Generation of Hypothalamic Arcuate Organoids from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Researchers report the generation of arcuate organoids from human iPSCs to model the development of the human hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Huang, W.-K., Wong, S. Z. H., Pather, S. R., Nguyen, P. T. T., Zhang, F., Zhang, D. Y., Zhang, Z., Lu, L., Fang, W., Chen, L., Fernandes, A., Su, Y., Song, H., & Ming, G. (2021). Generation of hypothalamic arcuate organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2021.04.006 Cite
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Single-Cell Profiling of Tumor Heterogeneity and the Microenvironment in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

we analyze 42 tissue biopsy samples from stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients by single cell RNA sequencing and present the large scale, single cell resolution profiles of advanced NSCLCs.
[Nature Communications]
Wu, F., Fan, J., He, Y., Xiong, A., Yu, J., Li, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhao, W., Zhou, F., Li, W., Zhang, J., Zhang, X., Qiao, M., Gao, G., Chen, S., Chen, X., Li, X., Hou, L., Wu, C., … Zhou, C. (2021). Single-cell profiling of tumor heterogeneity and the microenvironment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2540. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22801-0 Cite
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Suppressing the DSCAM/PAK1 Pathway Reverses Neurogenesis Deficits in Down Syndrome Patient iPSC-Derived Cerebral Organoids

Scientists performed histological assays and unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing analysis on cerebral organoids derived from four euploid cell lines and from iPSCs to explore cell type-specific abnormalities associated with Down syndrome during early brain development.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Tang, X.-Y., Xu, L., Wang, J., Hong, Y., Wang, Y., Zhu, Q., Wang, D., Zhang, X.-Y., Liu, C.-Y., Fang, K.-H., Han, X., Wang, S., Wang, X., Xu, M., Bhattacharyya, A., Guo, X., Lin, M., & Liu, Y. (2021). Suppressing the DSCAM/PAK1 pathway reverses neurogenesis deficits in Down Syndrome patient iPSC-derived cerebral organoids. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI135763 Cite
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CD276 Expression Enables Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells to Evade Immune Surveillance

The authors showed that cancer stem cells upregulated the immune checkpoint molecule CD276 to evade host immune responses.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Wang, C., Li, Y., Jia, L., Kim, J. koo, Li, J., Deng, P., Zhang, W., Krebsbach, P. H., & Wang, C.-Y. (2021). CD276 expression enables squamous cell carcinoma stem cells to evade immune surveillance. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2021.04.011 Cite
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Differentiation Reveals Latent Features of Aging and an Energy Barrier in Murine Myogenesis

Using a dynamical systems approach and RNA velocity, scientists found that aged muscle stem cells followed the same differentiation trajectory as young cells but stalled in differentiation near a commitment decision. They found that differentiation revealed latent features of aging and that fate commitment decisions were delayed in aged myogenic cells in vitro.
[Cell Reports]
Differentiation reveals latent features of aging and an energy barrier in murine myogenesis: Cell Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved May 3, 2021, from https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(21)00362-4 Cite
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Tumor Restriction by Type I Collagen Opposes Tumor-Promoting Effects of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) may exert tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive functions, but the mechanisms underlying these opposing effects remain elusive. The authors sought to understand these potentially opposing functions by interrogating functional relationships between CAF subtypes, their mediators, desmoplasia and tumor growth in a wide range of tumor types metastasizing to the liver, the most common organ site for metastasis.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Bhattacharjee, S., Hamberger, F., Ravichandra, A., Miller, M., Nair, A., Affo, S., Filliol, A., Chin, L., Savage, T. M., Yin, D., Wirsik, N. M., Mehal, A., Arpaia, N., Seki, E., Mack, M., Zhu, D., Sims, P. A., Stanger, B. Z., Olive, K. P., … Schwabe, R. F. (2021). Tumor restriction by type I collagen opposes tumor-promoting effects of cancer-associated fibroblasts. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI146987 Cite
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How Should We Define Mammary Stem Cells?

The author highlights misconceptions, suggest definitions of stem and progenitor cells, and propose a way forward in the search for an understanding of mammary stem cells.
[Trends in Cell Biology]
Watson, C. J. (2021). How should we define mammary stem cells? Trends in Cell Biology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2021.03.012 Cite
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Gremlin 1+ Fibroblastic Niche Maintains Dendritic Cell Homeostasis in Lymphoid Tissue

Researchers used single-cell RNA sequencing of human and mouse lymph nodes to identify a subset of T cell–zone fibroblastic reticular cells defined by the expression of Gremlin1 in both species.
[Nature Immunology]
Kapoor, V. N., Müller, S., Keerthivasan, S., Brown, M., Chalouni, C., Storm, E. E., Castiglioni, A., Lane, R., Nitschke, M., Dominguez, C. X., Astarita, J. L., Krishnamurty, A. T., Carbone, C. B., Senbabaoglu, Y., Wang, A. W., Wu, X., Cremasco, V., Roose-Girma, M., Tam, L., … Turley, S. J. (2021). Gremlin 1 + fibroblastic niche maintains dendritic cell homeostasis in lymphoid tissues. Nature Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00920-6 Cite
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Tenascin-C-Mediated Suppression of Extracellular Matrix Adhesion Force Promotes Entheseal New Bone Formation through Activation of Hippo Signaling in Ankylosing Spondylitis

The authors identified the role of tenascin-C in entheseal new bone formation and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism.
[Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases]
Li, Z., Chen, S., Cui, H., Li, X., Chen, D., Hao, W., Wang, J., Li, Z., Zheng, Z., Zhang, Z., & Liu, H. (2021). Tenascin-C-mediated suppression of extracellular matrix adhesion force promotes entheseal new bone formation through activation of Hippo signalling in ankylosing spondylitis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-220002 Cite
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Rescue of Maternal Immune Activation-Induced Behavioral Abnormalities in Adult Mouse Offspring by Pathogen-Activated Maternal Treg Cells

Scientists showed that adoptive transfer of regulatory T (Treg) cells largely reversed maternal immune activation-induced phenotypes.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Xu, Z., Zhang, X., Chang, H., Kong, Y., Ni, Y., Liu, R., Zhang, X., Hu, Y., Yang, Z., Hou, M., Mao, R., Liu, W.-T., Du, Y., Yu, S., Wang, Z., Ji, M., & Zhou, Z. (2021). Rescue of maternal immune activation-induced behavioral abnormalities in adult mouse offspring by pathogen-activated maternal T reg cells. Nature Neuroscience, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-021-00837-1 Cite
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Irx3 and Irx5 in Ins2-Cre+ Cells Regulate Hypothalamic Postnatal Neurogenesis and Leptin Response

Scientists identified radial glia-like neural stem cell population with high Irx3 and Irx5 expression in early postnatal hypothalamus and demonstrated that reduced dosage of Irx3 and Irx5 promoted neurogenesis in postnatal hypothalamus leading to elevated numbers of leptin-sensing arcuate neurons.
[Nature Metabolism]
Son, J. E., Dou, Z., Kim, K.-H., Wanggou, S., Cha, V. S. B., Mo, R., Zhang, X., Chen, X., Ketela, T., Li, X., Huang, X., & Hui, C. (2021). Irx3 and Irx5 in Ins2-Cre + cells regulate hypothalamic postnatal neurogenesis and leptin response. Nature Metabolism, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00382-y Cite
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