Mitochondrial DNA Enhance Innate Immune Responses in Neuromyelitis Optica by Monocyte Recruitment and Activation

Investigators established anti-AQP4 recombinant autoantibodies from plasmablasts in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patient’s cereberospinal fluid.
[Scientific Reports]
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A Widespread Neurogenic Potential of Neocortical Astrocytes Is Induced by Injury

Scientists showed that notch signaling-deficient astrocytes could generate new neurons after injury. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, they found that, when notch signaling was blocked, astrocytes transitioned to a neural stem cell-like state.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Zamboni, M., Llorens-Bobadilla, E., Magnusson, J. P., & Frisén, J. (2020). A Widespread Neurogenic Potential of Neocortical Astrocytes Is Induced by Injury. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.07.006 Cite
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Activation of a Neural Stem Cell Transcriptional Program in Parenchymal Astrocytes

Researchers used single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize neurogenesis by notch-depleted striatal astrocytes in vivo.
[eLife]
Activation of a neural stem cell transcriptional program in parenchymal astrocytes | eLife. (n.d.). Retrieved August 5, 2020, from https://elifesciences.org/articles/59733 Cite
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Intrathecal Administration of the Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Human Wharton’s Jelly Stem Cells Inhibit Inflammation and Attenuate the Activity of Inflammasome Complexes after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

Scientists investigated immunomodulatory potential of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles on inflammasome activity one week after spinal cord injury in rats.
[Neuroscience Research]
Noori, L., Arabzadeh, S., Mohamadi, Y., Mojaverrostami, S., Mokhtari, T., Akbari, M., & Hassanzadeh, G. (2020). Intrathecal administration of the extracellular vesicles derived from human Wharton’s jelly stem cells inhibit inflammation and attenuate the activity of inflammasome complexes after spinal cord injury in rats. Neuroscience Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2020.07.011 Cite
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Developmental GABA Polarity Switch and Neuronal Plasticity in Bioengineered Neuronal Organoids

The authors report the directed self-organization of human induced pluripotent stem cells in a collagen hydrogel towards a highly interconnected neuronal network at a macroscale tissue format.
[Nature Communications]
Zafeiriou, M.-P., Bao, G., Hudson, J., Halder, R., Blenkle, A., Schreiber, M.-K., Fischer, A., Schild, D., & Zimmermann, W.-H. (2020). Developmental GABA polarity switch and neuronal plasticity in Bioengineered Neuronal Organoids. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3791. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17521-w Cite
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Subarachnoid Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Rodent Model with Subacute Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Preclinical Safety and Efficacy Study

The authors performed cellular, kinematic, physiological, and anatomical analyses, either in vitro or in vivo, to comprehensively evaluate the safety and efficacy associated with subarachnoid transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in rats with subacute incomplete spinal cord injury.
[Experimental Cell Research]
Yang, Y., Cao, T.-T., Tian, Z.-M., Gao, H., Wen, H.-Q., Pang, M., He, W.-J., Wang, N.-X., Chen, Y.-Y., Wang, Y., Li, H., Lin, J.-W., Kang, Z., Li, M.-M., Liu, B., & Rong, L.-M. (2020). Subarachnoid transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell in rodent model with subacute incomplete spinal cord injury: Preclinical safety and efficacy study. Experimental Cell Research, 112184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2020.112184 Cite
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Transplantation of R-GSIK Scaffold with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Neuroinflammation in a Traumatic Brain Injury Model

Investigators determined the ability of the R-GSIK scaffold in supporting the effects of mesenchymal stem cells on motor function activity and inflammatory responses in an experimental traumatic brain injury model.
[Cell and Tissue Research]
Sahab Negah, S., Shirzad, M. M., Biglari, G., Naseri, F., Hosseini Ravandi, H., Hassani Dooghabadi, A., & Gorji, A. (2020). Transplantation of R-GSIK scaffold with mesenchymal stem cells improves neuroinflammation in a traumatic brain injury model. Cell and Tissue Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-020-03247-0 Cite
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hUC-MSCs Ameliorated CUMS-Induced Depression by Modulating Complement C3 Signaling-Mediated Microglial Polarization during Astrocyte-Microglia Crosstalk

Human umbilical cord (hUC)-MSCs were administered into chronic unpredictable mild stress model mice through the tail vein once a week for four weeks. After the administration of hUC-MSCs, the depression-like and anxiety-like phenotypes, neuronal histopathology, synaptic-related protein expression and inflammatory index of the mice were assessed.
[Brain Research Bulletin]
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Secretion of a Mammalian Chondroitinase ABC Aids Glial Integration at PNS/CNS Boundaries

Researchers used a lentiviral chondroitinase ABC, capable of being secreted from mammalian cells, to examine the repercussions of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans digestion upon Schwann cell behaviour in vitro.
[Scientific Reports]
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N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Promote Astrocyte Differentiation and Neurotrophin Production Independent of cAMP in Patient-Derived Neural Stem Cells

iPSC-derived neuronal stem cell lines were generated from individuals with major depressive disorder. Astrocytes differentiated from patient-derived neuronal stem cells were verified by GFAP and cells were treated with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid or stearic acid.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Yu, J.-Z., Wang, J., Sheridan, S. D., Perlis, R. H., & Rasenick, M. M. (2020). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote astrocyte differentiation and neurotrophin production independent of cAMP in patient-derived neural stem cells. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0786-5 Cite
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CD49f Is a Novel Marker of Functional and Reactive Human iPSC-Derived Astrocytes

Researchers showed that CD49f was a novel marker for human astrocytes, expressed in fetal and adult brains from healthy and diseased individuals.
[Neuron]
CD49f Is a Novel Marker of Functional and Reactive Human iPSC-Derived Astrocytes: Neuron. (n.d.). Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(20)30360-3 Cite
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