Physioxia Enhances T Cell Development Ex Vivo from Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

Scientists report that physiologically relevant oxygen concentration, an important environmental thymic factor promotes differentiation of cord blood CD34+ cells into progenitor T cells in serum‐free and feeder‐free culture system. This effect was enhanced by a potent reducing and antioxidant agent, ascorbic acid.
[Stem Cells]
Shin, D., Huang, X., Gil, C.-H., Aljoufi, A., Ropa, J., & Broxmeyer, H. E. (n.d.). Physioxia enhances T cell development ex vivo from human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. STEM CELLS, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.3259 Cite
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Developmental Excitation-Inhibition Imbalance Underlying Psychoses Revealed by Single-Cell Analyses of Discordant Twins-Derived Cerebral Organoids

Brain organoids derived from iPSCs of patients are a powerful avenue to investigate the pathophysiological processes. Scientists generated iPSC-derived cerebral organoids from monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Sawada, T., Chater, T. E., Sasagawa, Y., Yoshimura, M., Fujimori-Tonou, N., Tanaka, K., Benjamin, K. J. M., Paquola, A. C. M., Erwin, J. A., Goda, Y., Nikaido, I., & Kato, T. (2020). Developmental excitation-inhibition imbalance underlying psychoses revealed by single-cell analyses of discordant twins-derived cerebral organoids. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0844-z Cite
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PIAS1 and TIF1γ Collaborate to Promote SnoN SUMOylation and Suppression of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

Loss of function studies of PIAS1 and TIF1γ suggested that these E3 ligases act in an interdependent manner to suppress epithelial–mesenchymal transition of breast cell-derived tissue organoids. The authors unveiled a novel mechanism by which SUMO E3 ligases coordinate substrate SUMOylation with biological implications.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Chanda, A., Ikeuchi, Y., Karve, K., Sarkar, A., Chandhoke, A. S., Deng, L., Bonni, A., & Bonni, S. (2020). PIAS1 and TIF1γ collaborate to promote SnoN SUMOylation and suppression of epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0599-8 Cite
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Correction of CFTR Function in Intestinal Organoids to Guide Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis

Intestinal organoids were grown from rectal biopsies in a cohort of 97 subjects with cystic fibrosis. Residual CFTR function was measured by quantifying organoid swelling induced by forskolin and response to modulators by quantifying organoid swelling induced by CFTR correctors, potentiator and their combination.
[European Respiratory Journal]
Ramalho, A. S., Fürstová, E., Vonk, A. M., Ferrante, M., Verfaillie, C., Dupont, L., Boon, M., Proesmans, M., Beekman, J. M., Sarouk, I., Cordero, C. V., Vermeulen, F., & Boeck, K. D. (2020). Correction of CFTR function in intestinal organoids to guide treatment of Cystic Fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02426-2019 Cite
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The Role of the Oncostatin M/Osm Receptor β Axis in Activating Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells in Systemic Sclerosis

Cell culture experiments were performed in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and included mRNA and protein analysis, and cell migration and proliferation assays. Ex vivo skin organoid culture was used to evaluate the effect of OSM on perivascular fibrosis.
[Arthritis Research & Therapy]
Marden, G., Wan, Q., Wilks, J., Nevin, K., Feeney, M., Wisniacki, N., Trojanowski, M., Bujor, A., Stawski, L., & Trojanowska, M. (2020). The role of the oncostatin M/OSM receptor β axis in activating dermal microvascular endothelial cells in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 22(1), 179. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13075-020-02266-0 Cite
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Formation and Optimization of Three-Dimensional Organoids Generated From Urine-Derived Stem Cells for Renal Function In Vitro

Researchers aimed to develop a novel kind of 3D organoids generated from urine-derived stem cells and to explore whether kidney-specific extracellular matrix could enable such organoids for renal function in vitro.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Sun, G., Ding, B., Wan, M., Chen, L., Jackson, J., & Atala, A. (2020). Formation and optimization of three-dimensional organoids generated from urine-derived stem cells for renal function in vitro. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 309. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01822-4 Cite
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PKD1-Dependent Renal Cystogenesis in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Ureteric Bud/Collecting Duct Organoids

CRISPR-Cas9 technology deleted PKD1 in human induced pluripotent stem cell and the cells induced to differentiate along pathways leading to formation of either nephron progenitor or uteric bud organoids.
[Journal of the American Society of Nephrology]
Kuraoka, S., Tanigawa, S., Taguchi, A., Hotta, A., Nakazato, H., Osafune, K., Kobayashi, A., & Nishinakamura, R. (2020). PKD1-Dependent Renal Cystogenesis in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Ureteric Bud/Collecting Duct Organoids. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020030378 Cite
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Correction of CFTR Function in Intestinal Organoids to Guide Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis

Intestinal organoids were grown from rectal biopsies in a cohort of 97 subjects with cystic fibrosis. Residual CFTR function was measured by quantifying organoid swelling induced by forskolin and response to modulators by quantifying organoid swelling induced by CFTR correctors, potentiator and their combination. Organoid data were correlated with clinical data from literature.
[European Respiratory Journal]
Ramalho, A. S., Fürstová, E., Vonk, A. M., Ferrante, M., Verfaillie, C., Dupont, L., Boon, M., Proesmans, M., Beekman, J. M., Sarouk, I., Cordero, C. V., Vermeulen, F., & Boeck, K. D. (2020). Correction of CFTR function in intestinal organoids to guide treatment of Cystic Fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02426-2019 Cite
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DYNC2H1 Hypomorphic or Retina-Predominant Variants Cause Nonsyndromic Retinal Degeneration

Genome and exome sequencing were performed for five unrelated cases of inherited retinal disease with no identified variant. In vitro assays were developed to validate the variants identified, including fibroblast assay, induced pluripotent stem cell derived retinal organoids, and a dynein motility assay.
[Genetics in Medicine]
Vig, A., Poulter, J. A., Ottaviani, D., Tavares, E., Toropova, K., Tracewska, A. M., Mollica, A., Kang, J., Kehelwathugoda, O., Paton, T., Maynes, J. T., Wheway, G., Arno, G., Khan, K. N., McKibbin, M., Toomes, C., Ali, M., Scipio, M. D., Li, S., … Heon, E. (2020). DYNC2H1 hypomorphic or retina-predominant variants cause nonsyndromic retinal degeneration. Genetics in Medicine, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0915-1 Cite
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Single-Cell Transcriptomics Reveals Multiple Neuronal Cell Types in Human Midbrain-Specific Organoids

Investigators demonstrated that human midbrain organoids showed essential neuronal functional properties as spontaneous electrophysiological activity of different neuronal subtypes, including dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurons.
[Cell and Tissue Research]
Smits, L. M., Magni, S., Kinugawa, K., Grzyb, K., Luginbühl, J., Sabate-Soler, S., Bolognin, S., Shin, J. W., Mori, E., Skupin, A., & Schwamborn, J. C. (2020). Single-cell transcriptomics reveals multiple neuronal cell types in human midbrain-specific organoids. Cell and Tissue Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-020-03249-y Cite
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Current Concepts in Tumor-Derived Organoids

Organoids offer a new and exciting platform for studying cancer and directing personalised therapies. This review highlights how organoids are shaping the future of cancer research.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Porter, R. J., Murray, G. I., & McLean, M. H. (2020). Current concepts in tumour-derived organoids. British Journal of Cancer, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0993-5 Cite
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Inflammatory Signals Induce AT2 Cell-Derived Damage-Associated Transient Progenitors that Mediate Alveolar Regeneration

The authors leveraged single-cell RNA sequencing in combination with in vivo lineage tracing and organoid models to finely map the trajectories of alveolar-lineage cells during injury repair and lung regeneration.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Choi, J., Park, J.-E., Tsagkogeorga, G., Yanagita, M., Koo, B.-K., Han, N., & Lee, J.-H. (2020). Inflammatory Signals Induce AT2 Cell-Derived Damage-Associated Transient Progenitors that Mediate Alveolar Regeneration. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.06.020 Cite
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