Scientists found that combined therapy with Asiatic Acid, a Smad7 agonist, and Naringenin, a Smad3 inhibitor, effectively retrieved the balance between Smad3 and Smad7 signaling in the TGF-β-rich tumor microenvironment and thus significantly suppressed tumor invasion and metastasis in mouse models of melanoma and lung carcinoma.
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The authors report an important role for BRCA1P1, the pseudogene of the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene, in regulating innate immune defense mechanisms in breast cancer cells.
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Han, Y. J., Zhang, J., Lee, J.-H., Mason, J. M., Karginova, O., Yoshimatsu, T. F., Hao, Q., Hurley, I., Brunet, L. P., Prat, A., Prasanth, K. V., Gack, M. U., & Olopade, O. I. (2021). The BRCA1 Pseudogene Negatively Regulates Anti-Tumor Responses through Inhibition of Innate Immune Defense Mechanisms. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-1959 Cite
Using conditional knockout and reporter mouse models, the authors demonstrated that tumor cells expressing the Notch ligand Dll1 was important for tumor growth and metastasis and bear similarities to tumor-initiating cancer cells in breast cancer.
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Kumar, S., Nandi, A., Singh, S., Regulapati, R., Li, N., Tobias, J. W., Siebel, C. W., Blanco, M. A., Klein-Szanto, A. J., Lengner, C., Welm, A. L., Kang, Y., & Chakrabarti, R. (2021). Dll1 + quiescent tumor stem cells drive chemoresistance in breast cancer through NF-κB survival pathway. Nature Communications, 12(1), 432. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20664-5 Cite
Up-regulation of miR-558 alleviated cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced damage on HBE cells. The alleviative effect of miR-558 mimic on CSE-induced damage was suppressed by miR-558/TNF receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) overexpression.
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Hepatic stellate cell (HSC)‐T6 cells were activated by interleukin-1 beta and then treated with helenalin. HSC‐T6 cells were transfected with miR-200a mimic or inhibitor, and the effect of helenalin on the miR-200a-mediated PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways was investigated.
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Fang, B., Wen, S., Li, Y., Bai, F., Wei, Y., Xiong, Y., Huang, Q., & Lin, X. (2021). Prediction and verification of target of helenalin against hepatic stellate cell activation based on miR-200a-mediated PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways. International Immunopharmacology, 92, 107208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107208 Cite
Researchers investigated the effects of small extracellular vesicles from adipose derived stromal cells on both chondrocytes and synoviocytes, in order to gain insights into the mechanisms modulating the inflammatory/catabolic osteoarthritis environment.
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Cavallo, C., Merli, G., Borzì, R. M., Zini, N., D’Adamo, S., Guescini, M., Grigolo, B., Di Martino, A., Santi, S., & Filardo, G. (2021). Small Extracellular Vesicles from adipose derived stromal cells significantly attenuate in vitro the NF-κB dependent inflammatory/catabolic environment of osteoarthritis. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1053. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80032-7 Cite
The authors assessed the potential anti-inflammatory effects of human umbilical cord MSC-derived extracellular vesicles in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Ridzuan, N., Zakaria, N., Widera, D., Sheard, J., Morimoto, M., Kiyokawa, H., Mohd Isa, S. A., Chatar Singh, G. K., Then, K.-Y., Ooi, G.-C., & Yahaya, B. H. (2021). Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles ameliorate airway inflammation in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 54. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02088-6 Cite
Scientists found that SARS-CoV-2 replication induced a delayed interferon response in lung epithelial cells. By screening 16 putative sensors involved in sensing of RNA virus infection, they found that MDA5 and LGP2 primarily regulated IFN induction in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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Researchers report a new small-molecule inhibitor with potent antitumor bioactivity, which inhibited multiple oncogenic processes in pancreatic cancer.
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The authors investigated whether docosahexaenoic acid itself or select metabolites can account for its antitumor action.
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Chen, K.-M., Thompson, H., Vanden-Heuvel, J. P., Sun, Y.-W., Trushin, N., Aliaga, C., Gowda, K., Amin, S., Stanley, B., Manni, A., & El-Bayoumy, K. (2021). Lipoxygenase catalyzed metabolites derived from docosahexaenoic acid are promising antitumor agents against breast cancer. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 410. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79716-x Cite
Scientists examined the anti-inflammatory effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) in human keratinocytes and skin. Keratinocytes were cultured under 15% CO2, irradiated with ultraviolet B (UVB), and their inflammatory cytokine production was analyzed.
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Sayama, K., Yuki, K., Sugata, K., Fukagawa, S., Yamamoto, T., Ikeda, S., & Murase, T. (2021). Carbon dioxide inhibits UVB-induced inflammatory response by activating the proton-sensing receptor, GPR65, in human keratinocytes. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 379. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79519-0 Cite