An Intronic Variant of CHD7 Identified in Autism Patients Interferes with Neuronal Differentiation and Development

To investigate whether the autism spectrum disorder-associated CHD7 intronic variant affects neural development, researchers established human embryonic stem cells carrying this variant using CRISPR/Cas9 methods and found that the level of CHD7 mRNA significantly decreased compared to control.
[Neuroscience Bulletin]
Zhang, R., He, H., Yuan, B., Wu, Z., Wang, X., Du, Y., Chen, Y., & Qiu, Z. (2021). An Intronic Variant of CHD7 Identified in Autism Patients Interferes with Neuronal Differentiation and Development. Neuroscience Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00685-w Cite
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GSK3ß Inhibitor CHIR 99021 Modulates Cerebral Organoid Development through Dose-Dependent Regulation of Apoptosis, Proliferation, Differentiation and Migration

The authors demonstrated that while low dose of GSK3β inhibitor CHIR 99021 increases organoid size, higher dose actually reduced organoid size; with the highest dose arresting organoid growth.
[PLoS One]
Delepine, C., Pham, V. A., Tsang, H. W. S., & Sur, M. (2021). GSK3ß inhibitor CHIR 99021 modulates cerebral organoid development through dose-dependent regulation of apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation and migration. PLOS ONE, 16(5), e0251173. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251173 Cite
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Impaired Inhibitory GABAergic Synaptic Transmission and Transcription Studied in Single Neurons by Patch-Seq in Huntington’s Disease

we demonstrated that Patch-seq technology can be applied both to better understand molecular mechanisms underlying a complex neurological disease at the single-cell level and to provide a platform for screening for therapeutics for the disease.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Paraskevopoulou, F., Parvizi, P., Senger, G., Tuncbag, N., Rosenmund, C., & Yildirim, F. (2021). Impaired inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmission and transcription studied in single neurons by Patch-seq in Huntington’s disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(19). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2020293118 Cite
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Neuromodulator Release in Neurons Requires Two Functionally Redundant Calcium Sensors

we show that in mouse hippocampal neurons, dense core vesicles fusion is strongly and equally reduced in synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1)- or Syt7-deficient neurons, but combined Syt1/Syt7 deficiency did not reduce fusion further.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Westen, R. van, Poppinga, J., Arazola, R. D., Toonen, R. F., & Verhage, M. (2021). Neuromodulator release in neurons requires two functionally redundant calcium sensors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(18). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2012137118 Cite
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Optogenetic Pacing of Medial Septum Parvalbumin-Positive Cells Disrupts Temporal but Not Spatial Firing in Grid Cells

we show that optogenetic activation of parvalbumin-positive cells in the medial septal area enabled selective pacing of local field potential oscillations in medial entorhinal cortex.
[Science Advances]
Lepperød, M. E., Christensen, A. C., Lensjø, K. K., Buccino, A. P., Yu, J., Fyhn, M., & Hafting, T. (2021). Optogenetic pacing of medial septum parvalbumin-positive cells disrupts temporal but not spatial firing in grid cells. Science Advances, 7(19), eabd5684. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd5684 Cite
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Novel Dopamine Receptor 3 Antagonists Inhibit the Growth of Primary and Temozolomide Resistant Glioblastoma Cells

To improve treatment of glioblastoma, including those resistant to temozolomide , we explored the potential of targeting dopamine receptor signaling.
[PLoS One]
Williford, S. E., Libby, C. J., Ayokanmbi, A., Otamias, A., Gordillo, J. J., Gordon, E. R., Cooper, S. J., Redmann, M., Li, Y., Griguer, C., Zhang, J., Napierala, M., Ananthan, S., & Hjelmeland, A. B. (2021). Novel dopamine receptor 3 antagonists inhibit the growth of primary and temozolomide resistant glioblastoma cells. PLOS ONE, 16(5), e0250649. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250649 Cite
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Suppressing the DSCAM/PAK1 Pathway Reverses Neurogenesis Deficits in Down Syndrome Patient iPSC-Derived Cerebral Organoids

Scientists performed histological assays and unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing analysis on cerebral organoids derived from four euploid cell lines and from iPSCs to explore cell type-specific abnormalities associated with Down syndrome during early brain development.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Tang, X.-Y., Xu, L., Wang, J., Hong, Y., Wang, Y., Zhu, Q., Wang, D., Zhang, X.-Y., Liu, C.-Y., Fang, K.-H., Han, X., Wang, S., Wang, X., Xu, M., Bhattacharyya, A., Guo, X., Lin, M., & Liu, Y. (2021). Suppressing the DSCAM/PAK1 pathway reverses neurogenesis deficits in Down Syndrome patient iPSC-derived cerebral organoids. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI135763 Cite
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Diversity amongst Human Cortical Pyramidal Neurons Revealed via Their Sag Currents and Frequency Preferences

To characterize this potential distinctiveness, researchers used in vitro whole-cell recordings from cortical layers 2 and 3, layer 3c and layer 5 of the human cortex.
[Nature Communications]
Moradi Chameh, H., Rich, S., Wang, L., Chen, F.-D., Zhang, L., Carlen, P. L., Tripathy, S. J., & Valiante, T. A. (2021). Diversity amongst human cortical pyramidal neurons revealed via their sag currents and frequency preferences. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2497. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22741-9 Cite
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Co-occupancy Identifies Transcription Factor Co-operation for Axon Growth

we developed a bioinformatics pipeline, centered on transcription factors co-occupancy of regulatory DNA, and used it to predict factors that potentiate the effects of pro-regenerative Klf6 in vitro.
[Nature Communications]
Venkatesh, I., Mehra, V., Wang, Z., Simpson, M. T., Eastwood, E., Chakraborty, A., Beine, Z., Gross, D., Cabahug, M., Olson, G., & Blackmore, M. G. (2021). Co-occupancy identifies transcription factor co-operation for axon growth. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2555. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22828-3 Cite
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Ablation of Dynamin-Related Protein 1 Promotes Diabetes-Induced Synaptic Injury in the Hippocampus

we investigated the effects of neuron-specific Dynamin-related protein 1 deletion on synaptic damage and mitophagy in the hippocampus of a high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Park, G., Lee, J. Y., Han, H. M., An, H. S., Jin, Z., Jeong, E. A., Kim, K. E., Shin, H. J., Lee, J., Kang, D., Kim, H. J., Bae, Y. C., & Roh, G. S. (2021). Ablation of dynamin-related protein 1 promotes diabetes-induced synaptic injury in the hippocampus. Cell Death & Disease, 12(5), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03723-7 Cite
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Umbilical Cord-Derived MSC and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Effectively Protected the Brain in Rat after Acute Intracerebral Haemorrhage

Scientists tested the hypothesis that combined therapy with human umbilical cord‐derived mesenchymal stem cells and hyperbaric oxygen was superior to either one on preserving neurological function and reducing brain haemorrhagic volume in rat after acute intracerebral haemorrhage induced by intracranial injection of collagenase.
[Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine]
Yip, H.-K., Lin, K.-C., Sung, P.-H., Chiang, J. Y., Yin, T.-C., Wu, R.-W., & Chen, K.-H. (n.d.). Umbilical cord-derived MSC and hyperbaric oxygen therapy effectively protected the brain in rat after acute intracerebral haemorrhage. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16577 Cite
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