MicroRNA-194: A Novel Regulator of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Synthesis in Intestinal L Cells

Researchers investigated the intracellular mechanism of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) synthesis in L cells from the perspective of miRNA. They found that GLP-1 level was down-regulated in the plasma and ileum tissues of obese mice, while the ileac miR-194 expression was up-regulated.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Wang, J., Zhao, D., Ding, C.-Z., Guo, F., Wu, L.-N., Huang, F.-J., Liu, Y.-L., Zhao, S.-Y., Xin, Y., Ma, S.-N., Ji, H.-F., Wang, X., & Wei, L.-R. (2021). MicroRNA-194: a novel regulator of glucagon-like peptide-1 synthesis in intestinal L cells. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03366-0 Cite
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Distinct Metabolic Programs Established in the Thymus Control Effector Functions of γδ T Cell Subsets in Tumor Microenvironments

Scientists found that γδ T cell subsets making either interferon-γ or interleukin-17 have intrinsically distinct metabolic requirements.
[Nature Immunology]
Lopes, N., McIntyre, C., Martin, S., Raverdeau, M., Sumaria, N., Kohlgruber, A. C., Fiala, G. J., Agudelo, L. Z., Dyck, L., Kane, H., Douglas, A., Cunningham, S., Prendeville, H., Loftus, R., Carmody, C., Pierre, P., Kellis, M., Brenner, M., Argüello, R. J., … Lynch, L. (2021). Distinct metabolic programs established in the thymus control effector functions of γδ T cell subsets in tumor microenvironments. Nature Immunology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-00848-3 Cite
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Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Systemic Insulin Resistance in Mice with Diet-Induced Obesity Is Possibly Associated with Disruption of PFKFB3 in Hematopoietic Cells

Researchers examined a role for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in hematopoietic cells in regulating white adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin sensitivity.
[Laboratory Investigation]
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Methotrexate Attenuates Vascular Inflammation through an Adenosine-MicroRNA Dependent Pathway

The authors identify that the drug methotrexate and its downstream metabolite adenosine exert anti-inflammatory effects in the vascular endothelium by targeting and activating MiR-181b expression.
[eLife]
Yang, D., Haemmig, S., Zhou, H., Pérez-Cremades, D., Sun, X., Chen, L., Li, J., Haneo-Mejia, J., Yang, T., Hollan, I., & Feinberg, M. W. (2021). Methotrexate attenuates vascular inflammation through an adenosine-microRNA dependent pathway. ELife, 10, e58064. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58064 Cite
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DsbA-L Deficiency in T Cells Promotes Diet-Induced Thermogenesis through Suppressing IFN-γ Production

Researchers showed that high-fat diet feeding greatly suppressed the expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a mitochondria-localized chaperone protein, in adipose-resident T cells, which correlated with reduced T cell mitochondrial function.
[Nature Communications]
Zhou, H., Peng, X., Hu, J., Wang, L., Luo, H., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Li, G., Ji, Y., Zhang, J., Bai, J., Liu, M., Zhou, Z., & Liu, F. (2021). DsbA-L deficiency in T cells promotes diet-induced thermogenesis through suppressing IFN-γ production. Nature Communications, 12(1), 326. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20665-4 Cite
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Metabolic Messengers: Glucagon-Like Peptide 1

Scientists provide a concise overview of the core physiology of glucagon like peptide-1 secretion and action, and the role of the peptide in human health, disease and therapeutics.
[Nature Metabolism]
Gribble, F. M., & Reimann, F. (2021). Metabolic Messengers: glucagon-like peptide 1. Nature Metabolism, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-00327-x Cite
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Current Perspectives on Obesity and Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function in Older Adults

Investigators provide an update on the current knowledge related to obesity and skeletal muscle contractile function and highlight a number of questions to address potential etiologic mechanisms as well as intervention strategies, which may help advance the understanding of how physical performance can be improved among obese older adults.
[Journal of Applied Physiology]
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Phosphorylation of eIF2α Signaling Pathway Attenuates Obesity-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in an ER Stress and Autophagy-Dependent Manner

The expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy markers was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Compared to the normal mice, the serum lipid level and adipose tissue were increased in obese mice, while salubrinal attenuated obesity by blocking lipid disorder.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Li, J., Li, X., Liu, D., Zhang, S., Tan, N., Yokota, H., & Zhang, P. (2020). Phosphorylation of eIF2α signaling pathway attenuates obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in an ER stress and autophagy-dependent manner. Cell Death & Disease, 11(12), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03264-5 Cite
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Skin Resident γδ T Cell Function and Regulation in Wound Repair

The authors provide the current state of knowledge on skin γδ T cell activation, regulation, and function in skin homeostasis and repair in mice and humans.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Munoz, L. D., Sweeney, M. J., & Jameson, J. M. (2020). Skin Resident γδ T Cell Function and Regulation in Wound Repair. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(23), 9286. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239286 Cite
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Skin Wound Closure Delay in Metabolic Syndrome Correlates with SCF Deficiency in Keratinocytes

Scientists found that stem cell factor (SCF) expression in the epidermis was decreased in mouse models of delayed wound closure intended to mimic old age, obesity, and alcoholism. By using SCF conditionally knocked out mice, they demonstrated that keratinocytes’ autocrine production of SCF activates a transient c-kit receptor in keratinocytes.
[Scientific Reports]
Wang, Z., Wang, Y., Bradbury, N., Gonzales Bravo, C., Schnabl, B., & Di Nardo, A. (2020). Skin wound closure delay in metabolic syndrome correlates with SCF deficiency in keratinocytes. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21732. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78244-y Cite
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Obesity-Induced Vitamin D Deficiency Contributes to Lung Fibrosis and Airway Hyperresponsiveness

In vivo effect of vitamin D (VitD) supplementation were analyzed using high fat diet induced obese mice and TGF-β1 triple transgenic mice. Effects of VitD supplementation were also evaluated in both BEAS-2B and primary lung cells from the transgenic mice.
[American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology]
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