Cardiac Resident Macrophages Prevent Fibrosis and Stimulate Angiogenesis

Researchers assessed the role of cardiac immune cells in the early hypertrophy response to cardiac pressure overload-induced by transverse aortic constriction.
[Circulation Research]
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Immune-Onc Therapeutics Announces First Patient Dosed in Phase 1 Clinical Trial Evaluating IO-108, a Novel Antagonist Antibody Targeting LILRB2 (ILT4), in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors

Immune-Onc Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the first patient has been dosed in the company’s first-in-human clinical trial of IO-108, a novel antagonist antibody targeting the myeloid checkpoint Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor B2 (LILRB2) for the treatment of solid tumors.
[Immune-Onc Therapeutics, Inc.]
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Signatures of Plasticity, Metastasis, and Immunosuppression in an Atlas of Human Small Cell Lung Cancer

Scientists sequenced 155,098 transcriptomes from 21 human biospecimens, including 54,523 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) transcriptomes. The authors observe greater tumor diversity in SCLC than lung adenocarcinoma, driven by canonical, intermediate, and admixed subtypes.
[Cancer Cell]
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Machine Learning Identification of Specific Changes in Myeloid Cell Phenotype during Bloodstream Infections

An eight-color antibody panel was used to identify seven monocyte and two dendritic cell subsets. In the learning cohort, immunophenotyping was applied to control subjects, postoperative heart surgery patients, as a model of noninfectious inflammatory responses, and blood culture-positive patients.
[Scientific Reports]
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Therapeutic Melanoma Inhibition by Local Micelle-Mediated Cyclic Nucleotide Repression

Researchers demonstrated that single-cell sequencing of melanoma-infiltrating immune cells showed that adenylate cyclase inhibitor micelles reduced the number of anti-inflammatory myeloid cells and checkpoint receptor expression on T cells.
[Nature Communications]
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Genetic Deletion of the Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Enhances Inflammation with Diverging Effects on Skin Wound Healing in Mice

In order to clarify the role of endocannabinoid system receptors in wound healing, excisional wounds were created on wildtype and CB1 and CB2 knockout mice.
[Life Sciences]
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Leukemic Progenitor Cells Enable Immunosuppression and Post-Chemotherapy Relapse via IL-36–Inflammatory Monocyte Axis

Researchers showed that abnormal IL-36 production activated by NF-κB was an essential feature of mouse and human leukemic progenitor cells.
[Science Advances]
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Irbesartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker, Inhibits Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis by Blocking the MCP-1/CCR2 Pathway

Irbesartan suppressedmonocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production and the accumulation of Ly6C+CCR2+ monocytes and fibrocytes in the inflamed colon, downregulated the expression of type 1 collagen and matrix metalloproteinase 9 and inhibited the development of intestinal fibrosis and tumors.
[Scientific Reports]
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CD127+ CD94+ Innate Lymphoid Cells Expressing Granulysin and Perforin Are Expanded in Patients with Crohn’s Disease

The authors analyzed CD127+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and natural killer cells in intestinal lamina propria from healthy donors and Crohn’s disease patients and identified two populations of CD127+CD94+ ILCs, designated population A and B, that could be distinguished on the expression of CD117, CD18 and cytotoxic molecules.
[Nature Communications]
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Inhibition of the BTK-IDO-mTOR Axis Promotes Differentiation of Monocyte-Lineage Dendritic Cells and Enhances Anti-Tumor T Cell Immunity

Researchers examined how targeting pathways that inhibit the differentiation of inflammatory myeloid cells affect antitumor immunity.
[Immunity]
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Distinct Single-Component Adjuvants Steer Human DC-Mediated T-cell Polarization via Toll-Like Receptor Signaling toward a Potent Antiviral Immune Response

Scientists assessed the effect of different adjuvants on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and their ability to polarize innate and adaptive immune responses.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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