Developmental Excitation-Inhibition Imbalance Underlying Psychoses Revealed by Single-Cell Analyses of Discordant Twins-Derived Cerebral Organoids

Brain organoids derived from iPSCs of patients are a powerful avenue to investigate the pathophysiological processes. Scientists generated iPSC-derived cerebral organoids from monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Sawada, T., Chater, T. E., Sasagawa, Y., Yoshimura, M., Fujimori-Tonou, N., Tanaka, K., Benjamin, K. J. M., Paquola, A. C. M., Erwin, J. A., Goda, Y., Nikaido, I., & Kato, T. (2020). Developmental excitation-inhibition imbalance underlying psychoses revealed by single-cell analyses of discordant twins-derived cerebral organoids. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0844-z Cite
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Functional Characterization of Three-Dimensional Cortical Cultures for In Vitro Modeling of Brain Networks

Scientists present an experimental system based on 3D scaffold-based cortical neuron cultures in which they expressed the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6f to record neuronal activity at the millimeter-scale.
[iScience]
Functional characterization of three-dimensional cortical cultures for in vitro modeling of brain networks: iScience. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/iscience/fulltext/S2589-0042(20)30624-6 Cite
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A Widespread Neurogenic Potential of Neocortical Astrocytes Is Induced by Injury

Scientists showed that notch signaling-deficient astrocytes could generate new neurons after injury. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, they found that, when notch signaling was blocked, astrocytes transitioned to a neural stem cell-like state.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Zamboni, M., Llorens-Bobadilla, E., Magnusson, J. P., & Frisén, J. (2020). A Widespread Neurogenic Potential of Neocortical Astrocytes Is Induced by Injury. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.07.006 Cite
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Activation of a Neural Stem Cell Transcriptional Program in Parenchymal Astrocytes

Researchers used single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize neurogenesis by notch-depleted striatal astrocytes in vivo.
[eLife]
Activation of a neural stem cell transcriptional program in parenchymal astrocytes | eLife. (n.d.). Retrieved August 5, 2020, from https://elifesciences.org/articles/59733 Cite
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Diversity and Function of Corticopetal and Corticofugal GABAergic Projection Neurons

Research conducted over the past 10 years has revealed that cortical GABAergic projection neurons are highly diverse in terms of molecular marker expression, synaptic targeting, activity pattern during distinct behavioural states and precise temporal recruitment relative to ongoing neuronal network oscillations.
[Nature Reviews Neuroscience]
Melzer, S., & Monyer, H. (2020). Diversity and function of corticopetal and corticofugal GABAergic projection neurons. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41583-020-0344-9 Cite
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Single-Cell Transcriptomics Reveals Multiple Neuronal Cell Types in Human Midbrain-Specific Organoids

Investigators demonstrated that human midbrain organoids showed essential neuronal functional properties as spontaneous electrophysiological activity of different neuronal subtypes, including dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurons.
[Cell and Tissue Research]
Smits, L. M., Magni, S., Kinugawa, K., Grzyb, K., Luginbühl, J., Sabate-Soler, S., Bolognin, S., Shin, J. W., Mori, E., Skupin, A., & Schwamborn, J. C. (2020). Single-cell transcriptomics reveals multiple neuronal cell types in human midbrain-specific organoids. Cell and Tissue Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-020-03249-y Cite
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Intrathecal Administration of the Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Human Wharton’s Jelly Stem Cells Inhibit Inflammation and Attenuate the Activity of Inflammasome Complexes after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

Scientists investigated immunomodulatory potential of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles on inflammasome activity one week after spinal cord injury in rats.
[Neuroscience Research]
Noori, L., Arabzadeh, S., Mohamadi, Y., Mojaverrostami, S., Mokhtari, T., Akbari, M., & Hassanzadeh, G. (2020). Intrathecal administration of the extracellular vesicles derived from human Wharton’s jelly stem cells inhibit inflammation and attenuate the activity of inflammasome complexes after spinal cord injury in rats. Neuroscience Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2020.07.011 Cite
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Developmental GABA Polarity Switch and Neuronal Plasticity in Bioengineered Neuronal Organoids

The authors report the directed self-organization of human induced pluripotent stem cells in a collagen hydrogel towards a highly interconnected neuronal network at a macroscale tissue format.
[Nature Communications]
Zafeiriou, M.-P., Bao, G., Hudson, J., Halder, R., Blenkle, A., Schreiber, M.-K., Fischer, A., Schild, D., & Zimmermann, W.-H. (2020). Developmental GABA polarity switch and neuronal plasticity in Bioengineered Neuronal Organoids. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3791. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17521-w Cite
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Developmental Attenuation of Neuronal Apoptosis by Neural-Specific Splicing of Bak1 Microexon

The authors described a robust genetic program that intrinsically attenuated apoptosis competence in neurons.
[Neuron]
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Mithramycin Selectively Attenuates DNA-Damage-Induced Neuronal Cell Death

The authors suggested that Sp1 was required for p53-mediated transactivation of neuronal pro-apoptotic molecules and that mithramycin might have attenuated neuronal cell death in conditions predominantly involving DNA-damage-induced p53-dependent intrinsic apoptosis.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Modulating Electrophysiology of Motor Neural Networks via Optogenetic Stimulation during Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis

Researchers used channelrhodopsin-2 transfected mouse ESC-derived motor neurons to explore short and long-term programming of neural networks by using optical stimulation implemented during neurogenesis and synaptogenesis.
[Scientific Reports]
Pagan-Diaz, G. J., Drnevich, J., Ramos-Cruz, K. P., Sam, R., Sengupta, P., & Bashir, R. (2020). Modulating electrophysiology of motor neural networks via optogenetic stimulation during neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12460. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68988-y Cite
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Intracerebral Transplantation of HLA‐Homozygous Human iPSC‐Derived Neural Precursors Ameliorates the Behavioral and Pathological Deficits in a Rodent Model of Ischemic Stroke

The authors investigated the therapeutic potential of neural precursor cells derived from human HLA‐homozygous induced pluripotent stem cells following intracerebral transplantation into a rodent model of middle cerebral artery occlusion.
[Cell Proliferation]
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