Organoids to Study Intestinal Nutrient Transport, Drug Uptake and Metabolism – Update to the Human Model and Expansion of Applications

The authors verified the applicability of 3D organoids for in vitro investigation of intestinal biochemical processes related to transport and metabolism of nutrients and drugs.
[Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology]
Zietek, T., Giesbertz, P., Ewers, M., Reichart, F., Weinmüller, M., Urbauer, E., Haller, D., Demir, I. E., Ceyhan, G. O., Kessler, H., & Rath, E. (2020). Organoids to Study Intestinal Nutrient Transport, Drug Uptake and Metabolism – Update to the Human Model and Expansion of Applications. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.577656 Cite
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An Aberrant STAT Pathway Is Central to COVID-19

Scientists discuss the possibility of using various approved drugs, or drugs currently in clinical development, to treat COVID-19. They suggest to enhance STAT1 activity and/or inhibit STAT3 functions for COVID-19 treatment.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Matsuyama, T., Kubli, S. P., Yoshinaga, S. K., Pfeffer, K., & Mak, T. W. (2020). An aberrant STAT pathway is central to COVID-19. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00633-7 Cite
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Fructose Promotes Cytoprotection in Melanoma Tumors and Resistance to Immunotherapy

An increase in heme oxygenase-1 protein was recapitulated in human A375 melanoma cells exposed to fructose in culture.
[Cancer Immunology Research]
Kuehm, L. M., Khojandi, N., Piening, A., Klevorn, L. E., Geraud, S. C., McLaughlin, N. R., Griffett, K., Burris, T. P., Pyles, K. D., Nelson, A. M., Preuss, M. L., Bockerstett, K. A., Donlin, M. J., McCommis, K. S., DiPaolo, R. J., & Teague, R. M. (2020). Fructose promotes cytoprotection in melanoma tumors and resistance to immunotherapy. Cancer Immunology Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-20-0396 Cite
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Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 Limits ILC2-Mediated Allergic Lung Inflammation in a Murine Asthma Model

The authors examined the role of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) in the allergic lung inflammation and demonstrated that the expression of FABP5 acts as a novel positive regulator of ST2 expression in alveolar epithelial cells (ECs) to generate retinoic acid (RA) and supports the synthesis of RA from type II alveolar ECs to suppress excessive activation of innate lymphoid cell 2 during allergic lung inflammation.
[Scientific Reports]
Kobayashi, S., Tayama, S., Phung, H. T., Kagawa, Y., Miyazaki, H., Takahashi, Y., Maruyama, T., Ishii, N., & Owada, Y. (2020). Fatty acid-binding protein 5 limits ILC2-mediated allergic lung inflammation in a murine asthma model. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16617. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73935-y Cite
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Obesity Attenuates the Effect of Sleep Apnea on Active TGF-ß1 Levels and Tumor Aggressiveness in Patients with Melanoma

Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was increased in moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients vs. non-OSA or mild OSA patients with cutaneous melanoma.
[Scientific Reports]
Cubillos-Zapata, C., Martínez-García, M. Á., Díaz-García, E., Jaureguizar, A., Campos-Rodríguez, F., Sánchez-de-la-Torre, M., Nagore, E., Martorell-Calatayud, A., Blasco, L. H., Pastor, E., Abad-Capa, J., Montserrat, J. M., Cabriada-Nuño, V., Cano-Pumarega, I., Corral-Peñafiel, J., Arias, E., Mediano, O., Somoza-González, M., Dalmau-Arias, J., … García-Río, F. (2020). Obesity attenuates the effect of sleep apnea on active TGF-ß1 levels and tumor aggressiveness in patients with melanoma. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15528. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72481-x Cite
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SWELL1 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Cell Size, Intracellular Signalling, Adiposity and Glucose Metabolism

Researchers showed that SWELL1 functionally encodes a swell-activated anion channel that regulates PI3K-AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR signaling, muscle differentiation, myoblast fusion, cellular oxygen consumption, and glycolysis in skeletal muscle cells.
[eLife]
Kumar, A., Xie, L., Ta, C. M., Hinton, A. J., Gunasekar, S. K., Minerath, R. A., Shen, K., Maurer, J. M., Grueter, C. E., Abel, E. D., Meyer, G., & Sah, R. (2020). SWELL1 regulates skeletal muscle cell size, intracellular signalling, adiposity and glucose metabolism. ELife, 9, e58941. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58941 Cite
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Palmitic Acid Induces Inflammation in Placental Trophoblasts and Impairs Their Migration toward Smooth Muscle Cells through Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

Investigatiors found that smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and SMC-conditioned media stimulated migration and invasion of an extravillous trophoblasts-like cell line, HTR8/SVneo.
[Molecular Human Reproduction]
Rampersaud, A. M., Dunk, C. E., Lye, S. J., & Renaud, S. J. (n.d.). Palmitic acid induces inflammation in placental trophoblasts and impairs their migration toward smooth muscle cells through plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Molecular Human Reproduction. https://doi.org/10.1093/molehr/gaaa061 Cite
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Defective Development and Microcirculation of Intestine in Npr2 Mutant Mice

Scientists report that the intestine of preweaning Npr2slw/slw mice showed bloodless blood vessels, and nodes were found in the lymphatic vessel.
[Scientific Reports]
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Secreted Factors from Adipose Tissue Reprogram Tumor Lipid Metabolism and Induce Motility by Modulating PPARα/ANGPTL4 and FAK

Scientists showed that co-culture with adipose tissue from high-fat diet induced obese C57BL/6 mice altered transcriptome profiles in triple negative breast cancer cells, this led to upregulation of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism, such as IL1B, PLIN2 and ANGPTL4.
[Molecular Cancer Research]
Secreted factors from adipose tissue reprogram tumor lipid metabolism and induce motility by modulating PPARα/ANGPTL4 and FAK | Molecular Cancer Research. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2020, from https://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2020/08/28/1541-7786.MCR-19-1223 Cite
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Targeting Obesity-Induced Macrophages during Preneoplastic Growth Promotes Mammary Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Activity, DNA Damage and Tumor Formation

To understand how macrophage-driven inflammation due to obesity enhanced tumor formation, mice were treated with immunoglobulin G or anti-F4/80 antibodies to deplete macrophages during preneoplastic growth.
[Cancer Research]
Chamberlin, T., Clack, M., Silvers, C., Kuziel, G., Thompson, V., Johnson, H., & Arendt, L. M. (2020). Targeting obesity-induced macrophages during preneoplastic growth promotes mammary epithelial stem/progenitor activity, DNA damage and tumor formation. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0789 Cite
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Celastrol Dilates and Counteracts Ethanol-Induced Constriction of Cerebral Arteries

Current data demonstrate that celastrol dilated de-endothelialized, ex vivo pressurized middle cerebral arteries from rats with EC50=45 µM and Emax=100 µM, with MCA diameter reaching a 10% increase over vehicle-containing, time-matched value. A similar vasodilatory efficacy is achieved when celastrol is probed on middle cerebral arteries segments with intact endothelium.
[Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics]
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