Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Modifies Adipose Plasticity and Promotes Beige Adipogenesis of Human Omental Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

Scientists explored the in vitro actions and mechanisms of glucose‐dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, a gut‐derived peptide, in human adipose‐derived MSCs isolated from omentum.
[FASEB Journal]
Chen, X., He, X., Guo, Y., Liu, L., Li, H., Tan, J., Feng, W., Guan, H., Cao, X., Xiao, H., & Li, Y. (2021). Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide modifies adipose plasticity and promotes beige adipogenesis of human omental adipose-derived stem cells. The FASEB Journal, 35(5), e21534. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201903253R Cite
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Obesity, Adipose Tissue and Vascular Dysfunction

The authors discuss the local and systemic roles of adipose tissue derived secreted factors and increased systemic inflammation during obesity and highlight their detrimental impact on cardiovascular health.
[Circulation Research]
Koenen Mascha, Hill Michael A., Cohen Paul, & Sowers James R. (2021). Obesity, Adipose Tissue and Vascular Dysfunction. Circulation Research, 128(7), 951–968. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.318093 Cite
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The Many Actions of Insulin in Skeletal Muscle, the Paramount Tissue Determining Glycemia

Scientists discuss the discoveries that have led to the current understanding of how insulin promotes glucose uptake in muscle.
[Cell Metabolism]
Sylow, L., Tokarz, V. L., Richter, E. A., & Klip, A. (2021). The many actions of insulin in skeletal muscle, the paramount tissue determining glycemia. Cell Metabolism, 33(4), 758–780. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.020 Cite
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Ahnak Deficiency Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver in Mice through FGF21 Induction

Ahnak knockdown in hepatocytes reportedly prevented excessive lipid accumulation induced by palmitate treatment and was associated with increased secretion of FGF21 and the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, which are primarily downstream of PPARα.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
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Loss of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Binding Endothelial Regulator Causes Insulin Resistance

Both global and endothelial cell-specific inducible knockout of bone morphogenetic protein-binding endothelial regulator cause hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance without increasing inflammation in metabolic tissues in mice.
[Nature Communications]
Mao, H., Li, L., Fan, Q., Angelini, A., Saha, P. K., Wu, H., Ballantyne, C. M., Hartig, S. M., Xie, L., & Pi, X. (2021). Loss of bone morphogenetic protein-binding endothelial regulator causes insulin resistance. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1927. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22130-2 Cite
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Liver Alanine Catabolism Promotes Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Hyperglycaemia in Type 2 Diabetes

Researchers revealed a metabolic inter-tissue cross-talk that links skeletal muscle atrophy and hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes.
[Nature Metabolism]
Okun, J. G., Rusu, P. M., Chan, A. Y., Wu, Y., Yap, Y. W., Sharkie, T., Schumacher, J., Schmidt, K. V., Roberts-Thomson, K. M., Russell, R. D., Zota, A., Hille, S., Jungmann, A., Maggi, L., Lee, Y., Blüher, M., Herzig, S., Keske, M. A., Heikenwalder, M., … Rose, A. J. (2021). Liver alanine catabolism promotes skeletal muscle atrophy and hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes. Nature Metabolism, 3(3), 394–409. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00369-9 Cite
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Auto-Aggressive CXCR6+ CD8 T Cells Cause Liver Immune Pathology in NASH

Using a preclinical mouse model that displays key features of human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, researchers found an indispensable role for T cells in liver immunopathology.
[Nature]
Dudek, M., Pfister, D., Donakonda, S., Filpe, P., Schneider, A., Laschinger, M., Hartmann, D., Hüser, N., Meiser, P., Bayerl, F., Inverso, D., Wigger, J., Sebode, M., Öllinger, R., Rad, R., Hegenbarth, S., Anton, M., Guillot, A., Bowman, A., … Knolle, P. A. (2021). Auto-aggressive CXCR6 + CD8 T cells cause liver immune pathology in NASH. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03233-8 Cite
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Progression of Prostate Carcinoma Is Promoted by Adipose Stromal Cell-Secreted CXCL12 Signaling in Prostate Epithelium

Researchers demonstrated that epithelial–mesenchymal transition in prostate tumors was promoted by obesity and suppressed upon pharmacological adipose stromal cells depletion in HiMyc mice, a spontaneous genetic model of prostate cancer.
[npj Precision Oncology]
Su, F., Daquinag, A. C., Ahn, S., Saha, A., Dai, Y., Zhao, Z., DiGiovanni, J., & Kolonin, M. G. (2021). Progression of prostate carcinoma is promoted by adipose stromal cell-secreted CXCL12 signaling in prostate epithelium. Npj Precision Oncology, 5(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41698-021-00160-9 Cite
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FTO-Mediated Cytoplasmic m6Am Demethylation Adjusts Stem-Like Properties in Colorectal Cancer Cell

Researchers showed that the cytoplasmic pool of fat mass and obesity-associated protein impeded cancer stem cellabilities in colorectal cancer through its N6,2’-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am) demethylase activity.
[Nature Communications]
Relier, S., Ripoll, J., Guillorit, H., Amalric, A., Achour, C., Boissière, F., Vialaret, J., Attina, A., Debart, F., Choquet, A., Macari, F., Marchand, V., Motorin, Y., Samalin, E., Vasseur, J.-J., Pannequin, J., Aguilo, F., Lopez-Crapez, E., Hirtz, C., … David, A. (2021). FTO-mediated cytoplasmic m 6 A m demethylation adjusts stem-like properties in colorectal cancer cell. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1716. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21758-4 Cite
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Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Induce Mesenchymal Features and Senescence in Mouse Cardiac Endothelial Cells

Scientists applied florescence-activated cell sorting, RNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods to investigate the common effects of cardiovascular disease risk factors in mouse cardiac endothelial cells.
[eLife]
Hemanthakumar, K. A., Fang, S., Anisimov, A., Mäyränpää, M. I., Mervaala, E., & Kivelä, R. (2021). Cardiovascular disease risk factors induce mesenchymal features and senescence in mouse cardiac endothelial cells. ELife, 10, e62678. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.62678 Cite
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Adiponectin-Expressing Treg Facilitate T Lymphocyte Development in Thymic Nurse Cell Complexes

Adoptive transfer of adiponectin-expressing Treg precursors effectively attenuated obesity, improved glucose and insulin tolerance, prevented fatty liver injuries in wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet, and significantly inhibited breast cancer development in MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice.
[Communications Biology]
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