Investigators utilized an isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based system to demonstrate that conversion of APOE3 to APOE2 greatly reduced the production of amyloid-beta peptides in hiPSC-derived neural cultures.
Scientists provide a brief overview of the role of astrocytes in regulating synaptic transmission and neuronal function, and discuss how cocaine influences these astrocyte-mediated mechanisms to induce persistent synaptic and circuit alterations that promote cocaine seeking and relapse.
Investigators showed that in the neocortex and thalamus, neurons and astrocytes express shared region-specific transcriptional and epigenetic signatures.
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Herrero-Navarro, Á., Puche-Aroca, L., Moreno-Juan, V., Sempere-Ferràndez, A., Espinosa, A., Susín, R., Torres-Masjoan, L., Leyva-Díaz, E., Karow, M., Figueres-Oñate, M., López-Mascaraque, L., López-Atalaya, J. P., Berninger, B., & López-Bendito, G. (2021). Astrocytes and neurons share region-specific transcriptional signatures that confer regional identity to neuronal reprogramming. Science Advances, 7(15), eabe8978. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe8978 Cite
Scientists defined a critical period in a developing Drosophila motor circuit and identified astrocytes as essential for proper critical period termination.
The authors report that C3G downregulation promoted the acquisition of a more mesenchymal phenotype that enhanced the migratory and invasive capacity of glioblastoma cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Manzano, S., Gutierrez-Uzquiza, A., Bragado, P., Sequera, C., Herranz, Ó., Rodrigo-Faus, M., Jauregui, P., Morgner, S., Rubio, I., Guerrero, C., & Porras, A. (2021). C3G downregulation induces the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype that enhances aggressiveness of glioblastoma cells. Cell Death & Disease, 12(4), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03631-w Cite
In cell lines derived from Parkinson’s disease patients, astrocytes were characterized by a significant decrease in S100B and GFAP-positive astrocytic profiles associated with marked decrease in astrocyte complexity.
[npj Parkinsons Disease]
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Researchers tested the in vitro neuroprotective potential of mouse adipose derived stem cells in astrocyte/motor neuron co-cultures where amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) astrocytes show neurotoxicity.
[Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development]
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Ciervo, Y., Gatto, N., Allen, C., Grierson, A., Ferraiuolo, L., Mead, R. J., & Shaw, P. J. (2021). Adipose derived stem cells protect motor neurons and reduce glial activation in both in vitro and in vivo models of ALS. Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2021.03.017 Cite
Single-cell transcriptomics of retinal cells, showed that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) receptor Fgfr1 was specifically expressed in Müller glia/astrocytes.
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Fu, Z., Qiu, C., Cagnone, G., Tomita, Y., Huang, S., Cakir, B., Kotoda, Y., Allen, W., Bull, E., Akula, J. D., Joyal, J.-S., Hellström, A., Talukdar, S., & Smith, L. E. H. (2021). Retinal glial remodeling by FGF21 preserves retinal function during photoreceptor degeneration. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102376 Cite
The authors showed that aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) was expressed in astrocytes in the mouse cerebellum and that ethanol metabolism by astrocytic ALDH2 mediated behavioral effects associated with ethanol intoxication.
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Jin, S., Cao, Q., Yang, F., Zhu, H., Xu, S., Chen, Q., Wang, Z., Lin, Y., Cinar, R., Pawlosky, R. J., Zhang, Y., Xiong, W., Gao, B., Koob, G. F., Lovinger, D. M., & Zhang, L. (2021). Brain ethanol metabolism by astrocytic ALDH2 drives the behavioural effects of ethanol intoxication. Nature Metabolism, 3(3), 337–351. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00357-z Cite
Scientists summarize the efforts to accomplish vascularization and perfusion of brain organoids, and they discuss these attempts from a forward‐looking perspective.
The authors showed elevated activation of the MTOR pathway in human-derived astrocytes harboring mutant SOD1, which resulted in inhibition of macroautophagy/autophagy, increased cell proliferation, and enhanced astrocyte reactivity.
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