Antitumor Effects of iPSC-Based Cancer Vaccine in Pancreatic Cancer

Researchers showed that an iPSC-based cancer vaccine, comprised of autologous iPSCs and CpG, stimulated cytotoxic antitumor CD8+ T cell effector and memory responses, induced cancer-specific humoral immune responses, reduced immunosuppressive CD4+ T regulatory cells, and prevented tumor formation in 75% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma mice.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Ouyang, X., Liu, Y., Zhou, Y., Guo, J., Wei, T.-T., Liu, C., Lee, B., Chen, B., Zhang, A., Casey, K. M., Wang, L., Kooreman, N. G., Habtezion, A., Engleman, E. G., & Wu, J. C. (2021). Antitumor effects of iPSC-based cancer vaccine in pancreatic cancer. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.04.004 Cite
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Skin-Resident Immune Cells Actively Coordinate Their Distribution with Epidermal Cells during Homeostasis

By tracking individual cells in the skin of live adult mice over time, investigators showed that Langerhans cells and dendritic epidermal T cells actively maintained a non-random spatial distribution despite continuous turnover of neighbouring basal epithelial cells.
[Nature Cell Biology]
Park, S., Matte-Martone, C., Gonzalez, D. G., Lathrop, E. A., May, D. P., Pineda, C. M., Moore, J. L., Boucher, J. D., Marsh, E., Schmitter-Sánchez, A., Cockburn, K., Markova, O., Bellaïche, Y., & Greco, V. (2021). Skin-resident immune cells actively coordinate their distribution with epidermal cells during homeostasis. Nature Cell Biology, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00670-5 Cite
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Potential Role for EZH2 in Promotion of Asthma through Suppression of miR-34b Transcription by Inhibition of FOXO3

Researchers investigated the molecular mechanism of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in the development of asthma.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Liu, B., Sun, H., Wang, J., Liu, H., & Zhao, C. (2021). Potential role for EZH2 in promotion of asthma through suppression of miR-34b transcription by inhibition of FOXO3. Laboratory Investigation, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00585-7 Cite
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T Cell Immune Discriminants of HIV Reservoir Size in a Pediatric Cohort of Perinatally Infected Individuals

Investigators demonstrated that T cell phenotypic signatures associate with viral reservoir size in a cohort of HIV vertically infected children and young adults under durable viral control, and who initiated anti-retroviral therapy under two years old.
[PLoS Pathogens]
Rinaldi, S., Armas, L. de, Dominguez-Rodríguez, S., Pallikkuth, S., Dinh, V., Pan, L., Gӓrtner, K., Pahwa, R., Cotugno, N., Rojo, P., Nastouli, E., Klein, N., Foster, C., Rossi, A. D., Giaquinto, C., Rossi, P., Palma, P., & Consortium, on behalf of E. (2021). T cell immune discriminants of HIV reservoir size in a pediatric cohort of perinatally infected individuals. PLOS Pathogens, 17(4), e1009533. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009533 Cite
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Relationship of SARS-CoV-2-Specific CD4 Response to COVID-19 Severity and Impact of HIV-1 and Tuberculosis Co-Infection

Investigators assessed the magnitude, function and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells in 95 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 38 non-COVID-19 patients, using flow cytometry.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Riou, C., Bruyn, E. D., Stek, C., Daroowala, R., Goliath, R. T., Abrahams, F., Said-Hartley, Q., Allwood, B. W., Hsiao, N.-Y., Wilkinson, K. A., Arlehamn, C. S. L., Sette, A., Wasserman, S., & Wilkinson, R. J. (2021). Relationship of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 response to COVID-19 severity and impact of HIV-1 and Tuberculosis co-infection. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI149125 Cite
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T-Cell-Based Immunotherapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Current Concepts and Future Developments

The stellar successes of immunotherapies that harness the power of T cells to treat solid tumors and an improved understanding of the immune systems of patients with hematologic malignancies have led to major efforts to develop immunotherapies for the treatment of patients with AML.
[Leukemia]
Daver, N., Alotaibi, A. S., Bücklein, V., & Subklewe, M. (2021). T-cell-based immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia: current concepts and future developments. Leukemia, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01253-x Cite
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A Positive Feedback Loop Reinforces the Allergic Immune Response in Human Peanut Allergy

Investigators showed that in peanut-allergic humans, peanut allergen drives the differentiation of CD209+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells and CD23+ myeloid dendritic cells through the action of allergen-specific CD4+ T cells.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
A positive feedback loop reinforces the allergic immune response in human peanut allergy | Journal of Experimental Medicine | Rockefeller University Press. (n.d.). Retrieved May 5, 2021, from https://rupress.org/jem/article/218/7/e20201793/212046/A-positive-feedback-loop-reinforces-the-allergic Cite
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Differences in Host Immune Populations between Rhesus Macaques and Cynomolgus Macaque Subspecies in Relation to Susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

Researchers characterized the constituent monocyte and lymphocyte populations between macaque species, and profile other major immune cell subsets including: CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, NK cells, B cells, monocyte subsets and myeloid dendritic cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Sibley, L., Daykin-Pont, O., Sarfas, C., Pascoe, J., White, A. D., & Sharpe, S. (2021). Differences in host immune populations between rhesus macaques and cynomolgus macaque subspecies in relation to susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 8810. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87872-x Cite
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TTP-Mediated Regulation of mRNA Stability in Immune Cells Contributes to Adaptive Immunity, Immune Tolerance and Clinical App

Scientists summarize the effects of TTP-mediated regulation of mRNA stability in dendritic cells (DCs), focusing on DC maturation and antigen presentation, T cell activation and differentiation, immune tolerance and inflammation.
[RNA Biology]
Zhang, Y., Zhou, J., Wei, Z., Dong, H., Yang, D., Deng, Y., Li, J., Shi, S., Sun, Y., Lu, H., Yuan, J., Ni, B., Wu, Y., Tian, Y., & Han, C. (2021). TTP-mediated regulation of mRNA stability in immune cells contributes to adaptive immunity, immune tolerance and clinical applications. RNA Biology, 0(0), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2021.1917185 Cite
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Augmenting ATG14 Alleviates Atherosclerosis and Inhibits Inflammation via Promotion of Autophagosome-Lysosome Fusion in Macrophages

To investigate the effects of ATG14 on macrophage autophagy, human atherosclerotic plaque, apoe−/- mice and cultured mouse macrophages were evaluated.
[Autophagy]
Zhang, H., Ge, S., Ni, B., He, K., Zhu, P., Wu, X., & Shao, Y. (2021). Augmenting ATG14 alleviates atherosclerosis and inhibits inflammation via promotion of autophagosome-lysosome fusion in macrophages. Autophagy, 0(0), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1909833 Cite
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SynNotch-CAR T Cells Overcome Challenges of Specificity, Heterogeneity, and Persistence in Treating Glioblastoma

developed synthetic notch (synNotch)–CAR T cells targeting solid tumor antigens and used them to treat mouse models of mesothelioma, ovarian cancer, and glioblastoma.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Choe, J. H., Watchmaker, P. B., Simic, M. S., Gilbert, R. D., Li, A. W., Krasnow, N. A., Downey, K. M., Yu, W., Carrera, D. A., Celli, A., Cho, J., Briones, J. D., Duecker, J. M., Goretsky, Y. E., Dannenfelser, R., Cardarelli, L., Troyanskaya, O., Sidhu, S. S., Roybal, K. T., … Lim, W. A. (2021). SynNotch-CAR T cells overcome challenges of specificity, heterogeneity, and persistence in treating glioblastoma. Science Translational Medicine, 13(591). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abe7378 Cite
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