Bardet-Biedl Syndrome Proteins Regulate Intracellular Signaling and Neuronal Function in Patient-Specific iPSC-Derived Neurons

Researchers developed a cellular model of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs)-derived hypothalamic arcuate-like neurons.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Wang, L., Liu, Y., Stratigopoulos, G., Panigrahi, S. K., Sui, L., LeDuc, C. A., Glover, H. J., Rosa, M. C. D., Burnett, L. C., Williams, D. J., Shang, L., Goland, R., Tsang, S. H., Wardlaw, S. L., Egli, D., Zheng, D., Doege, C. A., & Leibel, R. L. (2021). Bardet-Biedl Syndrome proteins regulate intracellular signaling and neuronal function in patient-specific iPSC-derived neurons. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI146287 Cite
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Formation and Integration of New Neurons in the Adult Hippocampus

Scientists review current knowledge of how levels of neurogenesis are regulated, discuss findings regarding survival and maturation of adult-born cells and describe how newborn neurons affect brain function.
[Nature Reviews Neuroscience]
Denoth-Lippuner, A., & Jessberger, S. (2021). Formation and integration of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41583-021-00433-z Cite
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A Synthetic Peptide Rescues Rat Cortical Neurons from Anesthetic-Induced Cell Death, Perturbation of Growth and Synaptic Assembly

The authors determined if preserving mitochondrial networks with a non-toxic, short-life synthetic peptide—P110, would protect cortical neurons against both inhalational and intravenous anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity.
[Scientific Reports]
Iqbal, F., Pehar, M., Thompson, A. J., Azeem, U., Jahanbakhsh, K., Jimenez-Tellez, N., Sabouny, R., Batool, S., Syeda, A., Chow, J., Machiraju, P., Shutt, T., Yusuf, K., Shearer, J., Rice, T., & Syed, N. I. (2021). A synthetic peptide rescues rat cortical neurons from anesthetic-induced cell death, perturbation of growth and synaptic assembly. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 4567. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84168-y Cite
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The Key Regulator of Necroptosis, RIP1 Kinase, Contributes to the Formation of Astrogliosis and Glial Scar in Ischemic Stroke

In a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model and an oxygen and glucose deprivation and reoxygenation induced astrocytic injury model, the authors showed that receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase was significantly elevated in the reactive astrocytes.
[Translational Stroke Research]
Zhu, Y.-M., Lin, L., Wei, C., Guo, Y., Qin, Y., Li, Z.-S., Kent, T. A., McCoy, C. E., Wang, Z.-X., Ni, Y., Zhou, X.-Y., & Zhang, H.-L. (2021). The Key Regulator of Necroptosis, RIP1 Kinase, Contributes to the Formation of Astrogliosis and Glial Scar in Ischemic Stroke. Translational Stroke Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12975-021-00888-3 Cite
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Neuronal Autophagy Controls the Axonal Endoplasmic Reticulum to Regulate Neurotransmission in Healthy Neurons

Investigators showed that loss of neuronal autophagy facilitates presynaptic neurotransmission by controlling the axonal endoplasmic reticulum and, thereby, axonal and synaptic calcium homeostasis.
[Autophagy]
Kuijpers, M., & Haucke, V. (2021). Neuronal autophagy controls the axonal endoplasmic reticulum to regulate neurotransmission in healthy neurons. Autophagy, 0(0), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1893569 Cite
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Neuron Specific Enolase Promotes Tumor Metastasis by Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Small Cell Lung Cancer

Investigators clarified the role of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in the progression of SCLC and found that NSE expression was positively correlated with distant metastasis.
[Translational Oncology]
Zha, Z., Li, D., Zhang, P., Wang, P., Fang, X., Liu, X., Weng, C., Li, B., Wu, Y., Mao, H., Wang, L., Xu, L., Dong, J., Guan, M., Lu, L., & Liu, G. (2021). Neuron specific enolase promotes tumor metastasis by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in small cell lung cancer. Translational Oncology, 14(4), 101039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2021.101039 Cite
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Declining Lamin B1 Expression Mediates Age-Dependent Decreases of Hippocampal Stem Cell Activity

Researchers showed that the nuclear lamina protein lamin B1 (LB1) was downregulated with age in mouse hippocampal neural stem cells, whereas protein levels of SUN-domain containing protein 1, previously implicated in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, increased.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Imtiaz, M. K. bin, Jaeger, B. N., Bottes, S., Machado, R. A. C., Vidmar, M., Moore, D. L., & Jessberger, S. (2021). Declining lamin B1 expression mediates age-dependent decreases of hippocampal stem cell activity. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2021.01.015 Cite
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Astrocytes Lure CXCR2-Expressing CD4+ T Cells to Gray Matter via TAK1-Mediated Chemokine Production in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

Researchers used a modified experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model that displayed severe neuronal damage to investigate the interplay between peripheral immune cells and glial cells in the event of neuronal damage.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Khaw, Y. M., Tierney, A., Cunningham, C., Soto-Díaz, K., Kang, E., Steelman, A. J., & Inoue, M. (2021). Astrocytes lure CXCR2-expressing CD4+ T cells to gray matter via TAK1-mediated chemokine production in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(8). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2017213118 Cite
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Metabolic Labeling with an Alkyne Probe Reveals Similarities and Differences in the Prenylomes of Several Brain-Derived Cell Lines and Primary Cells

Applying the method to three brain-related cell lines including neurons, microglia, and astrocytes showed substantial overlap in the prenylated proteins identified.
[Scientific Reports]
Suazo, K. F., Jeong, A., Ahmadi, M., Brown, C., Qu, W., Li, L., & Distefano, M. D. (2021). Metabolic labeling with an alkyne probe reveals similarities and differences in the prenylomes of several brain-derived cell lines and primary cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 4367. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83666-3 Cite
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Oviposition-Promoting Pars Intercerebralis Neurons Show Period-Dependent Photoperiodic Changes in Their Firing Activity in the Bean Bug

The authors analyzed the role of the photoperiodic neuronal response and its relationship with clock genes, focusing on pars intercerebralis neurons.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Hasebe, M., & Shiga, S. (2021). Oviposition-promoting pars intercerebralis neurons show period-dependent photoperiodic changes in their firing activity in the bean bug. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(9). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2018823118 Cite
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Cytoplasmic Cleavage of IMPA1 3′ UTR Is Necessary for Maintaining Axon Integrity

Cleavage of the long 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of Inositol Monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1) mediated by a protein complex containing the endonuclease argonaute 2 generated a translatable isoform that was necessary for maintaining the integrity of sympathetic neuron axons.
[Cell Reports]
Andreassi, C., Luisier, R., Crerar, H., Darsinou, M., Blokzijl-Franke, S., Lenn, T., Luscombe, N. M., Cuda, G., Gaspari, M., Saiardi, A., & Riccio, A. (2021). Cytoplasmic cleavage of IMPA1 3′ UTR is necessary for maintaining axon integrity. Cell Reports, 34(8). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108778 Cite
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