Investigators provide a concise update on the generation of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) and their application in personalized cardiac regenerative medicine. They also discuss the current limitations and challenges in the application of iPSC-derived CMs.
[Stem Cell Reviews and Reports]
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Pushp, P., Nogueira, D. E. S., Rodrigues, C. A. V., Ferreira, F. C., Cabral, J. M. S., & Gupta, M. K. (2020). A Concise Review on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Personalized Regenerative Medicine. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10061-2 Cite
Researchers provide direct genetic evidence that Sox2 is necessary for androgen ablation-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of Pten null prostate adenocarcinoma. They corroborate that the lineage status of the prostate cancer cells is a determinant for its propensity to exhibit lineage plasticity, and support that the intrinsic features of cell-of-origin for prostate cancers can dictate their clinical behaviors.
In vitro infection of the T24 cell line with E. coli was performed to study the bacterial impact on bladder cancer cells. EMT markers were assessed using immunohistochemistry, western blot and RT-PCR. Stemness characteristics were monitored using RT-PCR.
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Abd-El-Raouf, R., Ouf, S. A., Gabr, M. M., Zakaria, M. M., El-Yasergy, K. F., & Ali-El-Dein, B. (2020). Escherichia coli foster bladder cancer cell line progression via epithelial mesenchymal transition, stemness and metabolic reprogramming. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18024. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74390-5 Cite
Investigators found in breast tumors that the expression of SMAR1 was decreased in cancer stem cells through the cooperative interaction of the pluripotency factors Oct4 and Sox2 with the histone deacetylase HDAC1.
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SMAR1 repression by pluripotency factors and consequent chemoresistance in breast cancer stem-like cells is reversed by aspirin | Science Signaling. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://stke.sciencemag.org/content/13/654/eaay6077 Cite
Researchers showed that H3K79me2 increases and H3K27ac decreases globally during in vitro neuronal differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells.
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Ferrari, F., Arrigoni, L., Franz, H., Izzo, A., Butenko, L., Trompouki, E., Vogel, T., & Manke, T. (2020). DOT1L-mediated murine neuronal differentiation associates with H3K79me2 accumulation and preserves SOX2-enhancer accessibility. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5200. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19001-7 Cite
On one side, JMJD3 induced the pro-senescence factor Ink4a and degraded the pluripotency regulator PHF20 in a reprogramming factor-independent manner. On the other side, JMJD3 was specifically recruited by KLF4 to reduce H3K27me3 at both enhancers and promoters of epithelial and pluripotency genes.
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Huang, Y., Zhang, H., Wang, L., Tang, C., Qin, X., Wu, X., Pan, M., Tang, Y., Yang, Z., Babarinde, I. A., Lin, R., Ji, G., Lai, Y., Xu, X., Su, J., Wen, X., Satoh, T., Ahmed, T., Malik, V., … Qin, B. (2020). JMJD3 acts in tandem with KLF4 to facilitate reprogramming to pluripotency. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5061. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18900-z Cite
The authors investigated the early transcriptional events of cellular reprogramming triggered by the co‐expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c‐Myc in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and mouse hepatocytes.
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Papathanasiou, M., Tsiftsoglou, S. A., Polyzos, A. P., Papadopoulou, D., Valakos, D., Klagkou, E., Karagianni, P., Pliatska, M., Talianidis, I., Agelopoulos, M., & Thanos, D. (2020). Identification of a dynamic gene regulatory network required for pluripotency factor-induced reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts and hepatocytes. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e102236. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2019102236 Cite
Scientists demonstrated de novo neuroendocrine differentiation of the human prostate luminal epithelial cells induced by caAKT1 and c-Myc and revealed an impact of cellular status on initiation of lineage plasticity.
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Both TACSTD2high and TACSTD2low luminal cells transduced by constitutively activated AKT1, and c-Myc could form organoids containing versatile clinically relevant tumor cell lineages with regard to the expression of AR and the neuroendocrine cell markers Synaptophysin and Chromogranin A.
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The role of truncated androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) in prostate cancer biology is an unresolved question.The correlation between resistance to AR signaling inhibitors and genetic chances and expression of full length AR vs. AR-V7 were evaluated in a series of independent patient-derived xenografts.
De novo transcriptional activation of Fucosyltransferase 9 (Fut9) in the murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line, MC38, followed by RNA seq-based regulon analysis, revealed major gene regulatory networks related to stemness. Lewisx, Sox2, ALDH and CD44 expression, tumorsphere formation, resistance to 5-FU treatment and in vivo tumor growth were increased in FUT9-expressing MC38 cells compared to the control cells. Likewise, human CRC cell lines highly expressing FUT9 displayed phenotypic features of cancer stem cells, which were significantly impaired upon FUT9 knock-out.