The Anti-inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-37 Is an Inhibitor of Trained Immunity

The authors showed that administration of recombinant IL-37 abrogated the protective effects of TI in vivo, as revealed by reduced host pro-inflammatory responses and survival to disseminated candidiasis.
[Cell Reports]
Cavalli, G., Tengesdal, I. W., Gresnigt, M., Nemkov, T., Arts, R. J. W., Domínguez-Andrés, J., Molteni, R., Stefanoni, D., Cantoni, E., Cassina, L., Giugliano, S., Schraa, K., Mills, T. S., Pietras, E. M., Eisenmensser, E. Z., Dagna, L., Boletta, A., D’Alessandro, A., Joosten, L. A. B., … Dinarello, C. A. (2021). The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-37 is an inhibitor of trained immunity. Cell Reports, 35(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108955 Cite
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Phenotypic Characterization of Leukemia-Initiating Stem Cells in Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia

Scientists found that leukemic stem cells in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia resided in a CD34+/CD38 fraction of the malignant clone.
[Leukemia]
Eisenwort, G., Sadovnik, I., Keller, A., Ivanov, D., Peter, B., Berger, D., Stefanzl, G., Bauer, K., Slavnitsch, K., Greiner, G., Gleixner, K. V., Sperr, W. R., Willmann, M., Sill, H., Bettelheim, P., Geissler, K., Deininger, M., Rülicke, T., & Valent, P. (2021). Phenotypic characterization of leukemia-initiating stem cells in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Leukemia, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01227-z Cite
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Coordinated Interactions between Endothelial Cells and Macrophages in the Islet Microenvironment Promote β Cell Regeneration

The authors showed that proliferative endothelial cells modulated macrophage (MΦ) infiltration and phenotype during β cell loss, and recruited MΦs were essential for β cell recovery.
[npj Regenerative Medicine]
Saunders, D. C., Aamodt, K. I., Richardson, T. M., Hopkirk, A. J., Aramandla, R., Poffenberger, G., Jenkins, R., Flaherty, D. K., Prasad, N., Levy, S. E., Powers, A. C., & Brissova, M. (2021). Coordinated interactions between endothelial cells and macrophages in the islet microenvironment promote β cell regeneration. Npj Regenerative Medicine, 6(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41536-021-00129-z Cite
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Exosome-Eluting Stents for Vascular Healing after Ischaemic Injury

Researchers showed that stents releasing exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of reactive oxygen species enhanced vascular healing in rats with renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury, promoting endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation, and impairing the migration of smooth muscle cells.
[Nature Biomedical Engineering]
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Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2α Mediates Senescence-Associated Intrinsic Mechanisms of Age-Related Bone Loss

Inhibition of senescence-induced upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α expression during matrix maturation, but not during the proliferation stage of osteoblast differentiation, reversed the age-related decrease in Runx2 and Ocn expression.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Lee, S. Y., Park, K. H., Lee, G., Kim, S.-J., Song, W.-H., Kwon, S.-H., Koh, J.-T., Huh, Y. H., & Ryu, J.-H. (2021). Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α mediates senescence-associated intrinsic mechanisms of age-related bone loss. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00594-y Cite
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Exosome-Eluting Stents for Vascular Healing after Ischemic Injury

The authors showed that stents releasing exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of reactive oxygen species enhance vascular healing in rats with renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, promoting endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation, and impairing the migration of smooth muscle cells.
[Nature Biomedical Engineering]
Hu, S., Li, Z., Shen, D., Zhu, D., Huang, K., Su, T., Dinh, P.-U., Cores, J., & Cheng, K. (2021). Exosome-eluting stents for vascular healing after ischaemic injury. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00705-0 Cite
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An Interplay of Microglia and Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP9 under Hypoxic Stress Regulates the Opticin Expression in Retina

Researchers demonstrated that a reduced opticin levels in ROP vitreous are regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by activated microglia.
[Scientific Reports]
Patnaik, S., Rai, M., Jalali, S., Agarwal, K., Badakere, A., Puppala, L., Vishwakarma, S., Balakrishnan, D., Rani, P. K., Kekunnaya, R., Chhablani, P. P., Chakrabarti, S., & Kaur, I. (2021). An interplay of microglia and matrix metalloproteinase MMP9 under hypoxic stress regulates the opticin expression in retina. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7444. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86302-2 Cite
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Monocyte Progenitors Give Rise to Multinucleated Giant Cells

Researchers showed that the giant cell-forming potential is a particular trait of monocyte progenitors.
[Nature Communications]
Lösslein, A. K., Lohrmann, F., Scheuermann, L., Gharun, K., Neuber, J., Kolter, J., Forde, A. J., Kleimeyer, C., Poh, Y. Y., Mack, M., Triantafyllopoulou, A., Dunlap, M. D., Khader, S. A., Seidl, M., Hölscher, A., Hölscher, C., Guan, X. L., Dorhoi, A., & Henneke, P. (2021). Monocyte progenitors give rise to multinucleated giant cells. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2027. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22103-5 Cite
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Loss of Microglial SIRPα Promotes Synaptic Pruning in Preclinical Models of Neurodegeneration

To investigate the role of SIRPα in neurodegeneration, researchers modulated the expression of microglial SIRPα in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease.
[Nature Communications]
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Small Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Interferon-γ Pre-Conditioned Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Effectively Treat Liver Fibrosis

Investigators analyzed the therapeutic potential of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) derived from interferon-γ (IFN-γ) pre-conditioned MSCs (γ-sEVs).
[NPJ Regenerative Medicine]
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A Highly Selective and Potent CXCR4 Antagonist for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment

A highly selective, safe, and potent CXCR4 antagonist, BPRCX807, has been designed and experimentally validated in various hepatocellular carcinoma models.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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