DPP8/9 Inhibitors Activate the CARD8 Inflammasome in Resting Lymphocytes

Scientists showed that small molecule inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9, which activate the related CARD8 and NLRP1 inflammasomes, also activated pyroptosis in human and rodent resting lymphocytes.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Latent Factor Modeling of scRNA-Seq Data Uncovers Dysregulated Pathways in Autoimmune Disease Patients

The authors compared four state-of-the-art methods and propose an approach to assign derived latent factors to pathway activities and specific cell subsets.
[iScience]
Palla, G., & Ferrero, E. (2020). Latent factor modelling of scRNA-seq data uncovers dysregulated pathways in autoimmune disease patients. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101451 Cite
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Long Non-Coding RNA FENDRR Regulates IFNγ-Induced M1 Phenotype in Macrophages

Human THP-1 monocytes were activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and differentiated into M1 macrophages with IFNγ or M2 macrophages with IL4.
[Scientific Reports]
Munteanu, M. C., Huang, C., Liang, Y., Sathiaseelan, R., Zeng, X., & Liu, L. (2020). Long non-coding RNA FENDRR regulates IFNγ-induced M1 phenotype in macrophages. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13672. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70633-7 Cite
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Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Must Partner with the Myeloid–Macrophage Lineage for Long-Term Postviral Lung Disease

Scientists used a mouse model that applied an improved genetic definition of ILC2s via IL-7r–conditional Rora gene targeting and took advantage of a distinct progression from acute illness to chronic disease, based on a persistent type 2 immune response to respiratory infection with a natural pathogen.
[Journal of Immunology]
Wu, K., Wang, X., Keeler, S. P., Gerovac, B. J., Agapov, E. V., Byers, D. E., Gilfillan, S., Colonna, M., Zhang, Y., & Holtzman, M. J. (2020). Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Must Partner with the Myeloid–Macrophage Lineage for Long-Term Postviral Lung Disease. The Journal of Immunology, 205(4), 1084–1101. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000181 Cite
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COVID-19 Severity Associates with Pulmonary Redistribution of CD1c+ DC and Inflammatory Transitional and Nonclassical Monocytes

Investigators studied the frequencies and activation profiles of dendritic cells and monocytes present in the blood and lung of COVID-19 patients with different clinical severity in comparison with healthy individuals.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Sánchez-Cerrillo, I., Landete, P., Aldave, B., Sánchez-Alonso, S., Sánchez-Azofra, A., Marcos-Jiménez, A., Ávalos, E., Alcaraz-Serna, A., Santos, I. de los, Mateu-Albero, T., Esparcia, L., López-Sanz, C., Martínez-Fleta, P., Gabrie, L., Guerola, L. del C., Fuente, H. de la, Calzada, M. J., González-Álvaro, I., Alfranca, A., … Martín-Gayo, E. (2020). COVID-19 severity associates with pulmonary redistribution of CD1c+ DC and inflammatory transitional and nonclassical monocytes. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI140335 Cite
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Fetal Circulating Human Resistin Increases in Diabetes during Pregnancy and Impairs Placental Mitochondrial Biogenesis

Fetal resistin levels were measured in cord blood from pregnancies with and without maternal diabetes. Secretion of resistin from cord blood mononuclear cells was measured.
[Molecular Medicine]
Jiang, S., Teague, A. M., Tryggestad, J. B., Lyons, T. J., & Chernausek, S. D. (2020). Fetal circulating human resistin increases in diabetes during pregnancy and impairs placental mitochondrial biogenesis. Molecular Medicine, 26(1), 76. https://doi.org/10.1186/s10020-020-00205-y Cite
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Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Exposure Elicits Ex Vivo Cell-Type-Specific Epigenetic Changes in Human Gut Cells

Typhi strain were stained with a 33-metal-labeled antibody panel for mass cytometry analyses of the early chromatin modifications modulated by S. Typhi.
[Scientific Reports]
Sztein, M. B., Bafford, A. C., & Salerno-Goncalves, R. (2020). Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi exposure elicits ex vivo cell-type-specific epigenetic changes in human gut cells. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13581. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70492-2 Cite
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Inhibition of Mitophagy Drives Macrophage Activation and Anti-bacterial Defense during Sepsis

Scientists showed that lipopolysaccharide in combination with IFNγ, inhibited PINK1-dependent mitophagy in macrophages through a STAT1-dependent activation of the inflammatory caspases 1 and 11.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Patoli, D., Mignotte, F., Deckert, V., Dusuel, A., Dumont, A., Rieu, A., Jalil, A., Dongen, K. V., Bourgeois, T., Gautier, T., Magnani, C., Guern, N. L., Mandard, S., Bastin, J., Djouadi, F., Schaeffer, C., Guillaumot, N., Narce, M., Nguyen, M., … Thomas, C. (2020). Inhibition of mitophagy drives macrophage activation and anti-bacterial defense during sepsis. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI130996 Cite
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Cardiomyocyte Transplantation after Myocardial Infarction Alters the Immune Response in the Heart

The authors showed for the first time that the immune response is altered as a result of syngeneic neonatal cardiomyocyte transplantation after myocardial infarction leading to improved cardiac pump function as observed by magnetic resonance imaging in C57BL/6J mice.
[Cells]
Vasudevan, P., Wolfien, M., Lemcke, H., Lang, C. I., Skorska, A., Gaebel, R., Koczan, D., Lindner, T., Engelmann, R., Vollmar, B., Krause, B. J., Wolkenhauer, O., Lang, H., Steinhoff, G., & David, R. (2020). Cardiomyocyte Transplantation after Myocardial Infarction Alters the Immune Response in the Heart. Cells, 9(8), 1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081825 Cite
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HGF and IL-10 Expressing ALB::GFP Reporter Cells Generated From iPSCs Show Robust Anti-Fibrotic Property in Acute Fibrotic Liver Model

Induced hepatocyte-like (iHep) cells were generated from induced pluripotent stem cells integrated with the albumin reporter gene. The therapeutic properties of these iHep cells were investigated after transplantation in fibrotic liver tissues of a mouse model.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Dihydroxystilbenes Prevent Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer by Inhibiting Colon Cytokines, a Chemokine, and Programmed Cell Death-1 in C57BL/6J Mice

The three dihydroxystilbenes in this study inhibited colon carcinogenesis and tumor growth as well as increases in colon IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and PD-1 levels in AOM/DDS-treated mice in vivo. The three dihydroxystilbenes also suppressed COX-2 expression in colon tumors in vivo and inhibited PD-1 elevations in M2-THP-1 macrophages in vitro.
[European Journal of Pharmacology]
Kimura, Y., Sumiyoshi, M., Kiyoi, T., & Baba, K. (2020). Dihydroxystilbenes prevent azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer by inhibiting colon cytokines, a chemokine, and programmed cell death-1 in C57BL/6J mice. European Journal of Pharmacology, 173445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173445 Cite
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Novel Multiparameter Correlates of Coxiella burnetii Infection and Vaccination Identified by Longitudinal Deep Immune Profiling

Using a vaccine-challenge model in HLA-DR transgenic mice, investigators demonstrated significant alterations in circulating T-cell and innate immune populations that distinguished vaccinated from naïve mice within ten days, and persisted until at least 35 days post-vaccination.
[Scientific Reports]
Reeves, P. M., Raju Paul, S., Baeten, L., Korek, S. E., Yi, Y., Hess, J., Sobell, D., Scholzen, A., Garritsen, A., De Groot, A. S., Moise, L., Brauns, T., Bowen, R., Sluder, A. E., & Poznansky, M. C. (2020). Novel multiparameter correlates of Coxiella burnetii infection and vaccination identified by longitudinal deep immune profiling. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13311. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69327-x Cite
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