A Concise Review on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Personalized Regenerative Medicine

Investigators provide a concise update on the generation of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) and their application in personalized cardiac regenerative medicine. They also discuss the current limitations and challenges in the application of iPSC-derived CMs.
[Stem Cell Reviews and Reports]
Pushp, P., Nogueira, D. E. S., Rodrigues, C. A. V., Ferreira, F. C., Cabral, J. M. S., & Gupta, M. K. (2020). A Concise Review on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Personalized Regenerative Medicine. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10061-2 Cite
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Sox2 Is Necessary for Androgen Ablation-Induced Neuroendocrine Differentiation from Pten Null Sca-1+/sup> Prostate Luminal Cells

Researchers provide direct genetic evidence that Sox2 is necessary for androgen ablation-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of Pten null prostate adenocarcinoma. They corroborate that the lineage status of the prostate cancer cells is a determinant for its propensity to exhibit lineage plasticity, and support that the intrinsic features of cell-of-origin for prostate cancers can dictate their clinical behaviors.
[Oncogene]
Kwon, O.-J., Zhang, L., Jia, D., & Xin, L. (2020). Sox2 is necessary for androgen ablation-induced neuroendocrine differentiation from Pten null Sca-1 + prostate luminal cells. Oncogene, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01526-2 Cite
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Escherichia coli Foster Bladder Cancer Cell Line Progression via Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition, Stemness and Metabolic Reprogramming

In vitro infection of the T24 cell line with E. coli was performed to study the bacterial impact on bladder cancer cells. EMT markers were assessed using immunohistochemistry, western blot and RT-PCR. Stemness characteristics were monitored using RT-PCR.
[Scientific Reports]
Abd-El-Raouf, R., Ouf, S. A., Gabr, M. M., Zakaria, M. M., El-Yasergy, K. F., & Ali-El-Dein, B. (2020). Escherichia coli foster bladder cancer cell line progression via epithelial mesenchymal transition, stemness and metabolic reprogramming. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18024. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74390-5 Cite
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SMAR1 Repression by Pluripotency Factors and Consequent Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells Is Reversed by Aspirin

Investigators found in breast tumors that the expression of SMAR1 was decreased in cancer stem cells through the cooperative interaction of the pluripotency factors Oct4 and Sox2 with the histone deacetylase HDAC1.
[Science SIgnaling]
SMAR1 repression by pluripotency factors and consequent chemoresistance in breast cancer stem-like cells is reversed by aspirin | Science Signaling. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://stke.sciencemag.org/content/13/654/eaay6077 Cite
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DOT1L-Mediated Murine Neuronal Differentiation Associates with H3K79me2 Accumulation and Preserves SOX2-Enhancer Accessibility

Researchers showed that H3K79me2 increases and H3K27ac decreases globally during in vitro neuronal differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells.
[Nature Communications]
Ferrari, F., Arrigoni, L., Franz, H., Izzo, A., Butenko, L., Trompouki, E., Vogel, T., & Manke, T. (2020). DOT1L-mediated murine neuronal differentiation associates with H3K79me2 accumulation and preserves SOX2-enhancer accessibility. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5200. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19001-7 Cite
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JMJD3 Acts in Tandem with KLF4 to Facilitate Reprogramming to Pluripotency

On one side, JMJD3 induced the pro-senescence factor Ink4a and degraded the pluripotency regulator PHF20 in a reprogramming factor-independent manner. On the other side, JMJD3 was specifically recruited by KLF4 to reduce H3K27me3 at both enhancers and promoters of epithelial and pluripotency genes.
[Nature Communications]
Huang, Y., Zhang, H., Wang, L., Tang, C., Qin, X., Wu, X., Pan, M., Tang, Y., Yang, Z., Babarinde, I. A., Lin, R., Ji, G., Lai, Y., Xu, X., Su, J., Wen, X., Satoh, T., Ahmed, T., Malik, V., … Qin, B. (2020). JMJD3 acts in tandem with KLF4 to facilitate reprogramming to pluripotency. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5061. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18900-z Cite
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Identification of a Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Required for Pluripotency Factor-Induced Reprogramming of Mouse Fibroblasts and Hepatocytes

The authors investigated the early transcriptional events of cellular reprogramming triggered by the co‐expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c‐Myc in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and mouse hepatocytes.
[EMBO Journal]
Papathanasiou, M., Tsiftsoglou, S. A., Polyzos, A. P., Papadopoulou, D., Valakos, D., Klagkou, E., Karagianni, P., Pliatska, M., Talianidis, I., Agelopoulos, M., & Thanos, D. (2020). Identification of a dynamic gene regulatory network required for pluripotency factor-induced reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts and hepatocytes. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e102236. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2019102236 Cite
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De Novo Induction of Lineage Plasticity from Human Prostate Luminal Epithelial Cells by Activated AKT1 and C-Myc

Scientists demonstrated de novo neuroendocrine differentiation of the human prostate luminal epithelial cells induced by caAKT1 and c-Myc and revealed an impact of cellular status on initiation of lineage plasticity.
[Oncogene]
Kwon, O.-J., Zhang, L., Jia, D., Zhou, Z., Li, Z., Haffner, M., Lee, J. K., True, L., Morrissey, C., & Xin, L. (2020). De novo induction of lineage plasticity from human prostate luminal epithelial cells by activated AKT1 and c-Myc. Oncogene, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01487-6 Cite
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De Novo Induction of Lineage Plasticity from Human Prostate Luminal Epithelial Cells by Activated AKT1 and C-Myc

Both TACSTD2high and TACSTD2low luminal cells transduced by constitutively activated AKT1, and c-Myc could form organoids containing versatile clinically relevant tumor cell lineages with regard to the expression of AR and the neuroendocrine cell markers Synaptophysin and Chromogranin A.
[Oncogene]
Kwon, O.-J., Zhang, L., Jia, D., Zhou, Z., Li, Z., Haffner, M., Lee, J. K., True, L., Morrissey, C., & Xin, L. (2020). De novo induction of lineage plasticity from human prostate luminal epithelial cells by activated AKT1 and c-Myc. Oncogene, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01487-6 Cite
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Role of Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 (AR-V7) in Prostate Cancer Resistance to 2nd-Generation Androgen Receptor Signaling Inhibitors

The role of truncated androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) in prostate cancer biology is an unresolved question.The correlation between resistance to AR signaling inhibitors and genetic chances and expression of full length AR vs. AR-V7 were evaluated in a series of independent patient-derived xenografts.
[Oncogene]
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FUT9-Driven Programming of Colon Cancer Cells towards a Stem Cell-Like State

De novo transcriptional activation of Fucosyltransferase 9 (Fut9) in the murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line, MC38, followed by RNA seq-based regulon analysis, revealed major gene regulatory networks related to stemness. Lewisx, Sox2, ALDH and CD44 expression, tumorsphere formation, resistance to 5-FU treatment and in vivo tumor growth were increased in FUT9-expressing MC38 cells compared to the control cells. Likewise, human CRC cell lines highly expressing FUT9 displayed phenotypic features of cancer stem cells, which were significantly impaired upon FUT9 knock-out.
[Cancers]
Cancers | Free Full-Text | FUT9-Driven Programming of Colon Cancer Cells towards a Stem Cell-Like State | HTML. (n.d.). Retrieved September 18, 2020, from https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/12/9/2580/htm Cite
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