Brain organoids derived from iPSCs of patients are a powerful avenue to investigate the pathophysiological processes. Scientists generated iPSC-derived cerebral organoids from monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis.
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Sawada, T., Chater, T. E., Sasagawa, Y., Yoshimura, M., Fujimori-Tonou, N., Tanaka, K., Benjamin, K. J. M., Paquola, A. C. M., Erwin, J. A., Goda, Y., Nikaido, I., & Kato, T. (2020). Developmental excitation-inhibition imbalance underlying psychoses revealed by single-cell analyses of discordant twins-derived cerebral organoids. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0844-z Cite
Scientists present an experimental system based on 3D scaffold-based cortical neuron cultures in which they expressed the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6f to record neuronal activity at the millimeter-scale.
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Functional characterization of three-dimensional cortical cultures for in vitro modeling of brain networks: iScience. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/iscience/fulltext/S2589-0042(20)30624-6 Cite
Scientists showed that notch signaling-deficient astrocytes could generate new neurons after injury. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, they found that, when notch signaling was blocked, astrocytes transitioned to a neural stem cell-like state.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Researchers used single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize neurogenesis by notch-depleted striatal astrocytes in vivo.
Research conducted over the past 10 years has revealed that cortical GABAergic projection neurons are highly diverse in terms of molecular marker expression, synaptic targeting, activity pattern during distinct behavioural states and precise temporal recruitment relative to ongoing neuronal network oscillations.
[Nature Reviews Neuroscience]
Investigators demonstrated that human midbrain organoids showed essential neuronal functional properties as spontaneous electrophysiological activity of different neuronal subtypes, including dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurons.
[Cell and Tissue Research]
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Smits, L. M., Magni, S., Kinugawa, K., Grzyb, K., Luginbühl, J., Sabate-Soler, S., Bolognin, S., Shin, J. W., Mori, E., Skupin, A., & Schwamborn, J. C. (2020). Single-cell transcriptomics reveals multiple neuronal cell types in human midbrain-specific organoids. Cell and Tissue Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-020-03249-y Cite
Scientists investigated immunomodulatory potential of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles on inflammasome activity one week after spinal cord injury in rats.
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Noori, L., Arabzadeh, S., Mohamadi, Y., Mojaverrostami, S., Mokhtari, T., Akbari, M., & Hassanzadeh, G. (2020). Intrathecal administration of the extracellular vesicles derived from human Wharton’s jelly stem cells inhibit inflammation and attenuate the activity of inflammasome complexes after spinal cord injury in rats. Neuroscience Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2020.07.011 Cite
Continue reading “Intrathecal Administration of the Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Human Wharton’s Jelly Stem Cells Inhibit Inflammation and Attenuate the Activity of Inflammasome Complexes after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats”
The authors report the directed self-organization of human induced pluripotent stem cells in a collagen hydrogel towards a highly interconnected neuronal network at a macroscale tissue format.
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Zafeiriou, M.-P., Bao, G., Hudson, J., Halder, R., Blenkle, A., Schreiber, M.-K., Fischer, A., Schild, D., & Zimmermann, W.-H. (2020). Developmental GABA polarity switch and neuronal plasticity in Bioengineered Neuronal Organoids. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3791. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17521-w Cite
The authors described a robust genetic program that intrinsically attenuated apoptosis competence in neurons.
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The authors suggested that Sp1 was required for p53-mediated transactivation of neuronal pro-apoptotic molecules and that mithramycin might have attenuated neuronal cell death in conditions predominantly involving DNA-damage-induced p53-dependent intrinsic apoptosis.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Researchers used channelrhodopsin-2 transfected mouse ESC-derived motor neurons to explore short and long-term programming of neural networks by using optical stimulation implemented during neurogenesis and synaptogenesis.
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The authors investigated the therapeutic potential of neural precursor cells derived from human HLA‐homozygous induced pluripotent stem cells following intracerebral transplantation into a rodent model of middle cerebral artery occlusion.
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