enable High Magnitude Gene Induction upon Acute Activation of NK Cells: Immunity. (n.d.). Retrieved October 6, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(20)30402-7 Cite