Landscape of Coordinated Immune Responses to H1N1 Challenge in Humans

Scientists showed changes in the abundance and activation states of more than 50 immune cell subsets in 35 individuals over 11 time points during human A/California/2009 (H1N1) virus challenge monitored using mass cytometry along with other clinical assessments.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Rahil, Z., Leylek, R., Schürch, C. M., Chen, H., Bjornson-Hooper, Z., Christensen, S. R., Gherardini, P. F., Bhate, S. S., Spitzer, M. H., Fragiadakis, G. K., Mukherjee, N., Kim, N., Jiang, S., Yo, J., Gaudilliere, B., Affrime, M., Bock, B., Hensley, S. E., Idoyaga, J., … McIlwain, D. R. (2020). Landscape of coordinated immune responses to H1N1 challenge in humans. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(11). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI137265 Cite
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Maternal HIV Status Skews Transcriptomic Response in Infant Cord Blood Monocytes Exposed to BCG

HIV-unexposed (HU) and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant cord blood monocytes were treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerín (BCG) and transcriptionally profiled with the Nanostring nCounter platform. Differential expression and pathway enrichment analyses were performed, and transcripts were identified with enhanced or dampened BCG responses.
[AIDS]
Jones, C. I., Rose, S. L., Shutt, A., Cairo, C., Bourgeois, N. M., Charurat, M., Sodora, D. L., & Wood, M. P. (2020). Maternal HIV status skews transcriptomic response in infant cord blood monocytes exposed to BCG. AIDS, Publish Ahead of Print. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002706 Cite
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Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Highlights the Role of Inflammatory Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma

Scientists found that tumor cells down regulated MHC-II molecules, suggesting that the downregulated immunogenicity of cancer cells may contribute to the formation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment.
[Nature Communications]
Single-cell RNA sequencing highlights the role of inflammatory cancer-associated fibroblasts in bladder urothelial carcinoma | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 9, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18916-5 Cite
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Fibroblast-Derived IL-33 Facilitates Breast Cancer Metastasis by Modifying the Immune Microenvironment and Driving Type-2 Immunity

Upregulation of IL-33 instigated type-2 inflammation in the metastatic microenvironment, and mediated recruitment of eosinophils, neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes to lung metastases.
[Cancer Research]
Shani, O., Vorobyov, T., Monteran, L., Lavie, D., Cohen, N., Raz, Y., Tsarfaty, G., Avivi, C., Barshack, I., & Erez, N. (2020). Fibroblast-derived IL-33 facilitates breast cancer metastasis by modifying the immune microenvironment and driving type-2 immunity. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2116 Cite
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SET8 Suppression Mediates High Glucose-Induced Vascular Endothelial Inflammation via the Upregulation of PTEN

The authors’ in vitro study indicated that high glucose increased monocyte/endothelial adhesion, endothelial adhesion molecule expression and p65 phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Shen, X., Chen, X., Wang, J., Liu, J., Wang, Z., Hua, Q., Wu, Q., Su, Y., He, H., Hu, Y., Meng, Z., Xiong, W., & Zhu, M. (2020). SET8 suppression mediates high glucose-induced vascular endothelial inflammation via the upregulation of PTEN. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-00509-3 Cite
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The Immune Receptor CD300e Negatively Regulates T Cell Activation by Impairing the STAT1-Dependent Antigen Presentation

Scientists demonstrated that the ligation of CD300e in monocytes hampered the expression of the human leukocyte antigen class II, affecting its synthesis.
[Scientific Reports]
Coletta, S., Salvi, V., Della Bella, C., Bertocco, A., Lonardi, S., Trevellin, E., Fassan, M., D’Elios, M. M., Vermi, W., Vettor, R., Cagnin, S., Sozzani, S., Codolo, G., & de Bernard, M. (2020). The immune receptor CD300e negatively regulates T cell activation by impairing the STAT1-dependent antigen presentation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16501. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73552-9 Cite
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Liposomal Delivery of Azithromycin Enhances Its Immunotherapeutic Efficacy and Reduces Toxicity in Myocardial Infarction

Scientists investigated the immunomodulatory role of a liposomal azithromycin formulation in a clinically relevant model to enhance its therapeutic potency and avoid off-target effects.
[Scientific Reports]
Al-Darraji, A., Donahue, R. R., Tripathi, H., Peng, H., Levitan, B. M., Chelvarajan, L., Haydar, D., Gao, E., Henson, D., Gensel, J. C., Feola, D. J., Venditto, V. J., & Abdel-Latif, A. (2020). Liposomal delivery of azithromycin enhances its immunotherapeutic efficacy and reduces toxicity in myocardial infarction. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16596. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73593-0 Cite
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Glioma-Derived IL-33 Orchestrates an Inflammatory Brain Tumor Microenvironment that Accelerates Glioma Progression

Researchers identified the dual function cytokine IL-33 as an orchestrator of the glioblastoma microenvironment that contributed to tumorigenesis.
[Nature Communications]
Glioma-derived IL-33 orchestrates an inflammatory brain tumor microenvironment that accelerates glioma progression | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 5, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18569-4 Cite
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Nanoparticle-Encapsulated siRNAs for Gene Silencing in the Haematopoietic Stem-Cell Niche

Researchers report the design and in vivo performance of systemically injected lipid–polymer nanoparticles encapsulating small interfering RNA, for the silencing of genes in bone-marrow endothelial cells.
[Nature Biomedical Engineering]
Krohn-Grimberghe, M., Mitchell, M. J., Schloss, M. J., Khan, O. F., Courties, G., Guimaraes, P. P. G., Rohde, D., Cremer, S., Kowalski, P. S., Sun, Y., Tan, M., Webster, J., Wang, K., Iwamoto, Y., Schmidt, S. P., Wojtkiewicz, G. R., Nayar, R., Frodermann, V., Hulsmans, M., … Nahrendorf, M. (2020). Nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNAs for gene silencing in the haematopoietic stem-cell niche. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-020-00623-7 Cite
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Characteristics of Anti-CD19 CAR T Cell Infusion Products Associated with Efficacy and Toxicity in Patients with Large B Cell Lymphomas

The authors performed single-cell RNA sequencing with capture-based cell identification on autologous axicabtagene ciloleucel anti-CD19 CAR T cell infusion products to identify transcriptomic features associated with efficacy and toxicity in 24 patients with large B cell lymphomas.
[Nature Medicine]
Deng, Q., Han, G., Puebla-Osorio, N., Ma, M. C. J., Strati, P., Chasen, B., Dai, E., Dang, M., Jain, N., Yang, H., Wang, Y., Zhang, S., Wang, R., Chen, R., Showell, J., Ghosh, S., Patchva, S., Zhang, Q., Sun, R., … Green, M. R. (2020). Characteristics of anti-CD19 CAR T cell infusion products associated with efficacy and toxicity in patients with large B cell lymphomas. Nature Medicine, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1061-7 Cite
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IFlowPlate—A Customized 384‐Well Plate for the Culture of Perfusable Vascularized Colon Organoids

A microfluidic platform named IFlowPlate was engineered, which could be used to culture up to 128 independently perfused and vascularized colon organoids in vitro.
[Advanced Materials]
Rajasekar, S., Lin, D. S. Y., Abdul, L., Liu, A., Sotra, A., Zhang, F., & Zhang, B. (n.d.). IFlowPlate—A Customized 384-Well Plate for the Culture of Perfusable Vascularized Colon Organoids. Advanced Materials, n/a(n/a), 2002974. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002974 Cite
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