Broccoli Extract Increases Drug-Mediated Cytotoxicity towards Cancer Stem Cells of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Researchers investigated whether sulforaphane could enhance the chemotherapeutic effects of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil against head and neck squamous cell carcinomas–cancer stem cells, and its mechanisms of action.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Elkashty, O. A., & Tran, S. D. (2020). Broccoli extract increases drug-mediated cytotoxicity towards cancer stem cells of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. British Journal of Cancer, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-1025-1 Cite
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Tonicity-Responsive Enhancer-Binding Protein Promotes Stemness of Liver Cancer and Cisplatin Resistance

Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) was required for the tumorigenesis and self-renewal of liver CSCs. Cisplatin induced the recruitment of the ERCC1/XPF dimer to the chromatin in a TonEBP-dependent manner leading to DNA repair and cisplatin resistance.
[Ebiomedicine]
Lee, J. H., Suh, J. H., Kang, H. J., Choi, S. Y., Jung, S. W., Lee-Kwon, W., Park, S.-A., Kim, H., Ye, B. J., Yoo, E. J., Jeong, G. W., Park, N. H., & Kwon, H. M. (2020). Tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein promotes stemness of liver cancer and cisplatin resistance. EBioMedicine, 58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102926 Cite
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Polydatin Executes Anticancer Effects against Glioblastoma Multiforme by Inhibiting the EGFR-AKT/ERK1/2/STAT3-SOX2/Snail Signaling Pathway

The authors demonstrated that polydatin repressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and stemness and promoted apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme cells.
[Life Sciences]
Chen, Y., Niu, J., Li, L., Li, Z., Jiang, J., Zhu, M., Dong, T., Zhang, J., Shi, C., Xu, P., Lu, Y., Jiang, Y., Liu, P., & Chen, W. (2020). Polydatin executes anticancer effects against glioblastoma multiforme by inhibiting the EGFR-AKT/ERK1/2/STAT3-SOX2/Snail signaling pathway. Life Sciences, 118158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118158 Cite
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Hope in the Treatment of Diseases, Including Muscular Dystrophies

iPSC cells are laboratory-produced cells that combine the biological advantages of somatic adult and stem cells for cell-based therapy. The reprogramming of cells, such as fibroblasts, to an ESC-like state is done by the ectopic expression of transcription factors responsible for generating embryonic stem cell properties.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Gois Beghini, D., Iwao Horita, S., Cascabulho, C. M., Anastácio Alves, L., & Henriques-Pons, A. (2020). Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Hope in the Treatment of Diseases, including Muscular Dystrophies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(15), 5467. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155467 Cite
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Functional Characterization of SOX2 as an Anticancer Target

The authors introduce SOX2 as a transcription factor, its domain structure, normal physiological functions, and its involvement in human cancers. They next discuss its role in embryonic development and stem cell-renewal.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Zhang, S., Xiong, X., & Sun, Y. (2020). Functional characterization of SOX2 as an anticancer target. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00242-3 Cite
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Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Regulates the Pluripotency of Embryonic Stem Cells

The authors showed that core pluripotency factors OCT4 and SOX2 suppress chaperone-mediated autophagy, a selective form of autophagy, until the initiation of differentiation.
[Science]
Xu, Y., Zhang, Y., García-Cañaveras, J. C., Guo, L., Kan, M., Yu, S., Blair, I. A., Rabinowitz, J. D., & Yang, X. (2020). Chaperone-mediated autophagy regulates the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Science, 369(6502), 397–403. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb4467 Cite
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SOX2 and p53 Expression Control Converges in PI3K/AKT Signaling with Versatile Implications for Stemness and Cancer

The authors summarize the latest advances in the understanding of PI3K/AKT/SOX2-driven stemness and its intertwined relations to p53-signaling in DNA damage response under conditions of pluripotency, reprogramming, and transformation.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Schaefer, T., Steiner, R., & Lengerke, C. (2020). SOX2 and p53 Expression Control Converges in PI3K/AKT Signaling with Versatile Implications for Stemness and Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(14), 4902. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144902 Cite
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R-Loops Coordinate with SOX2 in Regulating Reprogramming to Pluripotency

Investigators profiled R-loops during somatic cell reprogramming and found that dynamic changes in R-loops are essential for reprogramming and occurred before changes in gene expression.
[Genetics]
R-loops coordinate with SOX2 in regulating reprogramming to pluripotency | Science Advances. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2020, from https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/24/eaba0777 Cite
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Snail Promotes the Generation of Vascular Endothelium by Breast Cancer Cells

Investigators reported a new and unexpected function of Snail in endothelium generation by breast cancer cells. They showed that high Snail-expressing breast cancer cells isolated from patients showed more endothelium generated from these cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Hippo-Yap Signaling Controls Lineage Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells through Modulating the Formation of Super-Enhancers

Investigators found that knockout of Mst1 and Mst2, two key components of the Hippo signaling in mouse ESCs, resulted in a disruption of differentiation into mesendoderm lineage. They revealed a novel mechanism on how the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway dictated ESC lineage differentiation.
[Nucleic Acids Research]
Sun, X., Ren, Z., Cun, Y., Zhao, C., Huang, X., Zhou, J., Hu, R., Su, X., Ji, L., Li, P., Mak, K. L. K., Gao, F., Yang, Y., Xu, H., Ding, J., Cao, N., Li, S., Zhang, W., Lan, P., … Yuan, P. (n.d.). Hippo-YAP signaling controls lineage differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells through modulating the formation of super-enhancers. Nucleic Acids Research. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa482 Cite
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Critical Role of SOX2–IGF2 Signaling in Aggressiveness of Bladder Cancer

Researchers found SOX2 expression signifies poor recurrence-free survival and correlates with advanced pathological grade in bladder cancer. SOX2 silencing attenuated bladder cancer cell growth, while its expression promoted cancer cell survival and proliferation.
[Scientific Reports]
Ostrander, E. L., Kramer, A. C., Mallaney, C., Celik, H., Koh, W. K., Fairchild, J., Haussler, E., Zhang, C. R. C., & Challen, G. A. (2020). Divergent Effects of Dnmt3a and Tet2 Mutations on Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Fitness. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.02.011 Cite
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