Modulating Electrophysiology of Motor Neural Networks via Optogenetic Stimulation during Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis

Researchers used channelrhodopsin-2 transfected mouse ESC-derived motor neurons to explore short and long-term programming of neural networks by using optical stimulation implemented during neurogenesis and synaptogenesis.
[Scientific Reports]
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Intracerebral Transplantation of HLA‐Homozygous Human iPSC‐Derived Neural Precursors Ameliorates the Behavioral and Pathological Deficits in a Rodent Model of Ischemic Stroke

The authors investigated the therapeutic potential of neural precursor cells derived from human HLA‐homozygous induced pluripotent stem cells following intracerebral transplantation into a rodent model of middle cerebral artery occlusion.
[Cell Proliferation]
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Subarachnoid Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Rodent Model with Subacute Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Preclinical Safety and Efficacy Study

The authors performed cellular, kinematic, physiological, and anatomical analyses, either in vitro or in vivo, to comprehensively evaluate the safety and efficacy associated with subarachnoid transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in rats with subacute incomplete spinal cord injury.
[Experimental Cell Research]
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Claustral Neurons Projecting to Frontal Cortex Mediate Contextual Association of Reward

The authors identified a circuit involving dopamine-receptor expressing claustral neurons projecting to frontal cortex necessary for context association of reward.
[Current Biology]
Terem, A., Gonzales, B. J., Peretz-Rivlin, N., Ashwal-Fluss, R., Bleistein, N., Reus-Garcia, M. del M., Mukherjee, D., Groysman, M., & Citri, A. (2020). Claustral Neurons Projecting to Frontal Cortex Mediate Contextual Association of Reward. Current Biology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.064 Cite
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Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Attenuates Learning and Memory by Inducing NO-Mediated Downregulation of AMPA Receptor

Scientists found that zeta inhibitory peptide induced redistribution of the AMPARGluA1 in HEK293 cells and primary cortical neurons, and decreased AMPAR-mediated currents in the nucleus accumbens.
[Nature Communications]
Bingor, A., Haham, T., Thornton, C., Stern-Bach, Y., & Yaka, R. (2020). Zeta Inhibitory Peptide attenuates learning and memory by inducing NO-mediated downregulation of AMPA receptors. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3688. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17484-y Cite
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Proteomics Analysis of FUS Mutant Human Motoneurons Reveals Altered Regulation of Cytoskeleton and Other ALS-Linked Proteins via 3′UTR Binding

By taking advantage of a human induced pluripotent stem cell-based model, scientists aimed to gain insights on the impact of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mutant FUS on the motoneuron proteome.
[Scientific Reports]
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Maturational Changes in Mouse Cutaneous Touch and Piezo2-Mediated Mechanotransduction

The authors identified distinct transcript changes in individual Piezo2-expressing mechanosensitive dorsal root ganglia neurons by combining electrophysiology with single-cell RNA sequencing.
[Cell Reports]
Michel, N., Narayanan, P., Shomroni, O., & Schmidt, M. (2020). Maturational Changes in Mouse Cutaneous Touch and Piezo2-Mediated Mechanotransduction. Cell Reports, 32(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107912 Cite
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Pro-Angiogenic Scaffold-Free Bio Three-Dimensional Conduit Developed from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

Researchers investigated the efficacy and mechanism of the Bio 3D conduit composed of xeno-free human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived mesenchymal stem cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Mitsuzawa, S., Zhao, C., Ikeguchi, R., Aoyama, T., Kamiya, D., Ando, M., Takeuchi, H., Akieda, S., Nakayama, K., Matsuda, S., & Ikeya, M. (2020). Pro-angiogenic scaffold-free Bio three-dimensional conduit developed from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12034. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68745-1 Cite
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Feinstein Institutes Receives $15 Million NIH Grant to Study Brain Dysfunction in Lupus

The Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research has been awarded a $15 million grant to study brain dysfunction tied to lupus by the National Institutes of Health. Betty Diamond, MD, director of the Feinstein’s Institute of Molecular Medicine, will use the five-year grant to investigate the role of anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor.
[The Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research (Business Wire, Inc.)]
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Investigating Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Neurogenesis in Capitella Teleta Sheds Light on the Ancestor of Annelida

The authors characterized neural precursor cells and their daughters at different stages of neurogenesis in the spiralian annelid Capitella teleta.
[BMC Evolutionary Biology]
Sur, A., Renfro, A., Bergmann, P. J., & Meyer, N. P. (2020). Investigating cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurogenesis in Capitella teleta sheds light on the ancestor of Annelida. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 20(1), 84. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01636-1 Cite
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Generation of Cerebral Cortical GABAergic Interneurons from Pluripotent Stem Cells

The authors discuss recent progress in understanding how interneuron subtypes are generated in vivo, and how that progress is being applied to the generation of rodent and human cortical interneurons in vitro.
[Stem Cells]
Fitzgerald, M., Sotuyo, N., Tischfield, D. J., & Anderson, S. A. (n.d.). Generation of cerebral cortical GABAergic interneurons from pluripotent stem cells. STEM CELLS, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.3252 Cite
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