Researchers identified Tenascin C (TNC) to be upregulated and secreted in mesenchymal glioblastoma subtype with high NF-κB signaling activity. Silencing TNC decreased proliferation, migration and suppresses self-renewal of glioma stem cells.
Modeling binge drinking using iPSC-derived human cerebral organoids, scientists sought to quantify the downstream toxic effects of alcohol (ethanol) on neural pathology phenotypes and signaling pathways within the organoids.
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Arzua, T., Yan, Y., Jiang, C., Logan, S., Allison, R. L., Wells, C., Kumar, S. N., Schäfer, R., & Bai, X. (2020). Modeling alcohol-induced neurotoxicity using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional cerebral organoids. Translational Psychiatry, 10(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01029-4 Cite
The authors showed that Mlc1 was expressed in human stem-like glioblastoma (GBM) cells and was linked to the development of primary and recurrent GBM.
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Single-cell sequencing data from seven surgical specimens of glioblastoma patients and patient-derived glioma stem cells co-cultured with peripheral leukocytes were used for the analysis.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
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The authors described an astroglial mechanism that contributed to the protection of the brain milieu from acidification. In vivo and in vitro experiments conducted in rodent models showed that at least one third of all astrocytes release bicarbonate to buffer extracellular H+ loads associated with increases in neuronal activity.
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Theparambil, S. M., Hosford, P. S., Ruminot, I., Kopach, O., Reynolds, J. R., Sandoval, P. Y., Rusakov, D. A., Barros, L. F., & Gourine, A. V. (2020). Astrocytes regulate brain extracellular pH via a neuronal activity-dependent bicarbonate shuttle. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5073. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18756-3 Cite
In iPSC-derived human astrocytes, increasing expression of PICALM reversed endocytic disruptions. The authors identified a functional interaction between two Alzheimer’s disease genetic risk factors—APOE4 and PICALM—centered on the conserved biological process of endocytosis.
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Narayan, P., Sienski, G., Bonner, J. M., Lin, Y.-T., Seo, J., Baru, V., Haque, A., Milo, B., Akay, L. A., Graziosi, A., Freyzon, Y., Landgraf, D., Hesse, W. R., Valastyan, J., Barrasa, M. I., Tsai, L.-H., & Lindquist, S. (2020). PICALM Rescues Endocytic Defects Caused by the Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Factor APOE4. Cell Reports, 33(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108224 Cite
Investigators showed that parthenolide could improve the functional recovery of spinal cord in mice as revealed by increased BMS scores and decreased cavity of spinal cord injury in vivo.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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Gaojian, T., Dingfei, Q., Linwei, L., Xiaowei, W., Zheng, Z., Wei, L., Tong, Z., Benxiang, N., Yanning, Q., Wei, Z., & Jian, C. (2020). Parthenolide promotes the repair of spinal cord injury by modulating M1/M2 polarization via the NF-κB and STAT 1/3 signaling pathway. Cell Death Discovery, 6(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-00333-8 Cite
Researchers explored whether exosomes derived from circAkap7-modified adipose-derived MSCs have therapeutic effects on cerebral ischemic injury.
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
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Xu, L., Ji, H., Jiang, Y., Cai, L., Lai, X., Wu, F., Hu, R., Yang, X., Bao, H., & Jiang, M. (2020). Exosomes Derived From CircAkap7-Modified Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protect Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.569977 Cite
Researchers uncovered a latent potential in neural stem cells to replace large numbers of lost oligodendrocytes in the injured mouse spinal cord.
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Llorens-Bobadilla, E., Chell, J. M., Merre, P. L., Wu, Y., Zamboni, M., Bergenstråhle, J., Stenudd, M., Sopova, E., Lundeberg, J., Shupliakov, O., Carlén, M., & Frisén, J. (2020). A latent lineage potential in resident neural stem cells enables spinal cord repair. Science, 370(6512). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8795 Cite
Scientists showed that microglia were also critical modulators of neuronal activity and associated behavioural responses in mice. Microglia responded to neuronal activation by suppressing neuronal activity, and ablation of microglia amplifies and synchronizes the activity of neurons, leading to seizures.
The authors take a closer look at multiple leukodystrophies, classified based on the primary glial cell type that is affected.
[Neurobiology of Disease]