The Clinical Role of the Gut Microbiome and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

The authors define the role of administrating fecal microbiota transplantation in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
[Haematologica]
Henig, I., Yehudai-Ofir, D., & Zuckerman, T. (2020). The clinical role of the gut microbiome and fecal microbiota transplantation in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Haematologica. https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.247395 Cite
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Novel Human Immunomodulatory T Cell Receptors and Their Double-Edged Potential in Autoimmunity, Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

Scientists discuss the roles of immunomodulatory receptors in the control of immunity from a perspective focused on therapeutic potential in not only cancer but also autoimmune diseases.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Martín, P., Blanco-Domínguez, R., & Sánchez-Díaz, R. (2020). Novel human immunomodulatory T cell receptors and their double-edged potential in autoimmunity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00586-4 Cite
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Immunobiology and Immunotherapy of HCC: Spotlight on Innate and Innate-Like Immune Cells

The liver is an immunologic organ with large populations of innate and innate-like immune cells and is exposed to bacterial, viral, and fungal antigens through the gut–liver axis. Scientists summarize and highlight the role of these cells in liver cancer and propose strategies to therapeutically target them.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Ruf, B., Heinrich, B., & Greten, T. F. (2020). Immunobiology and immunotherapy of HCC: spotlight on innate and innate-like immune cells. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00572-w Cite
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Detection of Immunogenic Cell Death and Its Relevance for Cancer Therapy

Scientists outline methodological approaches for measuring immunogenic cell death markers in vitro and ex vivo for the discovery of next-generation antineoplastic agents, the development of personalized anticancer regimens, and the identification of optimal therapeutic combinations for the clinical management of cancer.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Fucikova, J., Kepp, O., Kasikova, L., Petroni, G., Yamazaki, T., Liu, P., Zhao, L., Spisek, R., Kroemer, G., & Galluzzi, L. (2020). Detection of immunogenic cell death and its relevance for cancer therapy. Cell Death & Disease, 11(11), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03221-2 Cite
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The Central Role of the Nasal Microenvironment in the Transmission, Modulation, and Clinical Progression of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Scientists review the latest molecular and cellular findings on the mucosal response to SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal cavity and in Nasopharynx-Associated Lymphoid Tissue, and to analyze its impact in the subsequent course of COVID-19.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Gallo, O., Locatello, L. G., Mazzoni, A., Novelli, L., & Annunziato, F. (2020). The central role of the nasal microenvironment in the transmission, modulation, and clinical progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mucosal Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00359-2 Cite
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Treatment Strategies for Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

The authors provide an overview of the therapeutic option for brain metastases from breast cancer that is currently available and outlines potential new approaches for tackling these deadly secondary tumors.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Olah, M., Menon, V., Habib, N., Taga, M. F., Ma, Y., Yung, C. J., Cimpean, M., Khairallah, A., Coronas-Samano, G., Sankowski, R., Grün, D., Kroshilina, A. A., Dionne, D., Sarkis, R. A., Cosgrove, G. R., Helgager, J., Golden, J. A., Pennell, P. B., Prinz, M., … De Jager, P. L. (2020). Single cell RNA sequencing of human microglia uncovers a subset associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6129. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19737-2 Cite
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The Emerging Role of miR‐128 in Musculoskeletal Diseases

Scientists discuss recent findings of miR‐128 in relation to bone metabolism and muscle regeneration to determine its potential therapeutic effects in musculoskeletal diseases, and to propose directions for future research in this significant field.
[Journal of Cellular Physiology]
Shang, Q., Shen, G., Chen, G., Zhang, Z., Yu, X., Zhao, W., Zhang, P., Chen, H., Tang, K., Yu, F., Tang, J., Liang, D., Jiang, X., & Ren, H. (n.d.). The emerging role of miR-128 in musculoskeletal diseases. Journal of Cellular Physiology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30179 Cite
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Epigenetic Regulation in the Pathogenesis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

The authors discuss the recent advances in the field of epigenetics of non-melanoma skin cancer. Particularly, the role of DNA methylation, histone hyperacetylation and non-coding RNA such as long-chain noncoding RNAs, circular RNAs and miRNA in the disease progression are summarized.
[Seminars in Cancer Biology]
Kashyap, M. P., Sinha, R., Mukhtar, M. S., & Athar, M. (2020). Epigenetic Regulation in the Pathogenesis of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer. Seminars in Cancer Biology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.11.009 Cite
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How Degeneration of Cells Surrounding Motoneurons Contributes to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Investigators provide striking evidence that the degeneration of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, in addition to inhibitory and modulatory interneurons, disrupt the functionally coherent environment of motoneurons. They discuss the extent to which the degeneration of glial cells and interneurons also contributes to the decline of the motor system.
[Cells]
Crabé, R., Aimond, F., Gosset, P., Scamps, F., & Raoul, C. (2020). How Degeneration of Cells Surrounding Motoneurons Contributes to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Cells, 9(12), 2550. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122550 Cite
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Therapeutic Potential of PARP Inhibitors in the Treatment of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

The authors expand on the clinical development of PARP inhibitors (PARPis) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, discuss potential biomarkers that may predict successful tumor control, and summarize present and future clinical research on PARPis in the metastatic disease landscape.
[Cancers]
Jang, A., Sartor, O., Barata, P. C., & Paller, C. J. (2020). Therapeutic Potential of PARP Inhibitors in the Treatment of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Cancers, 12(11), 3467. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113467 Cite
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Umbilical Cord Blood Cells for the Treatment of Preterm White Matter Injury: Potential Effects and Treatment Options

Investigators summarize pre-term white matter injury pathogenesis and pathophysiology, and the specific properties of different cell types in umbilical cord blood.
[Journal of Neuroscience Research]
Qiu, H., Qian, T., Wu, T., Wang, X., Zhu, C., Chen, C., & Wang, L. (n.d.). Umbilical cord blood cells for the treatment of preterm white matter injury: Potential effects and treatment options. Journal of Neuroscience Research, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24751 Cite
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