MicroRNA Regulation of Cancer Stem Cells in the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

Investigators summarize the critical roles of miRNAs in regulating multiple signaling pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, BMI-1 and STAT3 that are important for the breast cancer stem cell maintenance.
[Cancer Cell International]
Niu, T., Zhang, W., & Xiao, W. (2021). MicroRNA regulation of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Cancer Cell International, 21(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-020-01716-8 Cite
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PI3K/Akt Pathway and Nanog Maintain Cancer Stem Cells in Sarcomas

Levels of Nanog and activated Akt were significantly higher in sarcoma cells grown as spheroids or sorted for CD133 expression to enrich for cancer stem cells.
[Oncogenesis]
Yoon, C., Lu, J., Yi, B. C., Chang, K. K., Simon, M. C., Ryeom, S., & Yoon, S. S. (2021). PI3K/Akt pathway and Nanog maintain cancer stem cells in sarcomas. Oncogenesis, 10(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41389-020-00300-z Cite
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Combining NanoKnife with M1 Oncolytic Virus Enhances Anticancer Activity in Pancreatic Cancer

Scientists evaluated improvements to therapeutic efficacy through combination therapy incorporating NanoKnife and M1 virus. They showed that irreversible electroporation triggered reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway suppression.
[Cancer Letters]
Sun, S., Liu, Y., He, C., Hu, W., Liu, W., Huang, X., Wu, J., Xie, F., Chen, C., Wang, J., Lin, Y., Zhu, W., Yan, G., Cai, J., & Li, S. (2021). Combining NanoKnife with M1 oncolytic virus enhances anticancer activity in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Letters, 502, 9–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.12.018 Cite
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Clinical Implications of Genomic Alterations in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

The authors discuss the potential for genomic subtyping to improve prognostication and to help guide treatment selection. Thy summarize data on associations between androgen receptor (AR) pathway alterations and patient response to AR signaling inhibitors and other standards of care.
[Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases]
Sumiyoshi, T., Chi, K. N., & Wyatt, A. W. (2021). Clinical implications of genomic alterations in metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41391-020-00308-x Cite
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Prediction and Verification of Target of Helenalin against Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation Based on miR-200a-Mediated PI3K/Akt and NF-κB Pathways

Hepatic stellate cell (HSC)‐T6 cells were activated by interleukin-1 beta and then treated with helenalin. HSC‐T6 cells were transfected with miR-200a mimic or inhibitor, and the effect of helenalin on the miR-200a-mediated PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways was investigated.
[International Immunopharmacology]
Fang, B., Wen, S., Li, Y., Bai, F., Wei, Y., Xiong, Y., Huang, Q., & Lin, X. (2021). Prediction and verification of target of helenalin against hepatic stellate cell activation based on miR-200a-mediated PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways. International Immunopharmacology, 92, 107208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107208 Cite
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Oncogenic N-Ras Mitigates Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

The authors expressed oncogenic NrasG12D within the hematopoietic system in mice and interrogated its effects on hematopoietic stem cell survival.
[Cancer Research]
Ney, G. M., Yang, K. B., Ng, V., Liu, L., Zhao, M., Kuk, W., Alaka, L., Sampang, L., Ross, A., Jones, M. A., Jin, X., McKay, L. M., Evarts, H., & Li, Q. (2021). Oncogenic N-Ras mitigates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of hematopoietic stem cells. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0118 Cite
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Targeting of Glioma Stem-Like Cells with a Parthenolide Derivative ACT001 through Inhibition of AEBP1/PI3K/AKT Signaling

The effects of ACT001 on cell survival of normal human astrocytes and patient-derived glioma stem-like cells were evaluated. RNA-Seq were performed to detect differentially expressed genes.
[Theranostics]
Hou, Y., Sun, B., Liu, W., Yu, B., Shi, Q., Luo, F., Bai, Y., & Feng, H. (2021). Targeting of glioma stem-like cells with a parthenolide derivative ACT001 through inhibition of AEBP1/PI3K/AKT signaling. Theranostics, 11(2), 555–566. https://doi.org/10.7150/thno.49250 Cite
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High-Fat Diet-Induced Upregulation of Exosomal Phosphatidylcholine Contributes to Insulin Resistance

The authors showed that lean mice became insulin resistant after being administered exosomes isolated from the feces of obese mice fed a high-fat diet or from patients with type II diabetes.
[Nature Communications]
Kumar, A., Sundaram, K., Mu, J., Dryden, G. W., Sriwastva, M. K., Lei, C., Zhang, L., Qiu, X., Xu, F., Yan, J., Zhang, X., Park, J. W., Merchant, M. L., Bohler, H. C. L., Wang, B., Zhang, S., Qin, C., Xu, Z., Han, X., … Zhang, H.-G. (2021). High-fat diet-induced upregulation of exosomal phosphatidylcholine contributes to insulin resistance. Nature Communications, 12(1), 213. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20500-w Cite
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Lipoxygenase Catalyzed Metabolites Derived from Docosahexaenoic Acid Are Promising Antitumor Agents Against Breast Cancer

The authors investigated whether docosahexaenoic acid itself or select metabolites can account for its antitumor action.
[Scientific Reports]
Chen, K.-M., Thompson, H., Vanden-Heuvel, J. P., Sun, Y.-W., Trushin, N., Aliaga, C., Gowda, K., Amin, S., Stanley, B., Manni, A., & El-Bayoumy, K. (2021). Lipoxygenase catalyzed metabolites derived from docosahexaenoic acid are promising antitumor agents against breast cancer. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 410. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79716-x Cite
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ERG1 Plays an Essential Role in Rat Cardiomyocyte Fate Decision by Mediating AKT Signaling

Using the rat embryonic stem cells model, investigators showed that ERG1 was crucial in cardiomyocyte lineage commitment via interactions with integrin β1.
[Stem Cells]
Wang, D., Liu, C., Liu, H., Meng, Y., Lin, F., Gu, Y., Wang, H., Shang, M., Tong, C., Sachinidis, A., Ying, Q., Li, L., & Peng, L. (n.d.). ERG1 Plays an Essential Role in Rat Cardiomyocyte Fate Decision by Mediating AKT Signaling. STEM CELLS, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.3328 Cite
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ACPA Decreases Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Line Growth through Akt/PI3K and JNK Pathways In Vitro

Investigators confirmed that CB1 receptor (CB1R) was expressed in non-small cell lung cancer cells in this study. Arachidonoylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) as a synthetic, CB1R-specific ligand decreased proliferation rate in NSCLC cells by WST-1 analysis and real-time proliferation assay.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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