Researchers observed that early Human rhinoviruses (HRV)-C15 infection induced a transitory barrier-protective metabolic state characterized by glycolysis that ultimately became exhausted as the infection progresses and led to cellular damage.
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Since angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-positive cells were hosts for COVID-19, researchers focussed on this cell type to explore the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19.
[Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine]
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Ma, D., Liu, S., Hu, L., He, Q., Shi, W., Yan, D., Cao, Y., Zhang, G., Wang, Z., Wu, J., & Jiang, C. (n.d.). Single-cell RNA sequencing identify SDCBP in ACE2-positive bronchial epithelial cells negatively correlates with COVID-19 severity. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16714 Cite
Researchers used asthma model bronchial smooth muscle cells to measure the biological behaviors of Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4)-mediated Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5)/Slug/CXC chemokine ligand-12 (CXCL12) axis on the development of asthma in regulation of airway inflammation and remodeling.
[Journal of Translational Medicine]
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miR-1298-5p and suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) were silenced or overexpressed in human bronchial epithelial cells. PKH-67 Dye was used to trace exosome endocytosis.
[Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry]
Scientists evaluated the effect of neutrophil elastase on lipopolysaccharide – induced interleukin 8 production and determined the molecular mechanism in human bronchial epithelial cells.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
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To identify potent antiviral innate immune agonists, researchers screened a panel of 75 microbial ligands that activate diverse signaling pathways and identified cyclic dinucleotides, canonical STING agonists, as antiviral.
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Li, M., Ferretti, M., Ying, B., Descamps, H., Lee, E., Dittmar, M., Lee, J. S., Whig, K., Kamalia, B., Dohnalová, L., Uhr, G., Zarkoob, H., Chen, Y.-C., Ramage, H., Ferrer, M., Lynch, K., Schultz, D. C., Thaiss, C. A., Diamond, M. S., & Cherry, S. (2021). Pharmacological activation of STING blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection. Science Immunology, 6(59). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abi9007 Cite
Researchers investigated the molecular mechanism of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in the development of asthma.
Using mouse and cell culture models, the authors evaluated the effects of incense smoke exposure on airway hyperresponsiveness, expression of multiple epithelial tight junction- and adherens junction-associated mRNAs and proteins in the lungs, and the barrier function of bronchial epithelial cells assessed by transepithelial electronic resistance.
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Yamamoto, N., Kan-o, K., Tatsuta, M., Ishii, Y., Ogawa, T., Shinozaki, S., Fukuyama, S., Nakanishi, Y., & Matsumoto, K. (2021). Incense smoke-induced oxidative stress disrupts tight junctions and bronchial epithelial barrier integrity and induces airway hyperresponsiveness in mouse lungs. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7222. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86745-7 Cite
By integrating viral sequencing data from patient material, virus stocks, and passaging experiments, together with kinetic virus replication data from nonhuman Vero-CCL81 cells and primary differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (BEpCs), scientists observed several SARS-CoV-2 features that associated with distinct phenotypes.
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In vivo, the role of panaxydol (PX) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice was tested by determination of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema and ferroptosis. In vitro, BEAS-2B cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which PX functions via determination of inflammation, ferroptosis and their relationship.
[Journal of Translational Medicine]
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Panaxydol attenuates ferroptosis against LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 pathway | Journal of Translational Medicine | Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved March 4, 2021, from https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-021-02745-1 Cite
BEAS-2B cells were exposed to house dust mite and the expressions of PGC-1α and E-cadherin were examined by immunoblotting.
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Saito, T., Ichikawa, T., Numakura, T., Yamada, M., Koarai, A., Fujino, N., Murakami, K., Yamanaka, S., Sasaki, Y., Kyogoku, Y., Itakura, K., Sano, H., Takita, K., Tanaka, R., Tamada, T., Ichinose, M., & Sugiura, H. (2021). PGC-1α regulates airway epithelial barrier dysfunction induced by house dust mite. Respiratory Research, 22(1), 63. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12931-021-01663-6 Cite