Tumor-Experienced Human NK Cells Express High Levels of PD-L1 and Inhibit CD8+ T Cell Proliferation

Analysis of fresh tumor samples from clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients unraveled the presence of a high frequency of tumor-infiltrating PD-L1+ natural killer (NK cells), suggesting that these NK cells might exhibit immunoregulatory functions.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
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Protective CD4+ Th1 Cell-Mediated Immunity Is Reliant upon Execution of Effector Function Prior to the Establishment of the Pathogen Niche

The authors reported that CXCR3-dependent recruitment of Ly6C+ Th1 effector cells was indispensable for concomitant immunity and acute cell-phagocyte interactions were critical to prevent the establishment of a permissive pathogen niche.
[PLOS Pathogens]
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Enhancer Recruitment of Transcription Repressors RUNX1 and TLE3 by Mis-Expressed FOXC1 Blocks Differentiation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Scientists highlighted RUNX1 and CEBPA transcription factor swapping as a feature of leukemia cell differentiation and revealed that FOXC1 prevented this by stabilizing enhancer binding of a RUNX1/HDAC1/TLE3 transcription repressor complex to oncogenic effect.
[Cell Reports]
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Cellular Heterogeneity and Immune Microenvironment Revealed by Single-Cell Transcriptome in Venous Malformation and Cavernous Venous Malformation

Investigators performed single-cell profiling of 35,245 cells from two venous malformation samples and three cavernous venous malformation samples, with a focus on endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and immune microenvironment.
[Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology]
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Interleukin-34 Promotes Tumorigenic Signals for Colon Cancer Cells

Scientists summarize the available data supporting the multiple effects of interleukin-34 in human colorectal carcinoma.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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Chronic Mineral Oil Administration Increases Hepatic Inflammation in Wild Type Mice Compared to Lipocalin 2 Null Mice

Scientists investigated the roles of Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in chronic inflammation and fibrosis, using repeated carbon tetrachloride in mineral-oil injection. Hepatic and serum LCN2 levels were remarkably higher in the mineral oil-injected wild type group compared to the CCl4.
[Laboratory Investigation]
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Coronavirus Induces Diabetic Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation via SETDB2

Investigators identified that coronavirus induced an increased Mφ-mediated inflammatory response due to a coronavirus-induced decrease in the histone methyltransferase, SETDB2.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Monocyte-Derived and M1 Macrophages from Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Released Higher TNF-α and Expressed More IL1B in Response to BzATP than Macrophages from Healthy Subjects

Scientists investigated the effect of 2ʹ(3ʹ)-O-(4-benzoyl benzoyl) ATP (BzATP) on the production of inflammatory cytokines in both monocyte-generated and M1 macrophages from patients and controls.
[Scientific Reports]
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Tumor-Initiating Stem Cell Shapes Its Microenvironment into an Immunosuppressive Barrier and Pro-Tumorigenic Niche

Using DNA-label retaining, single-cell RNA sequencing, and other approaches, researchers investigated intestinal adenoma in response to chemoradiotherapy, thus identifying therapy-resistant tumor-initiating stem cells.
[Cell Reports]
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Chronic Stress Primes Innate Immune Responses in Mice and Humans

Monocytes from stressed mice and humans exhibit a characteristic inflammatory transcriptomic signature and are hyperresponsive upon stimulation with Toll-like receptor ligands.
[Cell Reports]
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Microglia Promote Autoimmune Inflammation via the Noncanonical NF-κB Pathway

Data suggest that following their initial central nervous system infiltration, T cells activate the microglial noncanonical NF-κB pathway, which synergizes with the T cell-derived cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to induce expression of chemokines involved in the second-wave of T cell recruitment and disease progression.
[Science Advances]
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