Hsa_circ_0007456 Regulates the Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Toward Hepatocellular Carcinoma via the miR-6852-3p/ICAM-1 Axis

Scientists investigated the relationship between the expression levels of hsa_circ_0007456 in HCC and the susceptibility of NK cells, and found that the expression levels of hsa_circ_0007456 in HCC cell lines significantly influenced their susceptibility to NK cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Shi, M., Li, Z.-Y., Zhang, L.-M., Wu, X.-Y., Xiang, S.-H., Wang, Y.-G., & Zhang, Y.-Q. (2021). Hsa_circ_0007456 regulates the natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity toward hepatocellular carcinoma via the miR-6852-3p/ICAM-1 axis. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03334-8 Cite
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mTORC1 and mTORC2 Coordinate Early NK Cell Development by Differentially Inducing E4BP4 and T-Bet

Researchers developed two methods to inactivate mTOR, Raptor, or Rictor in early stage natural killer (NK) cells or in late-stage NK cells. They found that when mTOR was deleted by CD122-Cre during and after NK cell commitment, NK cell development was severely impaired.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Li, D., Wang, Y., Yang, M., & Dong, Z. (2021). mTORC1 and mTORC2 coordinate early NK cell development by differentially inducing E4BP4 and T-bet. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00715-6 Cite
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A Subset of Liver Resident Natural Killer Cells Is Expanded in Hepatitis C-Infected Patients with Better Liver Function

LMCs were less responsive to toll-like receptor stimulation than blood mononuclear cells, with fewer pro-inflammatory gene-expression pathways up-regulated after in vitro exposure to lipopolysaccharide and a TLR-7/8 agonist.
[Scientific Reports]
Doyle, E. H., Aloman, C., El-Shamy, A., Eng, F., Rahman, A., Klepper, A. L., Haydel, B., Florman, S. S., Fiel, M. I., Schiano, T., & Branch, A. D. (2021). A subset of liver resident natural killer cells is expanded in hepatitis C-infected patients with better liver function. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1551. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80819-8 Cite
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Interferon-γ Enhances the Therapeutic Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Experimental Renal Fibrosis

Scientists investigated whether pretreatment with IFN-γ could potentiate the anti-fibrotic ability of MSCs in rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury and unilateral ureter obstruction.
[Scientific Reports]
Kanai, R., Nakashima, A., Doi, S., Kimura, T., Yoshida, K., Maeda, S., Ishiuchi, N., Yamada, Y., Ike, T., Doi, T., Kato, Y., & Masaki, T. (2021). Interferon-γ enhances the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells on experimental renal fibrosis. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 850. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79664-6 Cite
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NantKwest, ImmunityBio Announce Positive Interim Data on Survival Rates in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Trials

NantKwest, Inc. and ImmunityBio, Inc. announced early interim results of its PD-L1 t-haNK protocols showing median survival rates more than doubled that of the historic rate in patients with advanced metastatic pancreatic cancer for which no other FDA-approved treatment exists.
[NantKwest, Inc.]
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The SIRPα–CD47 Immune Checkpoint in NK Cells

Elevated expression of CD47 protected K562 tumor cells and mouse and human MHC class I–deficient target cells against SIRPα+ primary NK cells, but not against SIRPα− NKL or NK92 cells. SIRPα deficiency or antibody blockade increased the killing capacity of NK cells.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
Deuse, T., Hu, X., Agbor-Enoh, S., Jang, M. K., Alawi, M., Saygi, C., Gravina, A., Tediashvili, G., Nguyen, V. Q., Liu, Y., Valantine, H., Lanier, L. L., & Schrepfer, S. (2021). The SIRPα–CD47 immune checkpoint in NK cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(e20200839). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200839 Cite
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Dynamic Immune Profiling Identifies the Stronger Graft-Versus-Leukemia (GVL) Effects With Haploidentical Allografts Compared to HLA-Matched Stem Cell Transplantation

Researchers employed two nonirradiated leukemia mouse models which carried human AML-ETO or MLL-AF9 fusion gene to establish haplo-identical and major histocompatibility-matched transplantation models and investigated the immune cell dynamic response during leukemia development in vivo.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Guo, H., Chang, Y.-J., Hong, Y., Xu, L.-P., Wang, Y., Zhang, X.-H., Wang, M., Chen, H., Chen, Y.-H., Wang, F.-R., Wei-Han, Sun, Y.-Q., Yan, C.-H., Tang, F.-F., Mo, X.-D., Liu, K.-Y., & Huang, X.-J. (2021). Dynamic immune profiling identifies the stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects with haploidentical allografts compared to HLA-matched stem cell transplantation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00597-1 Cite
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Gut-Licensed IFNγ+ NK Cells Drive LAMP1+TRAIL+ Anti-Inflammatory Astrocytes

Using high-throughput flow cytometry screening, single-cell RNA sequencing and CRISPR–Cas9-based cell-specific in vivo genetic perturbations in mice, researchers identified a subset of astrocytes that expressed the lysosomal protein LAMP12 and the death receptor ligand TRAIL.
[Nature]
Sanmarco, L. M., Wheeler, M. A., Gutiérrez-Vázquez, C., Polonio, C. M., Linnerbauer, M., Pinho-Ribeiro, F. A., Li, Z., Giovannoni, F., Batterman, K. V., Scalisi, G., Zandee, S. E. J., Heck, E. S., Alsuwailm, M., Rosene, D. L., Becher, B., Chiu, I. M., Prat, A., & Quintana, F. J. (2021). Gut-licensed IFNγ + NK cells drive LAMP1 + TRAIL + anti-inflammatory astrocytes. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03116-4 Cite
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Single-Cell Profiling of the Human Decidual Immune Microenvironment in Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Scientists profiled the respective transcriptomes of 18,646 primary human decidual immune cells isolated from patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and healthy controls at single-cell resolution.
[Cell Discovery]
Guo, C., Cai, P., Jin, L., Sha, Q., Yu, Q., Zhang, W., Jiang, C., Liu, Q., Zong, D., Li, K., Fang, J., Lu, F., Wang, Y., Li, D., Lin, J., Li, L., Zeng, Z., Tong, X., Wei, H., & Qu, K. (2021). Single-cell profiling of the human decidual immune microenvironment in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. Cell Discovery, 7(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-00236-z Cite
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An IL-2-Grafted Antibody Immunotherapy with Potent Efficacy against Metastatic Cancer

Researchers present a second-generation CD122-biased interleukin-2 (IL-2), developed by splitting and permanently grafting unmutated human IL-2 (hIL-2) to its antigen-binding groove on the anti-hIL-2 monoclonal antibody NARA1, thereby generating NARA1leukin.
[Nature Communications]
Sahin, D., Arenas-Ramirez, N., Rath, M., Karakus, U., Hümbelin, M., van Gogh, M., Borsig, L., & Boyman, O. (2020). An IL-2-grafted antibody immunotherapy with potent efficacy against metastatic cancer. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6440. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20220-1 Cite
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Transcriptomic Similarities and Differences in Host Response between SARS-CoV-2 and Other Viral Infections

Researchers studied the whole-blood transcriptomic host response to SARS-CoV-2 using RNAseq from 24 healthy controls and 62 prospectively enrolled patients with COVID-19.
[iScience]
Thair, S. A., He, Y. D., Hasin-Brumshtein, Y., Sakaram, S., Pandya, R., Toh, J., Rawling, D., Remmel, M., Coyle, S., Dalekos, G. N., Koutsodimitropoulos, I., Vlachogianni, G., Gkeka, E., Karakike, E., Damoraki, G., Antonakos, N., Khatri, P., Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E. J., & Sweeney, T. E. (2020). Transcriptomic Similarities and Differences in Host Response between SARS-CoV-2 and Other Viral Infections. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101947 Cite
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