Distinct Synovial Tissue Macrophage Subsets Regulate Inflammation and Remission in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Investigators used single-cell transcriptomics to profile 32,000 synovial tissue macrophages and identified phenotypic changes in patients with early/active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), treatment-refractory/active RA and RA in sustained remission.
[Nature Medicine]
Alivernini, S., MacDonald, L., Elmesmari, A., Finlay, S., Tolusso, B., Gigante, M. R., … Kurowska-Stolarska, M. (2020). Distinct synovial tissue macrophage subsets regulate inflammation and remission in rheumatoid arthritis. Nature Medicine, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0939-8 Cite
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The miR-92a-2-5p in Exosomes from Macrophages Increases Liver Cancer Cells Invasion via Altering the Ar/Phlpp/P-Akt/β-Catenin Signaling

Mechanism dissection revealed that miR-92a-2-5p from the exosomes could target the 3′UTR of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA to suppress AR translation, altering the PHLPP/p-AKT/β-catenin signaling to increase liver cancer cells invasion.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Liu, G., Ouyang, X., Sun, Y., Xiao, Y., You, B., Gao, Y., Yeh, S., Li, Y., & Chang, C. (2020). The miR-92a-2-5p in exosomes from macrophages increases liver cancer cells invasion via altering the AR/PHLPP/p-AKT/β-catenin signaling. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0575-3 Cite
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A Scaffold Laden with Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes for Promoting Endometrium Regeneration and Fertility Restoration through Macrophage Immunomodulation

A novel and viable cell-free therapeutic strategy by umbilical cord-MSC-derived exosomes was proposed.
[Acta Biomaterialia]
Xin, L., Lin, X., Zhou, F., Li, C., Wang, X., Yu, H., … Zhang, S. (2020). A scaffold laden with mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes for promoting endometrium regeneration and fertility restoration through macrophage immunomodulation. Acta Biomaterialia. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.06.029 Cite
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Exosomes Released by Breast Cancer Cells under Mild Hyperthermic Stress Possess Immunogenic Potential and Modulate Polarization In Vitro in Macrophages

Cytotoxicity of different hyperthermic temperatures and treatment durations were tested in normal murine macrophages and breast cancer cell lines.
[International Journal of Hyperthermia]
Sen, K., Sheppe, A. E. F., Singh, I., Hui, W. W., Edelmann, M. J., & Rinaldi, C. (2020). Exosomes released by breast cancer cells under mild hyperthermic stress possess immunogenic potential and modulate polarization in vitro in macrophages. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 37(1), 696–710. https://doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2020.1778800 Cite
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Switch of Macrophage Fusion Competency by 3D Matrices

Scientists introduced a collagen-based 3D matrix to embed Raw264.7 cell line and primary rat bone marrow-derived macrophages.
[Scientific Reports]
Fang, J. Y., Yang, Z., & Han, B. (2020). Switch of macrophage fusion competency by 3D matrices. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 10348. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67056-9 Cite
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NCX1 Represents an Ionic Na+ Sensing Mechanism in Macrophages

Scientists showed that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 played a critical role in high salt-triggered Na+ influx, concomitant Ca2+ efflux, and subsequent augmented NFAT5 accumulation.
[PLoS Biology]
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Microglia Promote Glioblastoma via mTOR-Mediated Immunosuppression of the Tumor Microenvironment

Investigators showed that glioblastoma (GBM)‐initiating cells induced mTOR signaling in the microglia but not bone marrow‐derived macrophages in both in vitro and in vivo GBM mouse models.
[Embo Journal]
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Macrophage Metabolic Reprogramming Presents a Therapeutic Target in Lupus Nephritis

Investigators found that human and mouse macrophages underwent a switch to glycolysis in response to IgG immune complex stimulation, mirroring macrophage metabolic changes in inflamed tissue in vivo. This metabolic reprogramming was required to generate a number of proinflammatory mediators, including IL-1β, and was dependent on mTOR and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Distribution of Nerve Fibers and Nerve-Immune Cell Association in Mouse Spleen Revealed by Immunofluorescent Staining

Scientists demonstrated extensive nerve fibers in all splenic compartments including the splenic nodules, periarteriolar lymphoid sheath, marginal zones, trabeculae, and red pulp; close associations of nerve fibers with blood vessels; and close associations of nerve fibers with various subsets of dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes
[Scientific Reports]
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Vagus Nerve Stimulation Even after Injury Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephropathy via Reducing Macrophage Infiltration

To explore the role of the spleen and splenic macrophages, key players in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, splenectomy, and adoptive transfer of macrophages treated with the selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist GTS-21 were conducted.
[Scientific Reports]
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Activation of GPR35 Protects against Cerebral Ischemia by Recruiting Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

The flowcytometric analysis shows the expression of G protein coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) on the infiltrating monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils in the ischemic brain.
[Scientific Reports]
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