Scientists summarize the known ultrastructural, molecular, and functional features of direct microglia-neuron interactions and their roles in brain disease.
Researchers assembled organoids with cerebral cortical organoids in three-dimensional cultures to form cortico-striatal assembloids. Using viral tracing and functional assays in intact or sliced assembloids, they showed that cortical neurons sent axonal projections into striatal organoids and formed synaptic connections.
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Miura, Y., Li, M.-Y., Birey, F., Ikeda, K., Revah, O., Thete, M. V., Park, J.-Y., Puno, A., Lee, S. H., Porteus, M. H., & Pașca, S. P. (2020). Generation of human striatal organoids and cortico-striatal assembloids from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Biotechnology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-020-00763-w Cite
Scientists present the feasibility of a multimodal approach, combining electrophysiology and broadband Vis–NIR spectroscopy, to monitor neurodevelopment in brain organoid models that could complement traditional drug design approaches to test clinically meaningful hypotheses.
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Dutta, A., Karanth, S. S., Bhattacharya, M., Liput, M., Augustyniak, J., Cheung, M., Stachowiak, E. K., & Stachowiak, M. K. (2020). A proof of concept ‘phase zero’ study of neurodevelopment using brain organoid models with Vis/near-infrared spectroscopy and electrophysiology. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20987. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77929-8 Cite
Many studies demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor therapies after spinal cord injury (SCI) could be used in the future for the recovery of neurons. The therapeutic effects of gelatine nanostructured lipid carriers-encapsulated fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) and FGF15 were compared in SCI.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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A dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed miR-873 variants have a 20-30% inhibition/dysregulation effect on candidate autism risk genes ARID1B, SHANK3 and NRXN2 and also confirmed the affected expression with qPCR.
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Investigators discovered enhancer mutations reduced CAV1/CAV2 expression and disrupted membrane lipid rafts in patient-derived cells, and CRISPR-Cas9 perturbation proximate to a patient mutation was sufficient to reduce CAV1/CAV2 expression in neurons.
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Scientists demonstrated orthogonal programming by including oligodendrocyte-inducible hPSCs with unmodified hPSCs to generate cerebral organoids, which expedited in situ myelination.
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Ng, A. H. M., Khoshakhlagh, P., Rojo Arias, J. E., Pasquini, G., Wang, K., Swiersy, A., Shipman, S. L., Appleton, E., Kiaee, K., Kohman, R. E., Vernet, A., Dysart, M., Leeper, K., Saylor, W., Huang, J. Y., Graveline, A., Taipale, J., Hill, D. E., Vidal, M., … Church, G. M. (2020). A comprehensive library of human transcription factors for cell fate engineering. Nature Biotechnology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-020-0742-6 Cite
Researchers found that chemogenetic activation of adult dorsal root ganglion neurons improves axon growth on an in vitro model of the inhibitory environment after injury.
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Reseachers demonstrated functional expression of TRPV4 in mouse schwann cells and investigated its physiological significance.
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Scientists investigated whether mesoporous silica nanoparticle loaded with peptide mimetics of ciliary neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor injected into the cervical spinal cord of mutant SOD1 mice affected disease progression and extend survival.
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Leyton-Jaimes, M. F., Ivert, P., Hoeber, J., Han, Y., Feiler, A., Zhou, C., Pankratova, S., Shoshan-Barmatz, V., Israelson, A., & Kozlova, E. N. (2020). Empty mesoporous silica particles significantly delay disease progression and extend survival in a mouse model of ALS. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20675. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77578-x Cite
Investigators evaluated the neuroprotective effects of mirtazapine against dopaminergic neurodegeneration in models of Parkinson’s disease.
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