The Evolving Cardiac Lymphatic Vasculature In Development, Repair And Regeneration

The authors discuss the cardiac lymphatic vasculature with a focus on developments over the past five years arising from the study of mammalian and zebrafish model organisms.
[Nature Reviews Cardiology]
Dong, X., Wang, F., Liu, C., Ling, J., Jia, X., Shen, F., Yang, N., Zhu, S., Zhong, L., & Li, Q. (2021). Single-cell analysis reveals the intra-tumor heterogeneity and identifies MLXIPL as a biomarker in the cellular trajectory of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cell Death Discovery, 7(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00403-5 Cite
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So Close, and Yet So Far Away: The Dichotomy of the Specific Immune Response and Inflammation in Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis

The authors compare genetics, microbiome, T‐cell infiltrate and resulting epithelial response in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.
[Journal of Internal Medicine]
Schäbitz, A., Eyerich, K., & Garzorz‐Stark, N. (n.d.). So close, and yet so far away: The dichotomy of the specific immune response and inflammation in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Journal of Internal Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/joim.13235 Cite
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Cathepsin C Promotes Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis by Modulating Neutrophil Infiltration and Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

Scientists showed that tumor-secreted protease cathepsin C promotes breast-to-lung metastasis by regulating recruitment of neutrophils and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.
[Cancer Cell]
Xiao, Y., Cong, M., Li, J., He, D., Wu, Q., Tian, P., Wang, Y., Yang, S., Liang, C., Liang, Y., Wen, J., Liu, Y., Luo, W., Lv, X., He, Y., Cheng, D., Zhou, T., Zhao, W., Zhang, P., … Hu, G. (2021). Cathepsin C promotes breast cancer lung metastasis by modulating neutrophil infiltration and neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Cancer Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2020.12.012 Cite
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O-GlcNAcylation Ameliorates the Pathological Manifestations of Alzheimer’s Disease by Inhibiting Necroptosis

The authors found that O-GlcNAcylation plays a protective role in Alzheimer’s disease by inhibiting necroptosis.
[Science Advances]
Park, J., Ha, H.-J., Chung, E. S., Baek, S. H., Cho, Y., Kim, H. K., Han, J., Sul, J. H., Lee, J., Kim, E., Kim, J., Yang, Y. R., Park, M., Kim, S. H., Arumugam, T. V., Jang, H., Seo, S. W., Suh, P.-G., & Jo, D.-G. (2021). O-GlcNAcylation ameliorates the pathological manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease by inhibiting necroptosis. Science Advances, 7(3), eabd3207. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd3207 Cite
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Interferon-γ Enhances the Therapeutic Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Experimental Renal Fibrosis

Scientists investigated whether pretreatment with IFN-γ could potentiate the anti-fibrotic ability of MSCs in rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury and unilateral ureter obstruction.
[Scientific Reports]
Kanai, R., Nakashima, A., Doi, S., Kimura, T., Yoshida, K., Maeda, S., Ishiuchi, N., Yamada, Y., Ike, T., Doi, T., Kato, Y., & Masaki, T. (2021). Interferon-γ enhances the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells on experimental renal fibrosis. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 850. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79664-6 Cite
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Amniotic Fluid-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells Drive Diabetic Wound Healing through Modulation of Macrophages

Researchers obtained third trimester amniotic fluid from term cesarean delivery and isolated and expanded MSCs in vitro. They then generated 10 mm wounds in Leprdb/db diabetic mouse skin, and splinted them open to allow for humanized wound modeling.
[Journal of Translational Medicine]
Subhan, B. S., Kwong, J., Kuhn, J. F., Monas, A., Sharma, S., & Rabbani, P. S. (2021). Amniotic fluid-derived multipotent stromal cells drive diabetic wound healing through modulation of macrophages. Journal of Translational Medicine, 19(1), 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02674-5 Cite
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Altered Hippocampal Gene Expression, Glial Cell Population, and Neuronal Excitability in Aminopeptidase P1 Deficiency

The authors showed that a deficiency of aminopeptidase P1 modified the glial population and neuronal excitability in the hippocampus.
[Scientific Reports]
Yoon, S. H., Bae, Y.-S., Oh, S. P., Song, W. S., Chang, H., & Kim, M.-H. (2021). Altered hippocampal gene expression, glial cell population, and neuronal excitability in aminopeptidase P1 deficiency. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 932. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79656-6 Cite
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The HIV Protease Inhibitor Saquinavir Attenuates Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Promotes M2 Macrophage Polarization via Targeting Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

Scientists focused on the important role of macrophage polarization in cecal ligation puncture-mediated acute lung injury and determined the ability of saquinavir to maintain M2 over M1 phenotype partially through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Tong, Y., Yu, Z., Chen, Z., Zhang, R., Ding, X., Yang, X., Niu, X., Li, M., Zhang, L., Billiar, T. R., Pitt, B. R., & Li, Q. (2021). The HIV protease inhibitor Saquinavir attenuates sepsis-induced acute lung injury and promotes M2 macrophage polarization via targeting matrix metalloproteinase-9. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03320-0 Cite
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Granzyme B Inhibition Reduces Disease Severity in Autoimmune Blistering Diseases

Scientists explored the role of the immune cell-secreted serine protease, granzyme B, in pemphigoid disease pathogenesis using three independent murine models. In all models, granzyme B knockout or topical pharmacological inhibition significantly reduces total blistering area compared to controls.
[Nature Communications]
Hiroyasu, S., Zeglinski, M. R., Zhao, H., Pawluk, M. A., Turner, C. T., Kasprick, A., Tateishi, C., Nishie, W., Burleigh, A., Lennox, P. A., Van Laeken, N., Carr, N. J., Petersen, F., Crawford, R. I., Shimizu, H., Tsuruta, D., Ludwig, R. J., & Granville, D. J. (2021). Granzyme B inhibition reduces disease severity in autoimmune blistering diseases. Nature Communications, 12(1), 302. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20604-3 Cite
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LECT2 as a Hepatokine Links Liver Steatosis to Inflammation via Activating Tissue Macrophages in NASH

Hepatic expression of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) was upregulated in association with the inflammatory signature in human liver tissues. The elevation of LECT2 shifted liver residual macrophage to the M1-like phenotype, and contributed to the development of liver inflammation.
[Scientific Reports]
Takata, N., Ishii, K., Takayama, H., Nagashimada, M., Kamoshita, K., Tanaka, T., Kikuchi, A., Takeshita, Y., Matsumoto, Y., Ota, T., Yamamoto, Y., Yamagoe, S., Seki, A., Sakai, Y., Kaneko, S., & Takamura, T. (2021). LECT2 as a hepatokine links liver steatosis to inflammation via activating tissue macrophages in NASH. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 555. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80689-0 Cite
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The Roles of Microglia in Viral Encephalitis: From Sensome to Therapeutic Targeting

The authors summarize the current knowledge on the role of microglia in viral encephalitis, propose questions to be answered in the future and suggest possible therapeutic targets.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Chhatbar, C., & Prinz, M. (2021). The roles of microglia in viral encephalitis: from sensome to therapeutic targeting. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00620-5 Cite
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