5-FU Promotes Stemness of Colorectal Cancer via p53-Mediated WNT/β-Catenin Pathway Activation

Researchers indicate p53 as a critical mediator of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced cancer stem cell activation via the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway and highlight the significance of combinatorial treatment of WNT inhibitor and 5-FU as a compelling therapeutic strategy to improve the poor outcomes of current 5-FU-based therapies for colorectal cancer patients.
[Nature Communications]
5-FU promotes stemness of colorectal cancer via p53-mediated WNT/β-catenin pathway activation | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19173-2 Cite
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The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Regulates RIP1K and Colorectal Cancer Resistance to Necroptosis

Scientists used a well-established mouse model of sporadic colorectal cancer induced by azoxymethane to determine the possible role of fragile X mental retardation protein in colorectal cancer.
[Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology]
Di Grazia, A., Marafini, I., Pedini, G., Di Fusco, D., Laudisi, F., Dinallo, V., Rosina, E., Stolfi, C., Franzè, E., Sileri, P., Sica, G., Monteleone, G., Bagni, C., & Monteleone, I. (2020). The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein regulates RIP1K and colorectal cancer resistance to necroptosis. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2020.10.009 Cite
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Prime Editing for Functional Repair in Patient-Derived Disease Models

Prime editing functionally recovered disease-causing mutations in intestinal organoids from patients with DGAT1-deficiency and liver organoids from a patient with Wilson disease
[Nature Communications]
Schene, I. F., Joore, I. P., Oka, R., Mokry, M., van Vugt, A. H. M., van Boxtel, R., van der Doef, H. P. J., van der Laan, L. J. W., Verstegen, M. M. A., van Hasselt, P. M., Nieuwenhuis, E. E. S., & Fuchs, S. A. (2020). Prime editing for functional repair in patient-derived disease models. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5352. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19136-7 Cite
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Exogenous L-Arginine Increases Intestinal Stem Cell Function through CD90+ Stromal Cells Producing mTORC1-Induced Wnt2b

Scientists utilized mice and small intestinal organoid models to clarify the role of L-arginine on epithelial differentiation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). They showed that L-arginine increased expansion of ISCs in mice.
[Communications Biology]
Hou, Q., Dong, Y., Huang, J., Liao, C., Lei, J., Wang, Y., Lai, Y., Bian, Y., He, Y., Sun, J., Sun, M., Jiang, Q., Wang, B., Yu, Z., Guo, Y., & Zhang, B. (2020). Exogenous L-arginine increases intestinal stem cell function through CD90+ stromal cells producing mTORC1-induced Wnt2b. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01347-9 Cite
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Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection Leads to Neurodevelopmental Disorder-Associated Neuropathological Changes

Researchers generated in vitro neurodevelopmental disorder models including human induced pluripotent stem cell based monolayer neuronal differentiation, 3D neuroepithelial bud, and 3D cerebral organoid to study fetal brain development and the potential neuropathological effects induced by the HSV-1 infections.
[Plos Pathogens]
Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection leads to neurodevelopmental disorder-associated neuropathological changes. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2020, from https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008899 Cite
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Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Scientists observed more CD9+C-PEPTIDE+ β cells in the fetal than in the adult cadaveric islets and more Ki67+ proliferating cells among CD9+ fetal β cells. Their experiments showed CD9 as a cell-surface marker for negative enrichment of glucose-responsive β-like cells differentiated from human PSCs.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Li, X., Yang, K. Y., Chan, V. W., Leung, K. T., Zhang, X.-B., Wong, A. S., Chong, C. C. N., Wang, C. C., Ku, M., & Lui, K. O. (2020). Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.09.009 Cite
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Complete Inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCG2 at the Blood–Brain Barrier by Co-Infusion of Erlotinib and Tariquidar to Improve Brain Delivery of the Model ABCB1/ABCG2 Substrate [11C]erlotinib

Scientists examined the feasibility of simultaneous ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibition with i.v. co-infusion of erlotinib and tariquidar by studying brain distribution of the model ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate [11C]erlotinib in mice and rhesus macaques with PET. Tolerability of the erlotinib/tariquidar combination was assessed in human embryonic stem cell-derived cerebral organoids.
[Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism]
Tournier, N., Goutal, S., Mairinger, S., Lozano, I. H., Filip, T., Sauberer, M., Caillé, F., Breuil, L., Stanek, J., Freeman, A. F., Novarino, G., Truillet, C., Wanek, T., & Langer, O. (2020). Complete inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCG2 at the blood–brain barrier by co-infusion of erlotinib and tariquidar to improve brain delivery of the model ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate [11C]erlotinib: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1177/0271678X20965500 Cite
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Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Researchers purified β-like cells for spontaneous formation of islet-like organoids against CD9, and found significantly more NKX6.1+MAFA+C-PEPTIDE+ β-like cells in the CD9− than in the CD9+ population.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Li, X., Yang, K. Y., Chan, V. W., Leung, K. T., Zhang, X.-B., Wong, A. S., Chong, C. C. N., Wang, C. C., Ku, M., & Lui, K. O. (2020). Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.09.009 Cite
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Modeling Human Neuronal Migration Deficits in 3D

Scientists provide a short introduction on human and mouse neuronal migration processes, and highlight human brain organoid models of neuronal migration diseases.
[Current Opinion in Neurobiology]
Reiner, O., Parichha, A., & Sapir, T. (2021). Modeling human neuronal migration deficits in 3D. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 66, 30–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2020.09.005 Cite
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Extracellular Vesicles from Organoids and 3D Culture Systems

The author provides a comprehensive picture of the progress using 3D in vitro culture models for extracellular vesicle analysis.
[Biotechnology and Bioengineering]
Abdollahi, S. (n.d.). Extracellular vesicles from organoids and 3D culture systems. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.27606 Cite
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Organoids to Model Liver Disease

Organoid models offer new perspectives in personalized medicine and drug discovery. The authors discuss the current liver organoid models for the study of liver disease.
[JHEP Reports]
Nuciforo, S., & Heim, M. H. (2020). Organoids to model liver disease. JHEP Reports, 100198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhepr.2020.100198 Cite
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