Identification of MFGE8 and KLK5/7 as Mediators of Breast Tumorigenesis and Resistance to COX-2 Inhibition

Scientists identified multiple cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) associated genes that regulate tumor lung colonization in TNBC. Furthermore, they found that silencing MFGE8 and KLK5/7 gene expression in TNBC cells markedly restored sensitivity to COX-2 selective inhibitor both In Vitro and In Vivo.
[Breast Cancer Research]
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Inhibition of Inflammation-Induced Injury and Cell Migration by Coelonin and Militarine in PM2.5-Exposed Human Lung Alveolar Epithelial A549 Cells

Investigators evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of coelonin and militarine and examined their underlying molecular mechanisms in A549 cells exposed to PM2.5.
[European Journal of Pharmacology]
Cheng, W., Lu, J., Wang, B., Sun, L., Zhu, B., Zhou, F., & Ding, Z. (2021). Inhibition of inflammation-induced injury and cell migration by coelonin and militarine in PM2.5-exposed human lung alveolar epithelial A549 cells. European Journal of Pharmacology, 896, 173931. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.173931 Cite
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TRPV1 Feed-Forward Sensitization Depends on COX2 Upregulation in Primary Sensory Neurons

The authors report that a novel mechanism, which contributes to transient receptor potential ion channel, vanilloid subfamily, member 1 (TRPV1) activation-induced TRPV1-sensitization within ~ 30 min in at least ~ 30% of TRPV1-expressing cultured murine primary sensory neurons, was mediated through upregulation in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and increased synthesis of a series of COX2 products.
[Scientific Reports]
Li, T., Wang, G., Hui, V. C. C., Saad, D., de Sousa Valente, J., La Montanara, P., & Nagy, I. (2021). TRPV1 feed-forward sensitisation depends on COX2 upregulation in primary sensory neurons. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 3514. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82829-6 Cite
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Chronic Exposure to Microcystin-LR Increases the Risk of Prostate Cancer and Induces Malignant Transformation of Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

In vitro, over 25 weeks of microcystins-LR exposure, normal human prostate epithelial (RWPE-1) cells increased secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and colony formation, features typical for cancer cells.
[Chemosphere]
Pan, C., Zhang, L., Meng, X., Qin, H., Xiang, Z., Gong, W., Luo, W., Li, D., & Han, X. (2021). Chronic exposure to microcystin-LR increases the risk of prostate cancer and induces malignant transformation of human prostate epithelial cells. Chemosphere, 263, 128295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128295 Cite
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Effect of Ergothioneine on 7-Ketocholesterol-Induced Endothelial Injury

Endothelial cells were exposed to high levels of the cholesterol oxidation product, 7-ketocholesterol, in patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and this process is thought to mediate pathological inflammation.
[NeuroMolecular Medicine]
Koh, S. S., Ooi, S. C.-Y., Lui, N. M.-Y., Qiong, C., Ho, L. T.-Y., Cheah, I. K.-M., Halliwell, B., Herr, D. R., & Ong, W.-Y. (2020). Effect of Ergothioneine on 7-Ketocholesterol-Induced Endothelial Injury. NeuroMolecular Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12017-020-08620-4 Cite
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The Transcription Factor NRF2 Enhances Melanoma Malignancy by Blocking Differentiation and Inducing COX2 Expression

Investigators showed that NRF2 suppressed the activity of the melanocyte lineage marker MITF in melanoma, thereby reducing the expression of pigmentation markers.
[Oncogene]
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Xeno-Free Condition Enhances Therapeutic Functions of Human Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells against Experimental Colitis by Upregulated Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity

Researcchers extensively compared the physiological functions of human Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a xeno-free medium and a medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum.
[Journal of Clinical Medicine]
Kang, J. Y., Oh, M.-K., Joo, H., Park, H. S., Chae, D.-H., Kim, J., Lee, H.-R., Oh, I.-H., & Yu, K.-R. (2020). Xeno-Free Condition Enhances Therapeutic Functions of Human Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells against Experimental Colitis by Upregulated Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(9), 2913. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092913 Cite
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Deficiency of the SMOC2 Matricellular Protein Impairs Bone Healing and Produces Age-Dependent Bone Loss

The authors report a patient with a loss-of-function of the secreted matricellular protein SPARC related modular calcium binding 2 (SMOC2) presenting severe oligodontia, microdontia, tooth root deficiencies, alveolar bone hypoplasia, and a range of skeletal malformations.
[Scientific Reports]
Morkmued, S., Clauss, F., Schuhbaur, B., Fraulob, V., Mathieu, E., Hemmerlé, J., Clevers, H., Koo, B.-K., Dollé, P., Bloch-Zupan, A., & Niederreither, K. (2020). Deficiency of the SMOC2 matricellular protein impairs bone healing and produces age-dependent bone loss. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 14817. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71749-6 Cite
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EpCAM Targeted 3WJ RNA Nanoparticle Harboring Delta-5-Desaturase siRNA Inhibited Lung Tumor Formation via DGLA Peroxidation

By incorporating epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) aptamer and validated delta-5-desaturase (D5D) siRNA into the innovative three way-junction RNA-nanoparticle, target specific accumulation and D5D knockdown were achieved in the lung cancer cell and mouse models.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
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The Prostaglandin Synthases, COX-2 and L-PGDS, Mediate Prostate Hyperplasia Induced by Low-Dose Bisphenol A

In vitro studies showed that low-dose bisphenol A promoted the proliferation of human prostate fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and significantly upregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and L-PGDS in the cells.
[Scientific Reports]
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