Gene Therapy for Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency with an Oxidant-Resistant Human Alpha 1-Antitrypsin

Scientists hypothesized that a onetime administration of a serotype 8 adeno-associated virus gene transfer vector coding for the oxidation-resistant variant alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) would maintain antiprotease activity under oxidant stress compared with normal AAT.
[JCI Insight]
Sosulski, M. L., Stiles, K. M., Frenk, E. Z., Hart, F. M., Matsumura, Y., De, B. P., Kaminsky, S. M., & Crystal, R. G. (2020). Gene therapy for alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency with an oxidant-resistant human alpha 1-antitrypsin. JCI Insight, 5(15). https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.135951 Cite
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Cardiomyocyte Transplantation after Myocardial Infarction Alters the Immune Response in the Heart

The authors showed for the first time that the immune response is altered as a result of syngeneic neonatal cardiomyocyte transplantation after myocardial infarction leading to improved cardiac pump function as observed by magnetic resonance imaging in C57BL/6J mice.
[Cells]
Vasudevan, P., Wolfien, M., Lemcke, H., Lang, C. I., Skorska, A., Gaebel, R., Koczan, D., Lindner, T., Engelmann, R., Vollmar, B., Krause, B. J., Wolkenhauer, O., Lang, H., Steinhoff, G., & David, R. (2020). Cardiomyocyte Transplantation after Myocardial Infarction Alters the Immune Response in the Heart. Cells, 9(8), 1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081825 Cite
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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Amplify Neutrophil Recruitment and Inflammation in Neutrophilic Asthma by Stimulating the Airway Epithelial Cells to Activate the TLR4/NF-κB Pathway and Secrete Chemokines

Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and neutrophil swarming was seen in a mouse model of neutrophilic asthma. Additionally, NETs were found to stimulate airway cells to express CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL8 via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway, which recruits neutrophils to the inflammation site.
[Aging]
Aging | Neutrophil extracellular traps amplify neutrophil recruitment and inflammation in neutrophilic asthma by stimulating the airway epithelial cells to activate the TLR4/ NF-κB pathway and secrete chemokines - Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved August 7, 2020, from https://www.aging-us.com/article/5f2427ad6c2ca900075aeb68/text Cite
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Promotion of the Immunomodulatory Properties and Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose‐Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro by Lentivirus‐Mediated miR‐146a Sponge Expression

Investigators employed miRNA sponges that were forcibly expressed using a lentiviral vector to knock‐down the expression of miR‐146a in human adipose‐derived stem cells.
[Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine]
Wan, S., Wu, Q., Ji, Y., Fu, X., & Wang, Y. (n.d.). Promotion of the immunomodulatory properties and osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro by lentivirus-mediated miR-146a sponge expression. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/term.3113 Cite
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HGF and IL-10 Expressing ALB::GFP Reporter Cells Generated From iPSCs Show Robust Anti-Fibrotic Property in Acute Fibrotic Liver Model

Induced hepatocyte-like (iHep) cells were generated from induced pluripotent stem cells integrated with the albumin reporter gene. The therapeutic properties of these iHep cells were investigated after transplantation in fibrotic liver tissues of a mouse model.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Choi, J. S., Jeong, I. S., Park, Y.-J., & Kim, S.-W. (2020). HGF and IL-10 expressing ALB::GFP reporter cells generated from iPSCs show robust anti-fibrotic property in acute fibrotic liver model. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 332. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01745-0 Cite
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Dihydroxystilbenes Prevent Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer by Inhibiting Colon Cytokines, a Chemokine, and Programmed Cell Death-1 in C57BL/6J Mice

The three dihydroxystilbenes in this study inhibited colon carcinogenesis and tumor growth as well as increases in colon IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and PD-1 levels in AOM/DDS-treated mice in vivo. The three dihydroxystilbenes also suppressed COX-2 expression in colon tumors in vivo and inhibited PD-1 elevations in M2-THP-1 macrophages in vitro.
[European Journal of Pharmacology]
Kimura, Y., Sumiyoshi, M., Kiyoi, T., & Baba, K. (2020). Dihydroxystilbenes prevent azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer by inhibiting colon cytokines, a chemokine, and programmed cell death-1 in C57BL/6J mice. European Journal of Pharmacology, 173445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173445 Cite
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Intestinal TLR9 Deficiency Exacerbates Hepatic IR Injury via Altered Intestinal Inflammation and Short‐Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis

Mice lacking intestinal TLR9 had profoundly increased liver injury after hepatic ischemia reperfusion(IR) compared to WT mice with exacerbated hepatocyte necrosis, apoptosis, neutrophil infiltration, and inflammatory cytokine generation. They also observed increased small intestinal inflammation and apoptosis after hepatic IR in intestinal TLR9 deficient mice. Fecal short‐chain fatty acids butyrate and propionate levels were lower in intestinal TLR9 deficient mice.
[FASEB Journal]
Han, S. J., Kim, M., Novitsky, E., D’Agati, V., & Lee, H. T. (n.d.). Intestinal TLR9 deficiency exacerbates hepatic IR injury via altered intestinal inflammation and short-chain fatty acid synthesis. The FASEB Journal, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000314R Cite
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Novel Multiparameter Correlates of Coxiella burnetii Infection and Vaccination Identified by Longitudinal Deep Immune Profiling

Using a vaccine-challenge model in HLA-DR transgenic mice, investigators demonstrated significant alterations in circulating T-cell and innate immune populations that distinguished vaccinated from naïve mice within ten days, and persisted until at least 35 days post-vaccination.
[Scientific Reports]
Reeves, P. M., Raju Paul, S., Baeten, L., Korek, S. E., Yi, Y., Hess, J., Sobell, D., Scholzen, A., Garritsen, A., De Groot, A. S., Moise, L., Brauns, T., Bowen, R., Sluder, A. E., & Poznansky, M. C. (2020). Novel multiparameter correlates of Coxiella burnetii infection and vaccination identified by longitudinal deep immune profiling. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13311. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69327-x Cite
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Severe COVID-19 Is Marked by a Dysregulated Myeloid Cell Compartment

In a dual-center, two-cohort study, researchers combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild vs. severe COVID-19 over time.
[Cell]
Schulte-Schrepping, J., Reusch, N., Paclik, D., Baßler, K., Schlickeiser, S., Zhang, B., Krämer, B., Krammer, T., Brumhard, S., Bonaguro, L., Domenico, E. D., Wendisch, D., Grasshoff, M., Kapellos, T. S., Beckstette, M., Pecht, T., Saglam, A., Dietrich, O., Mei, H. E., … Sander, L. E. (2020). Severe COVID-19 is marked by a dysregulated myeloid cell compartment. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.001 Cite
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Mitochondrial DNA Enhance Innate Immune Responses in Neuromyelitis Optica by Monocyte Recruitment and Activation

Investigators established anti-AQP4 recombinant autoantibodies from plasmablasts in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patient’s cereberospinal fluid.
[Scientific Reports]
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Single UM171-Expanded Cord Blood Transplant Can Cure Severe Idiopathic Aplastic Anemia in Absence of Suitable Donors

Investigators report the first case of an adult patient with severe aplastic anemia who was successfully transplanted with a UM171‐expanded cord blood graft. After a conditioning of rabbit anti‐thymocyte globulin, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation, a UM171 expanded graft of 3.29 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg was infused.
[European Journal of Haematology]
Claveau, J.-S., Cohen, S., Ahmad, I., Delisle, J.-S., Kiss, T., Lachance, S., Sauvageau, G., Busque, L., Brito, R.-M., Bambace, N., Bernard, L., Roy, D. C., & Roy, J. (n.d.). Single UM171-expanded cord blood transplant can cure severe idiopathic aplastic anemia in absence of suitable donors. European Journal of Haematology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13504 Cite
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Immune Phenotyping of Diverse Syngeneic Murine Brain Tumors Identifies Immunologically Distinct Types

Researchers generated distinct imageable syngeneic mouse glioblastoma-tumor models and utilized RNA-sequencing, CyTOF and correlative immunohistochemistry to assess immune-profiles in these models.
[Nature Communications]
Khalsa, J. K., Cheng, N., Keegan, J., Chaudry, A., Driver, J., Bi, W. L., Lederer, J., & Shah, K. (2020). Immune phenotyping of diverse syngeneic murine brain tumors identifies immunologically distinct types. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3912. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17704-5 Cite
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