Inhibition of Tumor Invasion and Metastasis by Targeting TGF-β-Smad-MMP2 Pathway with Asiatic Acid and Naringenin

Scientists found that combined therapy with Asiatic Acid, a Smad7 agonist, and Naringenin, a Smad3 inhibitor, effectively retrieved the balance between Smad3 and Smad7 signaling in the TGF-β-rich tumor microenvironment and thus significantly suppressed tumor invasion and metastasis in mouse models of melanoma and lung carcinoma.
[Molecular Therapy-Oncolytics]
Lian, G.-Y., Wang, Q.-M., Mak, T. S.-K., Huang, X.-R., Yu, X.-Q., & Lan, H.-Y. (2021). Inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis by targeting TGF-β-Smad-MMP2 pathway with Asiatic acid and Naringenin. Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2021.01.006 Cite
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The BRCA1 Pseudogene Negatively Regulates Anti-Tumor Responses through Inhibition of Innate Immune Defense Mechanisms

The authors report an important role for BRCA1P1, the pseudogene of the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene, in regulating innate immune defense mechanisms in breast cancer cells.
[Cancer Research]
Han, Y. J., Zhang, J., Lee, J.-H., Mason, J. M., Karginova, O., Yoshimatsu, T. F., Hao, Q., Hurley, I., Brunet, L. P., Prat, A., Prasanth, K. V., Gack, M. U., & Olopade, O. I. (2021). The BRCA1 Pseudogene Negatively Regulates Anti-Tumor Responses through Inhibition of Innate Immune Defense Mechanisms. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-1959 Cite
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Dll1+ Quiescent Tumor Stem Cells Drive Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer through NF-κB Survival Pathway

Using conditional knockout and reporter mouse models, the authors demonstrated that tumor cells expressing the Notch ligand Dll1 was important for tumor growth and metastasis and bear similarities to tumor-initiating cancer cells in breast cancer.
[Nature Communications]
Kumar, S., Nandi, A., Singh, S., Regulapati, R., Li, N., Tobias, J. W., Siebel, C. W., Blanco, M. A., Klein-Szanto, A. J., Lengner, C., Welm, A. L., Kang, Y., & Chakrabarti, R. (2021). Dll1 + quiescent tumor stem cells drive chemoresistance in breast cancer through NF-κB survival pathway. Nature Communications, 12(1), 432. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20664-5 Cite
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miR-558 Reduces the Damage of HBE Cells Exposed to Cigarette Smoke Extract by Targeting TNFRSF1A and Inactivating TAK1/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway

Up-regulation of miR-558 alleviated cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced damage on HBE cells. The alleviative effect of miR-558 mimic on CSE-induced damage was suppressed by miR-558/TNF receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) overexpression.
[Immunological Investigations]
Jing, X., Luan, Z., & Liu, B. (2021). miR-558 Reduces the Damage of HBE Cells Exposed to Cigarette Smoke Extract by Targeting TNFRSF1A and Inactivating TAK1/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway. Immunological Investigations, 0(0), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2021.1874977 Cite
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Prediction and Verification of Target of Helenalin against Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation Based on miR-200a-Mediated PI3K/Akt and NF-κB Pathways

Hepatic stellate cell (HSC)‐T6 cells were activated by interleukin-1 beta and then treated with helenalin. HSC‐T6 cells were transfected with miR-200a mimic or inhibitor, and the effect of helenalin on the miR-200a-mediated PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways was investigated.
[International Immunopharmacology]
Fang, B., Wen, S., Li, Y., Bai, F., Wei, Y., Xiong, Y., Huang, Q., & Lin, X. (2021). Prediction and verification of target of helenalin against hepatic stellate cell activation based on miR-200a-mediated PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways. International Immunopharmacology, 92, 107208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107208 Cite
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Small Extracellular Vesicles from Adipose Derived Stromal Cells Significantly Attenuate In Vitro the Nf-κB Dependent Inflammatory/Catabolic Environment of Osteoarthritis

Researchers investigated the effects of small extracellular vesicles from adipose derived stromal cells on both chondrocytes and synoviocytes, in order to gain insights into the mechanisms modulating the inflammatory/catabolic osteoarthritis environment.
[Scientific Reports]
Cavallo, C., Merli, G., Borzì, R. M., Zini, N., D’Adamo, S., Guescini, M., Grigolo, B., Di Martino, A., Santi, S., & Filardo, G. (2021). Small Extracellular Vesicles from adipose derived stromal cells significantly attenuate in vitro the NF-κB dependent inflammatory/catabolic environment of osteoarthritis. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1053. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80032-7 Cite
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Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Ameliorate Airway Inflammation in a Rat Model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

The authors assessed the potential anti-inflammatory effects of human umbilical cord MSC-derived extracellular vesicles in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Ridzuan, N., Zakaria, N., Widera, D., Sheard, J., Morimoto, M., Kiyokawa, H., Mohd Isa, S. A., Chatar Singh, G. K., Then, K.-Y., Ooi, G.-C., & Yahaya, B. H. (2021). Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles ameliorate airway inflammation in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 54. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02088-6 Cite
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MDA5 Governs the Innate Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Lung Epithelial Cells

Scientists found that SARS-CoV-2 replication induced a delayed interferon response in lung epithelial cells. By screening 16 putative sensors involved in sensing of RNA virus infection, they found that MDA5 and LGP2 primarily regulated IFN induction in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
[Cell Reports]
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Targeting STAT3 by a Small Molecule Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer Progression

Researchers report a new small-molecule inhibitor with potent antitumor bioactivity, which inhibited multiple oncogenic processes in pancreatic cancer.
[Oncogene]
Chen, H., Bian, A., Yang, L., Yin, X., Wang, J., Ti, C., Miao, Y., Peng, S., Xu, S., Liu, M., Qiu, W.-W., & Yi, Z. (2021). Targeting STAT3 by a small molecule suppresses pancreatic cancer progression. Oncogene, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01626-z Cite
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Lipoxygenase Catalyzed Metabolites Derived from Docosahexaenoic Acid Are Promising Antitumor Agents Against Breast Cancer

The authors investigated whether docosahexaenoic acid itself or select metabolites can account for its antitumor action.
[Scientific Reports]
Chen, K.-M., Thompson, H., Vanden-Heuvel, J. P., Sun, Y.-W., Trushin, N., Aliaga, C., Gowda, K., Amin, S., Stanley, B., Manni, A., & El-Bayoumy, K. (2021). Lipoxygenase catalyzed metabolites derived from docosahexaenoic acid are promising antitumor agents against breast cancer. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 410. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79716-x Cite
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Carbon Dioxide Inhibits UVB-Induced Inflammatory Response by Activating the Proton-Sensing Receptor, GPR65, in Human Keratinocytes

Scientists examined the anti-inflammatory effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) in human keratinocytes and skin. Keratinocytes were cultured under 15% CO2, irradiated with ultraviolet B (UVB), and their inflammatory cytokine production was analyzed.
[Scientific Reports]
Sayama, K., Yuki, K., Sugata, K., Fukagawa, S., Yamamoto, T., Ikeda, S., & Murase, T. (2021). Carbon dioxide inhibits UVB-induced inflammatory response by activating the proton-sensing receptor, GPR65, in human keratinocytes. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 379. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79519-0 Cite
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