Targeting of Glioma Stem-Like Cells with a Parthenolide Derivative ACT001 through Inhibition of AEBP1/PI3K/AKT Signaling

The effects of ACT001 on cell survival of normal human astrocytes and patient-derived glioma stem-like cells were evaluated. RNA-Seq were performed to detect differentially expressed genes.
[Theranostics]
Hou, Y., Sun, B., Liu, W., Yu, B., Shi, Q., Luo, F., Bai, Y., & Feng, H. (2021). Targeting of glioma stem-like cells with a parthenolide derivative ACT001 through inhibition of AEBP1/PI3K/AKT signaling. Theranostics, 11(2), 555–566. https://doi.org/10.7150/thno.49250 Cite
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Altered Hippocampal Gene Expression, Glial Cell Population, and Neuronal Excitability in Aminopeptidase P1 Deficiency

The authors showed that a deficiency of aminopeptidase P1 modified the glial population and neuronal excitability in the hippocampus.
[Scientific Reports]
Yoon, S. H., Bae, Y.-S., Oh, S. P., Song, W. S., Chang, H., & Kim, M.-H. (2021). Altered hippocampal gene expression, glial cell population, and neuronal excitability in aminopeptidase P1 deficiency. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 932. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79656-6 Cite
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Molecular Characterization of Selectively Vulnerable Neurons in Alzheimer’s Disease

To identify and characterize selectively vulnerable neuronal populations, the authors used single-nucleus RNA sequencing to profile the caudal entorhinal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus—brain regions where neurofibrillary inclusions and neuronal loss occurred early and late in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), respectively—from postmortem brains spanning the progression of AD-type tau neurofibrillary pathology.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Leng, K., Li, E., Eser, R., Piergies, A., Sit, R., Tan, M., Neff, N., Li, S. H., Rodriguez, R. D., Suemoto, C. K., Leite, R. E. P., Ehrenberg, A. J., Pasqualucci, C. A., Seeley, W. W., Spina, S., Heinsen, H., Grinberg, L. T., & Kampmann, M. (2021). Molecular characterization of selectively vulnerable neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-00764-7 Cite
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Valproic Acid-Exposed Astrocytes Impair Inhibitory Synapse Formation and Function

Investigators examined whether exposure of cultured astrocytes to valproic acid altered neuronal morphology and synapse function of co-cultured neurons.
[Scientific Reports]
Valproic acid-exposed astrocytes impair inhibitory synapse formation and function | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved January 8, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-79520-7 Cite
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Electrospun Fiber Scaffolds for Engineering Glial Cell Behavior to Promote Neural Regeneration

The authors provide the first comprehensive overview of how electrospun fiber alignment, diameter, surface nanotopography, surface functionalization, and therapeutic delivery affect Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia in the central nervous system
[Bioengineering]
Puhl, D. L., Funnell, J. L., Nelson, D. W., Gottipati, M. K., & Gilbert, R. J. (2021). Electrospun Fiber Scaffolds for Engineering Glial Cell Behavior to Promote Neural Regeneration. Bioengineering, 8(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8010004 Cite
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HUCMSCs Transplantation Combined with Ultrashort Wave Therapy Attenuates Neuroinflammation in Spinal Cord Injury through NUR77/ NF-κB Pathway

Low-dose Ultrashort Wave was treated one day after spinal cord injury (SCI) and human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell suspension was transferred to the lesion using a micro-syringe seven days after SCI.
[Life Sciences]
Wang, S., Jia, Y., Cao, X., Feng, S., Na, L., Dong, H., Gao, J., & Zhang, L. (2020). HUCMSCs transplantation combined with ultrashort wave therapy attenuates neuroinflammation in spinal cord injury through NUR77/ NF-κB pathway. Life Sciences, 118958. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118958 Cite
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Gut-Licensed IFNγ+ NK Cells Drive LAMP1+TRAIL+ Anti-Inflammatory Astrocytes

Using high-throughput flow cytometry screening, single-cell RNA sequencing and CRISPR–Cas9-based cell-specific in vivo genetic perturbations in mice, researchers identified a subset of astrocytes that expressed the lysosomal protein LAMP12 and the death receptor ligand TRAIL.
[Nature]
Sanmarco, L. M., Wheeler, M. A., Gutiérrez-Vázquez, C., Polonio, C. M., Linnerbauer, M., Pinho-Ribeiro, F. A., Li, Z., Giovannoni, F., Batterman, K. V., Scalisi, G., Zandee, S. E. J., Heck, E. S., Alsuwailm, M., Rosene, D. L., Becher, B., Chiu, I. M., Prat, A., & Quintana, F. J. (2021). Gut-licensed IFNγ + NK cells drive LAMP1 + TRAIL + anti-inflammatory astrocytes. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03116-4 Cite
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ApoE4 Impairs Neuron-Astrocyte Coupling of Fatty Acid Metabolism

The authors describe a detrimental role of ApoE4 in regulating fatty acid (FA) metabolism across neuron and astrocyte in tandem with their distinctive mitochondrial phenotypes. ApoE4 disrupted neuronal function by decreasing FA sequestering in lipid droplets.
[Cell Reports]
Qi, G., Mi, Y., Shi, X., Gu, H., Brinton, R. D., & Yin, F. (2021). ApoE4 Impairs Neuron-Astrocyte Coupling of Fatty Acid Metabolism. Cell Reports, 34(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108572 Cite
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Gradient of Developmental and Injury Response Transcriptional States Defines Functional Vulnerabilities Underpinning Glioblastoma Heterogeneity

The authors performed single-cell RNA sequencing on >69,000 glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) cultured from the tumors of 26 patients. They observed a high degree of inter- and intra-GSC transcriptional heterogeneity that could not be fully explained by DNA somatic alterations.
[Nature Cancer]
Richards, L. M., Whitley, O. K. N., MacLeod, G., Cavalli, F. M. G., Coutinho, F. J., Jaramillo, J. E., Svergun, N., Riverin, M., Croucher, D. C., Kushida, M., Yu, K., Guilhamon, P., Rastegar, N., Ahmadi, M., Bhatti, J. K., Bozek, D. A., Li, N., Lee, L., Che, C., … Pugh, T. J. (2021). Gradient of Developmental and Injury Response transcriptional states defines functional vulnerabilities underpinning glioblastoma heterogeneity. Nature Cancer, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43018-020-00154-9 Cite
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Filamentous Recombinant Human Tau Activates Primary Astrocytes via an Integrin Receptor Complex

The authors showed that integrin αV/β1 receptor bound recombinant human Tau, mediating the entry of Tau fibrils in astrocytes.
[Nature Communications]
Wang, P., & Ye, Y. (2021). Filamentous recombinant human Tau activates primary astrocytes via an integrin receptor complex. Nature Communications, 12(1), 95. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20322-w Cite
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Multiple Sclerosis iPS-Derived Oligodendroglia Conserve their Properties to Functionally Interact with Axons and Glia In Vivo

To avoid confounding immune-mediated extrinsic effect, investigators used an immune-deficient mouse model to compare iPSC–derived oligodendroglia from multiple sclerosis and healthy donors following engraftment in the developing CNS.
[Science Advances]
Mozafari, S., Starost, L., Manot-Saillet, B., Garcia-Diaz, B., Xu, Y. K. T., Roussel, D., Levy, M. J. F., Ottoboni, L., Kim, K.-P., Schöler, H. R., Kennedy, T. E., Antel, J. P., Martino, G., Angulo, M. C., Kuhlmann, T., & Evercooren, A. B.-V. (2020). Multiple sclerosis iPS-derived oligodendroglia conserve their properties to functionally interact with axons and glia in vivo. Science Advances, 6(49), eabc6983. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc6983 Cite
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